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Black Women At Work In Corrections In The Era Of Mass Incarceration: Documenting Demographic Changes In The New York City Department Of Correction, Carolyn Fisher 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Black Women At Work In Corrections In The Era Of Mass Incarceration: Documenting Demographic Changes In The New York City Department Of Correction, Carolyn Fisher

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent work has popularized the idea that mass incarceration arose in the wake of the civil rights movement to maintain the social and economic subordination of African Americans previously enforced under Jim Crow. This discussion has not accounted for the many black Americans working in corrections, particularly in large metropolitan jail systems. This paper documents the increase in black women working as correction officers and administrators in the New York City Department of Correction since the late 1970s and explores the implications of this growth on the strict racial argument about mass incarceration. Using administrative and archival sources, it argues ...


Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker 2019 Portland State University

Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

Amy Parker

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker 2019 Portland State University

A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

Amy Parker

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


Governance, Costs, And Revenue Raising To Address And Prevent Homelessness In The Portland Tri-County Region, Marisa Zapata, Jenny H. Liu, Lauren Elizabeth Morrow Everett, Peter Hulseman, Thomas Potiowsky, Emma Willingham 2019 Portland State University

Governance, Costs, And Revenue Raising To Address And Prevent Homelessness In The Portland Tri-County Region, Marisa Zapata, Jenny H. Liu, Lauren Elizabeth Morrow Everett, Peter Hulseman, Thomas Potiowsky, Emma Willingham

Northwest Economic Research Center Publications and Reports

In the Portland, Oregon metropolitan region, homelessness has become increasingly visible on our streets and in our media headlines. Conflicting rates of who is experiencing homelessness, differing definitions of who is at risk, and varying cost estimates to help those without a stable place to live leave community members confused about the scale and scope of the challenge that we face. Our overarching goal in this report is to provide information that helps the public deliberate about how to support people experiencing homelessness, and prevent future homelessness. We thread together three areas of work - governance, costs, and revenue - to help ...


Defining And Measuring Equitable Access To Washington Park In Portland, Oregon, Marisa Zapata, Joseph Broach, Kara Boden, Qingyang Xie 2019 Portland State University

Defining And Measuring Equitable Access To Washington Park In Portland, Oregon, Marisa Zapata, Joseph Broach, Kara Boden, Qingyang Xie

Marisa A. Zapata

Explore Washington Park (EWP) is a 501c3 non-profit that serves as the Transportation Management Association for Washington Park. At 410 acres, Washington Park receives over 3 million visitors each year and is home to some of Portland’s most popular attractions including the International Rose Test Garden, Portland Japanese Garden, Oregon Zoo, Portland Children’s Museum, World Forestry, and Hoyt Arboretum. EWP, in partnership with Portland Parks & Recreation, provides transportation management and guest services to the park and its cultural institutions with the goal of decreasing the number of vehicle trips to the park. Since beginning its work in 2014, transit ridership to the park has increased 66% and private vehicle trips have decreased 22%. EWP manages a free shuttle system that links the overflow parking and TriMet MAX station to all of the park’s cultural institutions. In addition to the shuttle system, Explore Washington Park provides park information through a robust website and park brochure, and on-site customer service staff. EWP is almost entirely funded from Washington Park parking meter funds through a contract with Portland Parks & Recreation.

The EWP board adopted a Transportation Management Plan in 2016 that outlines five, fiveyear targets. These include decreasing private vehicle trips to the park, increasing shuttle ridership, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from cars driving around the park, increasing user satisfaction, and increasing the number of park visitors from underserved populations. Since 2014, EWP has conducted intercept surveys each August that provide robust data to track the progress of our targets. However, the organization has struggled to track the number of visitors from underserved populations coming to the park.

The Transportation Research and Education Center (TREC) at Portland State University (PSU) partnered with Explore Washington Park (EWP) to better understand how to meets the needs of underserved populations. The research project consisted of four main parts: (1) creating an equity definition to guide EWP and TMP implementation; (2) analyzing data of park visitations to assess progress of the Transportation Management Plan goals; (3) suggesting methodology adjustments and options for improving data collection to support equity and transportation analysis; and, (4 ...


Urban & Suburban Population Growth In The Mountain West, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Urban & Suburban Population Growth In The Mountain West, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Demography

This Fact Sheet summarizes and adapts the findings of the Brookings Institution’s report on population growth and loss in the nation’s top 87 largest cities and top 53 metropolitan areas. For the purposes of this Fact Sheet, the focus of the report is narrowed to 14 cities and 5 metropolitan areas located within the Mountain West region of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah).


Economic Innovation Group (Eig) 2018 Distressed Communities Index (Dci): Nevada Counties, Lauren Fousek, Caitlin Saladino 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Economic Innovation Group (Eig) 2018 Distressed Communities Index (Dci): Nevada Counties, Lauren Fousek, Caitlin Saladino

Economic Development & Workforce

This Fact Sheet highlights the Economic Distress Indicators (EDI) for the 17 counties within Nevada. Using the Economic Innovations Group1 DCI (Distressed Communities Index),2 the Tables that follow report EDI for each of the 17 counties in Nevada, grouped within two time-frames (2007-2011 and 2012-2016), and showing change over time. The data provides the opportunity to compare how the Great Recession affected communities across the nation and how the ongoing recovery is reshaping the economies and social networks of our nation.


Racial Segregation In U.S. Areas, Yanneli Llamas, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Racial Segregation In U.S. Areas, Yanneli Llamas, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Demography

This Fact Sheet highlights racial segregation in some of the Mountain West’s largest metros: Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV; Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA; and Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ, otherwise known as the Southwest Megapolitan Triangle. The Tables that follow illustrate residential segregation in these three major metropolitan areas.


Municipal Annexation Reform In Texas: How A Victory For Property Rights Jeopardizes The State’S Financial Health, Julie Polansky Bell 2019 St. Mary's University School of Law

Municipal Annexation Reform In Texas: How A Victory For Property Rights Jeopardizes The State’S Financial Health, Julie Polansky Bell

St. Mary's Law Journal

Municipal annexation is the expansion of city boundaries. The greatest motivator behind municipal annexation is maintaining and improving economic prosperity of the annexing authority. The issue of annexation involves a balance of rights between property owners and municipalities of the state. Historically, Texas cities had broad annexation authority under an involuntary annexation scheme. However, in recent years the power has shifted as lawmakers have given property owners greater control over the annexation process. This trend culminated in the passage of the Municipal Annexation Right to Vote Act (MARVA) by the 85th Texas Legislature, which severely limits annexation authority.

Texas municipalities ...


Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker 2019 Portland State University

Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

TREC Project Briefs

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker 2019 Portland State University

A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

TREC Final Reports

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, State Of Practice, Aaron Golub, Les Brown, Michael Grant, Nathan McNeil, Charles Ryerson, Matt Gray, Stephanie Lonsdale, Madison Levy 2019 Portland State University

Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, State Of Practice, Aaron Golub, Les Brown, Michael Grant, Nathan Mcneil, Charles Ryerson, Matt Gray, Stephanie Lonsdale, Madison Levy

Aaron Golub

This report documents how metropolitan planning organizations (MPO), State departments of transportation (DOT), and other transportation agencies are adapting Environmental Justice (EJ) analysis techniques to understand transportation impacts in communities undergoing rapid demographic change. The report also highlights national demographic trends, showing significant change in the size and location of low-income and minority households. These changes are documented in a series of State- and county-level maps demonstrating absolute and percent change in minority populations, low-income populations and limited English proficiency populations between the 1990 – 2010 decennial census periods. Based on the state of practice review, the report also highlights strategies ...


Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, Aaron Golub 2019 Portland State University

Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, Aaron Golub

Aaron Golub

Since 1994, every Federal agency has a mandate to develop a strategy for identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on low income populations and minority populations. In transportation planning this means including those communities’ voices in the planning process, and evaluating the social impacts early on.

A new report from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), prepared by Portland State University and ICF International, provides an in-depth analysis of national demographic trends and a synthesis of best long-range planning practices borne out of five case studies


Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner 2019 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner

Capstone Collection

If countries hosting refugees want to build resiliency and reduce dependency on foreign relief, humanitarian response and local development need to be addressed simultaneously, and collaboration at all levels of stakeholders needs to take place in planning and decision making. Additionally, innovation and strong leadership are strong factors in creating and leading new ideas as funding and world leadership dynamics change, especially with traditional leaders such as the US and the UN losing influence. Observations made at the Mahama Refugee Camp in Rwanda as well as existing document analysis reflect these traits by active efforts of camp administrators and humanitarian ...


An Examination Of Non-Waged Labor And Local Food Movement Growth In The Southern Appalachians, Amy Kathryn Marion 2019 Portland State University

An Examination Of Non-Waged Labor And Local Food Movement Growth In The Southern Appalachians, Amy Kathryn Marion

Dissertations and Theses

Farmers have traditionally depended on their families or paid employees to cover their extensive labor needs. Today, non-waged labor models are gaining popularity, especially among small, ecologically-oriented farms. Apprenticeships and internships can be a primary form of training for a population of new and beginning farmers, many of whom are entering the field without farming backgrounds. However, many question the sustainability and justness of these arrangements. As a new phenomenon, very little research examines the relationship between non-waged labor models like agricultural apprenticeships and alternative food movements. In this exploratory study, I surveyed nearly 250 farmers growing for local markets ...


Urban Tree Survival And Stewardship In A State-Managed Planting Initiative: A Case Study In Holyoke, Massachusetts, Benjamin S. Breger, Theodore S. Eisenman, Madison E. Kremer, Lara A. Roman, Deborah G. Martin, John Rogan 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Urban Tree Survival And Stewardship In A State-Managed Planting Initiative: A Case Study In Holyoke, Massachusetts, Benjamin S. Breger, Theodore S. Eisenman, Madison E. Kremer, Lara A. Roman, Deborah G. Martin, John Rogan

Theodore S. Eisenman

Stewardship is essential for the survival of trees planted in challenging urban conditions and for reaching canopy
cover goals and anticipated benefits. The governance structure of the stewardship network can dictate stewardship
efficacy and ultimately, tree survival. While many planting initiatives are managed locally, the stewardship
network and survival rates of a state-managed initiative are not commonly addressed in scholarly literature.
The Greening the Gateway Cities Program (GGCP) in Massachusetts is planting thousands of trees in
post-industrial cities around the state. We carried out a mixed-methods case study of 2014 to 2016 tree planting
in Holyoke, a GGCP pilot city ...


National Scan Of Bike Share Equity Programs: Approaches And Best Practices For Promoting Equity In Bike Share, Nathan McNeil, John MacArthur, Joseph Broach, Austin Cummings, Rae-Leigh Stark, Rebecca Sanders, Adrian Witte 2019 Portland State University

National Scan Of Bike Share Equity Programs: Approaches And Best Practices For Promoting Equity In Bike Share, Nathan Mcneil, John Macarthur, Joseph Broach, Austin Cummings, Rae-Leigh Stark, Rebecca Sanders, Adrian Witte

TREC Final Reports

As bike share systems around the United States have grown in number and size in recent years, there has been an increasing effort to ensure that those systems are accessible to all residents, particularly those who have the fewest resources or have been underserved in the past. The mobility landscape in 2019 is rapidly changing, with scooter and e-bike systems along with ride-hailing and ride-sharing companies contributing to a new and uncharted urban transportation scene. Meanwhile, bike share is still relatively new and changing quickly. In order to compete and excel in this changing landscape, particularly with regard to providing ...


Bicycle Planning Gis Tool, Joseph Broach 2019 Portland State University

Bicycle Planning Gis Tool, Joseph Broach

TREC Final Reports

Although currently only about one percent of US trips are done by bicycle, there is significant geographic variation. Differences across communities, along with much higher cycling rates observed in other places around the world, indicates large potential bicycling demand for daily travel in the US. In response, many communities are developing and implementing bicycle master plans that include a range of bikeway infrastructure aimed at making riding more appealing, including separated paths, protected (or separated) bike lanes, striped bike lanes, bicycle boulevards, sharrows, route signage, and intersection crossing aids. Given limited resources, planners and engineers need tools to estimate the ...


The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina 2019 University of Pennsylvania School of Design

The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina

Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Recent demographic changes—the sharp increase in single-person households, especially among single individuals over the age of 65, as well as racial disparities in homeownership and the increasing cost burden of home rentals—are underscoring the need for a new vision with respect to U.S. housing policy. This Issue Brief

lays out several policy prescriptions for improving housing affordability and fairness, both for renters and owners: modifying the federal Housing Choice Voucher program as well as local and state land-use regulations; investing in the maintenance of existing affordable housing stock; making good on HUD’s Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing ...


Changing Urban Form In A Shrinking City, Justin Hollander, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew 2019 Tufts University

Changing Urban Form In A Shrinking City, Justin Hollander, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew

Michael P. Johnson

This paper uses building footprint data in a shrinking city, Baltimore, MD, in 1972 and 2010 to achieve two primary research objectives. The first is to understand the historical patterns of housing construction and demolition in selected row house neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1972 and 2010. The second is to understand changes in housing footprints, and associations between these changes and physical and socio-economic characteristics in selected neighborhoods. We find that housing losses and associated changes in building footprints have shown substantial variation across our study area and exhibit clustering within our study area. Moreover, while housing loss is strongly ...


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