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Endnotes, 2019 James Madison University

Endnotes

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Practical Notes On The Application Of Thermite Systems In Mine Action, Robert Syfret, Chris Cooper 2019 The HALO Trust

Practical Notes On The Application Of Thermite Systems In Mine Action, Robert Syfret, Chris Cooper

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

There are numerous documents available online relating to the use of thermite systems for explosive ordnance disposal (EOD). However, most of the documents are either scientifically focused or address specific technical questions. This article provides broader practical information for mine action operators at the field and program levels. Although previously employed on a relatively small scale over the last five years, use of thermite as opposed to explosives for the destruction of landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) has increased. This has been driven by greater engagement across the sector in countries with unstable security situations, and places with ...


Key Performance Indicators And Hma: Time To Standardize?, Roly Evans, David Hewitson 2019 Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

Key Performance Indicators And Hma: Time To Standardize?, Roly Evans, David Hewitson

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Measuring performance is the norm across a range of human activities. But is it a norm in humanitarian mine action (HMA)? Some might suggest that it is. However, if we measure our performance, it is unclear whether we do so in a standardized way so that meaningful comparisons can be made. HMA lacks standardized indicators, whether it is for items of explosive ordnance (EO) found and destroyed, m2 of land released, or more general outcomes such as internally displaced persons returning to an area once cleared. Indicators can of course be ignored, misused, misreported, or misunderstood and some fear ...


More Bang For Their Buck: Enhancing The Sustainability Of Surplus Ammunition Destruction Programs, Joe Farha, Matthias Krotz, Einas Osman Abdalla Mohammed 2019 BICC

More Bang For Their Buck: Enhancing The Sustainability Of Surplus Ammunition Destruction Programs, Joe Farha, Matthias Krotz, Einas Osman Abdalla Mohammed

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Dealing with stockpiles of surplus ammunition remains a key challenge for many African countries. In the last 10 years, at least 38 ammunition sites across Africa reportedly experienced unplanned explosions, causing injury and loss of life as well as significant damage to infrastructure and the environment. Numerous reasons such as overstocking, inadequate storage facilities due to insufficient resources, inadequate capabilities of storage sites, or simply unstable ammunition may be the cause of these unplanned detonations. These factors are often exacerbated by personnel having a limited knowledge and awareness, or insufficient training on relevant subjects such as explosive compatibility groups or ...


Ammunition Stockpile Management: A Global Challenge Requiring Global Responses, Nora Allgaier, Samuel Paunila 2019 United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs

Ammunition Stockpile Management: A Global Challenge Requiring Global Responses, Nora Allgaier, Samuel Paunila

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Ageing, unstable, and excess conventional ammunition stockpiles pose the dual risk of accidental explosion at munition sites and diversion to illicit markets, thereby constituting a significant danger to public safety and security. More than half of the world’s countries have experienced an ammunition storage area explosion over the past decades, resulting in severe humanitarian and socioeconomic consequences.1 Thousands of people have been killed, injured, and displaced, and the livelihoods of entire communities have been disrupted. The humanitarian impact of unintended explosions is amplified when they occur in urban areas, as illustrated by ammunition depot explosions in a crowded ...


Iraq: A Photo Essay, Sean Sutton 2019 MAG (Mines Advisory Group)

Iraq: A Photo Essay, Sean Sutton

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

MAG, Mines Advisory Group, has worked in Iraq since 1992 to make land safe for populations affected by decades of conflict. Landmines, cluster munitions, other unexploded bombs, as well as new contamination from the recent conflict with ISIS, have left a deadly legacy that prevents communities from using their land, and displaced populations from returning home safely.


The Impact Of Landmines And Explosive Remnants Of War On Food Security: The Lebanese Case, Henrique Garbino 2019 Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

The Impact Of Landmines And Explosive Remnants Of War On Food Security: The Lebanese Case, Henrique Garbino

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The year 2017 was the third in a row of an exceptionally high number of mine victims. According to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, in 2017 alone, 7,239 people became casualties of landmines or explosive remnants of war (ERW), of which at least 2,793 were killed.1,2 Apart from their direct physical effects, landmines and ERW also restrict access to basic resources such as food and water, limit the use of key infrastructure, and both force and restrict migration.2 This article focuses on the impact of landmines and ERW on food security, with an emphasis ...


Ieds And Urban Clearance Variables In Mosul: Defining Complex Environments, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. 2019 United Nations Mine Action Service

Ieds And Urban Clearance Variables In Mosul: Defining Complex Environments, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

More than any other post-conflict environment in Iraq, the complexity of west Mosul and its improvised explosive device (IED) threat challenges our fundamental perceptions and definitions of mine action. From here, 400 km (248.5 mi) north of Baghdad in the al-Maedan District on the west side of the Tigris River, ISIS ran its caliphate and made its ill-fated last stand against attacking Iraqi Security Forces (ISF).


Ied Threat Consistency And Predictability In Fallujah: A 'Simple' Model For Clearance, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. 2019 United Nations Mine Action Service

Ied Threat Consistency And Predictability In Fallujah: A 'Simple' Model For Clearance, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

When in control of the area of Iraq north of Baghdad, including the city of Fallujah, ISIS prepared to defend its position from inevitable government counterattack through the widespread use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) laid as defensive obstacles in patterns similar to conventional minefields.1 The subsequent destruction of bridges over the Tigris River further strengthened the ability of ISIS to defend the city and prevent the civilians trapped within from escaping.


The Challenge Of Managing Mine Action In Jordan, HRH Prince Mired R.Z. Al-Hussein 2019 National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation, Special Envoy of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention

The Challenge Of Managing Mine Action In Jordan, Hrh Prince Mired R.Z. Al-Hussein

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Over the course of two decades, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan worked diligently to rid itself of landmines despite monumental challenges. In comparison to other mine-affected countries, the difficulties that Jordan faced may have been miniscule, but for a developing country with minimal natural resources in a very volatile region of the world, the task was enormous. The initial estimate of landmines buried in Jordanian territory was over 300,000, the vast majority of which were laid by the Jordanian military along the kingdom’s western border after the 1967 Arab– Israeli War and along its northern border after the ...


From The Director, Ken Rutherford Dr. 2019 Center for International Stabilization and Recovery

From The Director, Ken Rutherford Dr.

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Having just returned from an educational leave for these past five months, I return energized and even more passionate about the work we have ahead of us in the humanitarian mine action (HMA) field. During this time, I had an opportunity to study the terror that landmine use caused civilians during the 1943-1944 Italian campaign and how many of those mines were cleared. They are stories not dissimilar from today’s conflicts, including in Yemen. On 13 June, the Embassy of the Republic of Yemen held a landmine briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., during which I presented ...


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, CISR JOURNAL 2019 James Madison University

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Beyond Resettlement: The Role Of Ethiopian Refugee Diaspora In Homeland Peacebuilding, Endale Etsegent 2019 Kennesaw State University

Beyond Resettlement: The Role Of Ethiopian Refugee Diaspora In Homeland Peacebuilding, Endale Etsegent

Doctor of International Conflict Management Dissertations

The number of people forced to flee their homeland across the world is increasing at an alarming rate. As a consequence, refugees have become a growing concern among researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Although much attention has been afforded to refugee studies, the contributions of conflict-induced migrants towards homeland peacebuilding remain underrepresented within the peacebuilding discourse. This study explores the perceptions and understandings of peace and specific peacebuilding activities from the perspective of conflictinduced forced migrants, namely, former refugees from Ethiopia who have resettled in the United States. The objective of the study is to expand the scholarly discussion on ...


Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner 2019 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner

Capstone Collection

If countries hosting refugees want to build resiliency and reduce dependency on foreign relief, humanitarian response and local development need to be addressed simultaneously, and collaboration at all levels of stakeholders needs to take place in planning and decision making. Additionally, innovation and strong leadership are strong factors in creating and leading new ideas as funding and world leadership dynamics change, especially with traditional leaders such as the US and the UN losing influence. Observations made at the Mahama Refugee Camp in Rwanda as well as existing document analysis reflect these traits by active efforts of camp administrators and humanitarian ...


Vietnam Ageing Study Management Of Explosive Remnants Of War (More), Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining 2019 GICHD

Vietnam Ageing Study Management Of Explosive Remnants Of War (More), Geneva International Center For Humanitarian Demining

Global CWD Repository

Every conflict leaves behind explosive remnants of war (ERW) in lesser or greater quantities depending upon the nature and duration of the conflict and the types and quantities of weapons used. How ERW are dealt with reflects local circumstances and conditions, as well as the influence of international humanitarian law (IHL), the availability of resources and prioritisation choices made by governments, international institutions and agencies. In many cases an initial period of proactive effort is followed, sooner or later, by the adoption of more reactive policies and practices. The duration of the transition period varies from country to country, but ...


Long-Term Risk Management Tools And Protocols For Residual Explosive Ordnance Mitigation (Vietnam), Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining, Vietnam National Mine Action Center 2019 GICHD

Long-Term Risk Management Tools And Protocols For Residual Explosive Ordnance Mitigation (Vietnam), Geneva International Center For Humanitarian Demining, Vietnam National Mine Action Center

Global CWD Repository

The Management of Residual Explosive Remnants of War (MORE) framework is a holistic long-term risk management (LTRM) approach for handling the reality of risks posed by explosive ordnance (EO). The current Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) project in Vietnam includes – amongst other objectives – the development and pilot of LTRM processes, tools and protocols in several provinces. Vietnam offers ideal preconditions for the testing of the concept.

Vietnam not being a signatory of binding conventions, yet with the recently signed national mine action decree, leaves the national authority and national mine action centre with the question of how to ...


Al-Qaeda Versus Boko Haram: Ideologies, Goals, And Outcomes, Radhika Shah 2019 Emory University

Al-Qaeda Versus Boko Haram: Ideologies, Goals, And Outcomes, Radhika Shah

International Journal of Security Studies

Since the 9/11 attacks, Islam has remained at the center of the global terrorism debate. In order to weaken Islamist terrorist groups, it is crucial to understand nuance differences in their ideologies and goals. This research focuses on two such groups, Boko Haram and al-Qaeda, and argues that despite the two groups’ Salafi-jihadist roots, the groups harbor sharply different ideologies and goals—and thus, different outcomes. The research finds that al-Qaeda adheres to a rigid organizational and goal-oriented structure, while Boko Haram’s bureaucracy is less clear and less organized. While al-Qaeda has a number of stated goals, Boko ...


Book Review: Making Ubumwe: Power, State And Camps In Rwanda’S Unity-Building Projects, Claudine A. Kuradusenge-McLeod 2019 George Washington University

Book Review: Making Ubumwe: Power, State And Camps In Rwanda’S Unity-Building Projects, Claudine A. Kuradusenge-Mcleod

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


“Where Do We Go From Here?” The Influence Of Personality And Social Motivators On Attitudes Toward Structural Violence And Interpersonal Forgiveness, Melvin Laven 2019 Kennesaw State University

“Where Do We Go From Here?” The Influence Of Personality And Social Motivators On Attitudes Toward Structural Violence And Interpersonal Forgiveness, Melvin Laven

Doctor of International Conflict Management Dissertations

The goal of this research is to develop an interpersonal definition of forgiveness. The question asked by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1967 still remains: where do we go from here? Conflict is ubiquitous and systems for managing direct and structural violence are struggling to address issues like the police brutality experienced by African American populations or women’s lived experience of sexual abuse and harassment. Forgiveness can play a role in many conflicts, what can it do in these cases? From intractable global and political disputes to basic inter and intra-personal conflicts forgiveness and reconciliation projects have meant the ...


Post-Civil War Peace Durability: The Role Of Domestic Infrastructure And Military, Alexandra Wilson 2019 James Madison University

Post-Civil War Peace Durability: The Role Of Domestic Infrastructure And Military, Alexandra Wilson

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since 1945, approximately half of the world’s states have been engaged in some type of civil conflict. The aim of this research is to understand why some post-civil war states fail to establish peace durability while others thrive. Through quantitative research of civil wars globally and a qualitative analysis of Iraq, this thesis argues for the necessity of post-civil war policy to focus on the renewal of domestic infrastructure in addition to military investment which suppresses grievance-driven violence. A logistical regression model of all civil wars since 1945 shows that variables, such as healthcare, are evidently associated with more ...


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