The Problematic Welfare Standards Of Behavioral Paternalism, 2015 California State University - Northridge
The Problematic Welfare Standards Of Behavioral Paternalism, Douglas Glen Whitman, Mario J. Rizzo
Behavioral paternalism raises deep concerns that do not arise in traditional welfare economics. These concerns stem from behavioral paternalism’s acceptance of the defining axioms of neoclassical rationality for normative purposes, despite having rejected them as positive descriptions of reality. We argue (1) that behavioral paternalists have indeed accepted neoclassical rationality axioms as a welfare standard; (2) that economists historically adopted these axioms not for their normative plausibility, but for their usefulness in formal and theoretical modeling; (3) that broadly rational individuals might fail to satisfy the axioms for various reasons, making them unpersuasive as normative criteria; and (4) that ...
The Multidimensional Mortality Awareness Measure & Model (Mmamm): Development And Validation Of A New Self-Report Questionnaire & Psychological Framework, Mark R. Mcdermott, Kathryn Lafreniere
For each of eight literature-identified conceptual dimensions of mortality awareness, questionnaire items were generated, producing 89 in all. 359 participants responded to these items and to questionnaires measuring health attitudes, risk-taking, rebelliousness and demographic variables. Multivariate correlational analyses investigated the underlying structure of the item pool and the construct validity as well as the reliability of the emergent empirically derived subscales. Five components, rather than eight, were identified. Given the item content of each, the associated mortality awareness subscales were labelled as: legacy, fearfulness, acceptance, disempowerment, and disengagement. Each attained an acceptable level of internal reliability. Relationships with other variables ...
Unequally Distributed Psychological Assets: Are There Social Disparities In Optimism, Life Satisfaction, And Positive Affect?, Julia K. Boehm, Ying Chen, David R. Williams, Carol Ryff, Laura D. Kubzansky
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an ...
New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary
Psychology Faculty Publications
This article, the second in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the strong possibility that John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress played a previously unrecognized role in inspiring James’s means of defense against the frightening hallucination and panic fear that characterized his well-known personal crisis in the early 1870s. It will also present an argument about the influence of his defensive measures upon his subsequent views on the nature and importance of attention and will in human life. Along the way, it will identify James’s specific, newly discovered copy of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s ...
Reducing Subjectivity: Meditation And Implicit Bias, 2015 Claremont McKenna College
Reducing Subjectivity: Meditation And Implicit Bias, Diana M. Ciuca
CMC Senior Theses
Implicit association of racial stereotypes is brought about by social conditioning (Greenwald & Krieger, 2006). This conditioning can be explained by attractor networks (Sharp, 2011). Reducing implicit bias through meditation can show the effectiveness of reducing the rigidity of attractor networks, thereby reducing subjectivity. Mindfulness meditation has shown to reduce bias from the use of one single guided session conducted before performing an Implicit Association Test (Lueke & Gibson, 2015). Attachment to socially conditioned racial bias should become less prevalent through practicing meditation over time. An experimental model is proposed to test this claim along with a reconceptualization of consciousness based in ...
New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary
Psychology Faculty Publications
This article, the first in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the well-known “crisis of William James” by presenting evidence regarding the previously unrecognized role of Arthur Schopenhauer’s thought in shaping and intensifying the way in which James experienced this crisis. It will also relate Schopenhauer’s influence to prior issues that had concerned James, and in an appendix it will provide an overview of other areas in which Schopenhauer seems to have influenced James, both during and after his personal crisis. The second article in this sequence will present evidence in support of the strong possibility ...
Tornado Trouble: How Can Current Tornado Warnings Be Improved?, 2015 Georgia Southern University
Tornado Trouble: How Can Current Tornado Warnings Be Improved?, Jonathan P. Evans
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
There are many unnecessary deaths from tornadoes every year (NOAA.org, 2013). Although there have been great advancements in tornado warning systems (Coleman, Knupp, Spann, Elliot, & Peters, 2010), more changes to systems could be made to motivate people to take action in preparation for tornadoes (Brotzge & Donner, 2013). Protection motivation theory outlines the process by which we assess threats and decide whether or not preventative actions are worth performing. If the threat is perceived as severe enough and the preventative actions are seen as capable of mitigating the threat, the individual is motivated to act (Rogers, 2000). One means by which to enhance the efficacy of weather warnings is through the use of visual imagery. Research has shown that pictures are more easily remembered than words (e.g., Jenkins, Neale & Deno, 1967), and that the addition of picture descriptions or “pictorials” to public safety warnings increases the comprehension and perceptions of risks (Wogalter & Laughery 1997; Severson & Henriques, 2009 respectively). However, the effect of pictures varies depending on many factors including how closely the pictures are perceptually linked to the text and how the picture relates to the target audience (Houts, Doak, Doak, & Loscalzo, 2006). In the current study, we examined the influence of visual imagery in the context of tornado warnings. Specifically, we examined the effects of different tornado warnings on perceptions of susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. The ...
Evaluating An Abbreviated Version Of The Paths Curriculum Implemented By School Mental Health Clinicians, 2015 Xavier University - Cincinnati
Evaluating An Abbreviated Version Of The Paths Curriculum Implemented By School Mental Health Clinicians, Jen Gibson, Shelby Werner, Andrew Sweeny
When evidence-based prevention programs are implemented in schools, adaptations are common. It is important to understand which adaptations can be made while maintaining positive outcomes for students. This preliminary study evaluated an abbreviated version of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum implemented by school-based mental health clinicians in preschool/kindergarten classrooms. Results suggest that students (N = 80) demonstrated increases in emotional understanding and prosocial behavior. Children with low initial levels of problem behavior demonstrated large and continual increases in prosocial behavior over the entire course of the intervention, whereas children with high initial levels of problem behavior only demonstrated ...
Engaging Youth In Bullying Prevention Through Community-Based Participatory Research, 2015 Xavier University - Cincinnati
Engaging Youth In Bullying Prevention Through Community-Based Participatory Research, Jen Gibson, Paul D. Flaspohler, Vanessa Watts
Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues.
School Mental Health Early Interventions And Academic Outcomes For At-Risk High School Students: A Review Of The Research, 2015 Xavier University - Cincinnati
School Mental Health Early Interventions And Academic Outcomes For At-Risk High School Students: A Review Of The Research, Jen Gibson, Aidyn L. Iachini, Elizabeth Levine Brown, Annahita Ball, Steven E. Lize
The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students’ academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. All articles were examined according to study design and demographics, early intervention characteristics, and outcomes. Of the studies included, most were conducted in urban settings, involved the implementation of group-based early intervention strategies, and monitored GPA as a distal academic outcome. Counselors were frequent implementers of these early interventions. A meta-analysis found ...
Going With Your Gut: How William James' Theory Of Emotions Brings Insights To Risk Perception And Decision Making Research, Katherine Lacasse
The basic premise of William James’ theory of emotions - that bodily changes lead to emotional feelings - ignited debate about the relative importance of bodily processes and cognitive appraisals in determining emotions. Similarly, theories of risk perception have been expanding to include emotional and physiological processes along with cognitive processes. Taking a closer look at Principles of Psychology, this article examines how James’ propositions support and extend current research risk perceptions and decision making. Specifically, James (1) described emotional feelings and their related cognitions in ways similar to current dual processing models; (2) defended the proposition that emotions and their expressions ...
The Mind, The Brain, And The Self: The Limits Of Sense And Nonsense In Neurology And Psychology, Max Boris Baird
Senior Projects Spring 2015
Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.
Positive Interventions: Developing A Theoretical Model To Guide Their Development And Use, 2014 University of Pennsylvania
Positive Interventions: Developing A Theoretical Model To Guide Their Development And Use, David S. Nevill
Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects
The burgeoning field of positive psychology, which is the scientific study of how individuals and organizations flourish and what makes life worth living, is primarily descriptive and nomothetic. However, it has spawned several prescriptive exercises (i.e., positive interventions) for improving well-being. A common theoretically based definition for a positive intervention does not exist in the current literature. More importantly, although the interventions have shown some success, they have been developed with little thought to theory, such that the mechanisms that make such interventions successful are unknown. The aims of this paper are several-fold: First, I review the importance of ...
Some Observations On Scientific Epistemology With Applications To Conflict Resolution And Constructive Controversy, 2014 Northern Michigan University
Some Observations On Scientific Epistemology With Applications To Conflict Resolution And Constructive Controversy, Judith Puncochar, Don Faust
An overview, by Judy and Don (published in 2013 in the BULLETIN OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC):
Explorationism is a perspective wherein all of our knowledge is (so far) less than certain, and naturally would come equipped with a base logic entailing machinery for representing and processing evidential knowledge. One such base logic is Evidence Logic, which strives to deal with the phenomenon of the gradational presence of both confirmatory and refutatory evidence. From this perspective, we will address questions surrounding sociological problem areas that we see as deeply infused with substantial epistemological factors. By defining a framework as any theory, in ...
Incorporating Embodied Cognition Into Sensemaking Theory: A Theoretical Integration Of Embodied Processes In A Leadership Context, Allison O'Malley, S. Ritchie, R. Lord, J. Gregory, C. Young
Alison L. O'Malley
Despite growing recognition across a number of disciplines that cognitive processes are based in the body's interaction with the environment (e.g., Wilson, 2002), the body is afforded a negligible role in current conceptualizations of cognition in organizations. For instance, Hodgkinson and Healey's (2008) recent review of cognition in organizations makes no mention of how the body is implicated in cognitive processing. Perspectives that recognize the body's fundamental involvement in cognitive processing are referred to as embodied cognitive approaches. Embodied cognitive approaches view the representation of knowledge as dependent on brain structures involved in perception, action, and ...
Hemispheric Bases For Emotion And Memory, 2014 US Army Natick Soldier Research
Hemispheric Bases For Emotion And Memory, Tad T. Brunyé, Sarah R. Cavanagh, Ruth E. Propper
Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works
The goal of this Research Topic was to bring together diverse scientific perspectives on lateralized brain mechanisms underlying emotion, motivation, and memory. The Topic resulted in eight articles, three of which report original research and five of which review and synthesize past research with the aim of developing new hypotheses and theory. A range of international experts with diverse backgrounds, theoretical perspectives, and experimental methods contributed to the Topic. Contributions strongly reflect this diversity, ranging from examining pupil dilation in response to viewing Rembrandt portraits to understanding how caffeine supplementation influences levels of spatial processing. In all cases, the authors ...
Psychotic Diagnosis And Artist Pathology: Schizophrenic Art’S Influence On The Identification Of The Disorder, 2014 Bowling Green State University
Psychotic Diagnosis And Artist Pathology: Schizophrenic Art’S Influence On The Identification Of The Disorder, Danielle Watson
The use of artwork created by schizophrenic individuals is unique in its contextual elements, including bizarre imagery, strong border lines, and desexualized features. The uniqueness of schizophrenic art lends itself to the possibility of being identified as such, therefore, opening the possibility for it to be used as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. Presently, schizophrenic art is used in art therapy, but is not widely employed in diagnostic practices. The current study aimed to test the possible identification of schizophrenic art in contrast to normal art and no art. Three questionnaires were created and randomly distributed to participants ...
Enhancing Transparency Of The Research Process To Increase Accuracy Of Findings: A Guide For Relationship Researchers, 2014 University of Western Ontario
Enhancing Transparency Of The Research Process To Increase Accuracy Of Findings: A Guide For Relationship Researchers, Lorne Campbell, Timothy J. Loving, Etienne P. Lebel
The purpose of this paper is to extend to the field of relationship science, recent discussions and suggested changes in open research practises. We demonstrate different ways that greater transparency of the research process in our field will accelerate scientific progress by increasing accuracy of reported research findings. Importantly, we make concrete recommendations for how relationship researchers can transition to greater disclosure of research practices in a manner that is sensitive to the unique design features of methodologies employed by relationship scientists. We discuss how to implement these recommendations for four different research designs regularly used in relationship research and ...
On Reporting The Onset Of The Intention To Move, 2014 Chapman University
On Reporting The Onset Of The Intention To Move, Uri Maoz, Liad Mudrik, Ram Rivlin, Ian Ross, Adam Mamelak, Gideon Yaffe
Psychology Faculty Books and Book Chapters
"In 1965, Hans Kornhuber and Luder Deecke made a discovery that greatly influenced the study of voluntary action. Using electroencephalography (EEG), they showed that when aligning some tens of trials to movement onset and averaging, a slowly decreasing electrical potential emerges over central regions of the brain. It starts 1 second ( s) or so before the onset of the voluntary action1 and continues until shortly after the action begins. They termed this the Bereitschaftspotential, or readiness potential (RP; Kornhuber & Deecke, 1965).2 This became the first well-established neural marker of voluntary action. In that, the RP allowed for more objective ...
Norms, Conventions, And The Power Of Expectations, 2014 University of Pennsylvania
Norms, Conventions, And The Power Of Expectations, Cristina Bicchieri
Behavioral Ethics Lab
No abstract provided.