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A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary 2013 University of Richmond

A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this chapter I will review how James got from his earlier position, which so readily fit the scientific and skeptical tenor of his age, to his later position, and I will indicate how the views he began to articulate by the mid-1870s became central to the doctrines he presented in his magisterial Principles of Psychology (1890) and in his subsequent work in psychology and philosophy. Along the way I will make it clear that even before 1872, when he was attending lectures and doing physiological research in Harvard's Medical School, James was a deeply engaged advocate of philosophy ...


Short Communication: Powerless And Jobless? Comparing The Effects Of Powerless Speech And Speech Disorders On An Applicant’S Employability, Christian M. End, Katherine Saunders 2013 Xavier University - Cincinnati

Short Communication: Powerless And Jobless? Comparing The Effects Of Powerless Speech And Speech Disorders On An Applicant’S Employability, Christian M. End, Katherine Saunders

Faculty Scholarship

The present study examines the impact of a speech disorder (a lateral lisp) and powerless speech on an applicant’s hireability. College students (N = 113) reviewed an applicant’s resume, as well as a description of two occupations/job openings that varied in regard to necessitating speech. Participants listened to one of three interviews (speech disorder vs. powerless speech vs. control), indicated their willingness to hire the applicant, and then completed hire-ability and employability scales for both positions, as well as an impressions ratings form. Contrary to the hypotheses, few differences between the “employers” responses to the control and speech ...


Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr. 2013 University of Richmond

Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr.

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This chapter explores these psychological interpersonal consequences of unethical work behavior, but focuses on who reacts most negatively to such indiscrestions and why. We base our analysis on ethics positions theory (EPT), which suggests that people's reactions in morally toned situations can be traced to variations in their intuitive, personal moral philosophies (Forsyth, 1980). After summarizing the theory and its basic assumptions, we examine the relationship between these variations in moral philosophies and well-being, focusing on the way people respond, psychologically and emotionally, when they act in morally evaluable ways. We then shift the analysis up to the group ...


Alexander's Genius, Mitchell N. Berman 2013 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Alexander's Genius, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Voices In The Beyond: Judicial Psychology And Citizens United, Kirby Farrell 2012 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Voices In The Beyond: Judicial Psychology And Citizens United, Kirby Farrell

kirby farrell

Abstract: A psychological analysis of the Supreme Court’s controversial Citizens United decision finds the concept of agency or personhood conflicted in its use by the majority. Some conservative justices in this and some other decisions, including Voting Rights enforcement (2006) and death penalty jurisprudence, have positioned authority and the voices of affected “persons” in the beyond: that is, in an abstract or metaphysical zone wherein reasoning cannot follow or be held responsible.


The Lived-Experience Of Leading A Successful Police Vehicle Pursuit: A Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Inquiry, Rodger E. Broome PhD 2012 Utah Valley University

The Lived-Experience Of Leading A Successful Police Vehicle Pursuit: A Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Inquiry, Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome

Police vehicle pursuits are inherently dangerous, rapidly evolving, and require police coordination to safely stop and arrest the suspect. Interviews of three US police officers were conducted and the descriptive phenomenological psychological method was used to analyze their naïve accounts of their lived-experiences. The psychological constituents of the experience of leading a successful chase and capture of a fleeing criminal found are: (1) Alert to Possible Car Chase, (2) Suspect Identified, (3) Anxiety and Excitement About the Chase, (4) Awareness of Primary Chase Role, (5) Radio Coordination with Others to Take Actions to Stop the Suspect, (6) Ongoing Evaluation of ...


Moral Reputation: An Evolutionary And Cognitive Perspective, Dan Sperber, Nicolas Baumard 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Moral Reputation: An Evolutionary And Cognitive Perspective, Dan Sperber, Nicolas Baumard

Goldstone Research Unit

From an evolutionary point of view, the function of moral behaviour may be to secure a good reputation as a co-operator. The best way to do so may be to obey genuine moral motivations. Still, one's moral reputation maybe something too important to be entrusted just to one's moral sense. A robust concern for one's reputation is likely to have evolved too. Here we explore some of the complex relationships between morality and reputation both from an evolutionary and a cognitive point of view.


Asymmetry In Resting Alpha Activity: Effects Of Handedness, Ruth E. Propper, Jenna Pierce, Mark W. Geisler, Stephen D. Christman, Nathan Bellorado 2012 Montclair State University

Asymmetry In Resting Alpha Activity: Effects Of Handedness, Ruth E. Propper, Jenna Pierce, Mark W. Geisler, Stephen D. Christman, Nathan Bellorado

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha band power during rest shows increased right, and/or decreased left, hemisphere activity under conditions of state or trait withdrawal-associated effect. Non-right-handers (NRH) are more likely to have mental illnesses and dispositions that involve such withdrawal-related effect. The aim of the study was to examine whether NRH might be characterized by increased right, relative to left, hemisphere activity during rest. Methods: The present research investigated that hypothesis by examining resting EEG alpha power in consistently-right-handed (CRH) and NRH individuals. Results: In support of the hypothesis, NRH demonstrated decreased right hemisphere alpha power, and therefore increased right ...


Family Context And Weight Status Among 18-Month-Old Infants In Southern Appalachia: The Role Of Temperament, Parenting Style, And Maternal Feeding Practices., Vincent A. Carroll 2012 East Tennessee State University

Family Context And Weight Status Among 18-Month-Old Infants In Southern Appalachia: The Role Of Temperament, Parenting Style, And Maternal Feeding Practices., Vincent A. Carroll

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pediatric obesity is a major public health crisis in the United States, and is particularly prevalent in the Southeast. Recent research has shifted the focus toward identifying obesity risk factors earlier in the lifespan, as 9.7% of infants and toddlers are at high weight-for-length (>95th percentile). Family context variables have been found to be related to infant and child weight status. A better understanding of these early contributors may facilitate the continued development of interventions for infants and toddlers at risk for obesity.

The purpose of the current study was to examine infant weight as it relates to parent-report ...


Reasoning Is For Arguing: Understanding The Successes And Failures Of Deliberation, Hugo Mercier, Hélène Landemore 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Reasoning Is For Arguing: Understanding The Successes And Failures Of Deliberation, Hugo Mercier, Hélène Landemore

Goldstone Research Unit

Theoreticians of deliberative democracy have sometimes found it hard to relate to the seemingly contradictory experimental results produced by psychologists and political scientists. We suggest that this problem may be alleviated by inserting a layer of psychological theory between the empirical results and the normative political theory. In particular, we expose the argumentative theory of reasoning that makes the observed pattern of findings more coherent. According to this theory, individual reasoning mechanisms work best when used to produce and evaluate arguments during a public deliberation. It predicts that when diverse opinions are discussed, group reasoning will outperform individual reasoning. It ...


Morality Goes Beyond Mind Perception, A. Monroe, Steve Guglielmo, B. Malle 2012 Macalester College

Morality Goes Beyond Mind Perception, A. Monroe, Steve Guglielmo, B. Malle

Steve Guglielmo

No abstract provided.


Fraudulent Therapies In Psychology: The Enduring Value Of Science., W. Joseph Wyatt 2012 Marshall University

Fraudulent Therapies In Psychology: The Enduring Value Of Science., W. Joseph Wyatt

Psychology Faculty Research

Therapy is an effort, based upon scientifically derived principles, to optimize the ration of positive-to-negative reinforcers, for the individual and for society. Fraudulent therapies do not derive from scientific principles. Among these are orgone therapy, re-birthing, facilitated communication, recovered memory therapy, alien abduction, and past-life therapy.


Phenomenological Theories Of Crime, Peter K. Manning, Michael W. Raphael 2012 Northeastern University

Phenomenological Theories Of Crime, Peter K. Manning, Michael W. Raphael

Graduate Student Publications and Research

The distinctive aspect of phenomenological theories of crime is that they are based upon a stated epistemology: how things are known and a specific ontology—the nature of social reality. This specificity aligns itself with neo-Kantian concern with forms of knowing, interpretation, and meaning, as well as with 20th-century concern with perception, cognition, and the framing of events. While there are influences of phenomenological thinking on varieties of theorizing, such as symbolic interactionism, critical theory, queer theory, and gender-based theories of crime, these ideas are refractions and are inconsistent in their reference to and understanding of the foundational phenomenological works ...


Psychotherapy As Cultivating Character, Mike W. Martin 2012 Chapman University

Psychotherapy As Cultivating Character, Mike W. Martin

Philosophy Faculty Articles and Research

Duff R. Waring argues that, in some instances, psychotherapy should be viewed as healing (or alleviating) mental disorders and also as cultivating good character in patients (Waring 2012). In these instances, psychotherapists should understand their patients as having character faults that are manifested as mental disorders, as having nascent virtues they can build on during therapy, and as moving toward goals that can be specified in terms of both improved mental health and greater moral virtue. Waring’s discussion is deeply illuminating, but it suffers from a major difficulty: the failure to take adequate account of the differences between the ...


Cultural Biases In The Weschler Memory Scale Iii (Wms-Iii), Adam David Less 2012 University of North Florida

Cultural Biases In The Weschler Memory Scale Iii (Wms-Iii), Adam David Less

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Wechsler Memory Scale –iii is the newest version of a six-decade old neuropsychological inventory. Since its conception, the Wechsler Memory Scale has been highly utilized by practitioners to accurately assess various memory functions in adult subjects. Revisions made within this inventory include the Faces I subtest, a facial recognition scale, which was added in order to strengthen the instrument’s accuracy at measuring episodic memory. Facial recognition, both cross-race and within-race, has been researched extensively and consistent biases have been found between race of test taker and cross-racial identification. Theories of exposure/contextual interaction (environment) and biological foundations have ...


Investigating Insight As Sudden Learning, Ivan K. Ash, Benjamin D. Jee, Jennifer Wiley 2012 Old Dominion University

Investigating Insight As Sudden Learning, Ivan K. Ash, Benjamin D. Jee, Jennifer Wiley

Psychology Faculty Publications

Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or restructure that knowledge. While there has been a considerable amount of research on the type of problem solving processes described by the Gestalt psychologists, less has focused on the learning that results from these processes. This paper begins with a historical review of the Gestalt theory of insight learning. Next, the core assumptions of Gestalt ...


Rehabilitating Retributivism, Mitchell N. Berman 2012 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Rehabilitating Retributivism, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This review essay of Victor Tadros’s new book, ‘‘The Ends of Harm: The Moral Foundations of Criminal Law,’’ responds to Tadros’s energetic and sophisticated attacks on retributivist justifications for criminal punishment. I argue, in a nutshell, that those attacks fail. In defending retributivism, however, I also sketch original views on two questions that retributivism must address but that many or most retributivists have skated past. First, what do wrongdoers deserve – to suffer? to be punished? something else? Second, what does it mean for them to deserve it? That is, what is the normative force or significance of valid ...


The Obligatory Structure Of Copyright Law: Unbundling The Wrong Of Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh 2012 University of Pennsylvania

The Obligatory Structure Of Copyright Law: Unbundling The Wrong Of Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Politics Of Hate, Robert Tsai 2011 American University

The Politics Of Hate, Robert Tsai

Robert L Tsai

This is a special issue dedicated to the topic of hate and political discourse. Collectively, the peer-reviewed articles in this volume are concerned with the political aspects of hatred, i.e., psychology, motivations, organization, tactics, and ends. The articles approach the problem from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history, law, literature, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology. Among the subjects analyzed: group hatred as a heritable trait; hate as an irrational system of thought; Italian fascism's construction of the Communist other; the rise of the English Defence League and its anti-Islam activities; the persistent myth of blood libel ...


Sex Differences In Cooperation: A Meta-Analytic Review Of Social Dilemmas, Daniel BALLIET, Norman P. LI, Shane J. Macfarlan, Mark Van Vugt 2011 Singapore Management University

Sex Differences In Cooperation: A Meta-Analytic Review Of Social Dilemmas, Daniel Balliet, Norman P. Li, Shane J. Macfarlan, Mark Van Vugt

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Although it is commonly believed that women are kinder and more cooperative than men, there is conflicting evidence for this assertion. Current theories of sex differences in social behavior suggest that it may be useful to examine in what situations men and women are likely to differ in cooperation. Here, we derive predictions from both sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives on context-specific sex differences in cooperation, and we conduct a unique meta-analytic study of 272 effect sizes—sampled across 50 years of research—on social dilemmas to examine several potential moderators. The overall average effect size is not statistically different from ...


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