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Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn 2010 University of Kentucky

Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The current study investigated the relationships between state shame, guilt, and disease knowledge in women recently diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent research has indicated that diagnosis of HPV can elicit negative self-directed affect, including persistent experiences of shame. Studies have also shown that knowledge of HPV is low in the general population, even though it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is important to understand how shame affects those with HPV because shame is related to a decline in important immune parameters that may be essential in HPV clearance. A ...


The Impact Of Person-Centered Communications On Political Candidate Evaluation: An Experimental Investigation, Randall A. Renstrom 2010 Loyola University Chicago

The Impact Of Person-Centered Communications On Political Candidate Evaluation: An Experimental Investigation, Randall A. Renstrom

Dissertations

"Person-centeredness" refers to how empathetic and warm a person's communication style is. Although the role of person-centeredness has been documented in various areas concerning interpersonal relations, person-centeredness has not been explored in the political realm. This project investigated how person-centered communications can influence impressions and evaluations of political candidates. In the first study, person-centered (PC) messages were shown to impact candidate trait ratings. Candidates using low PC messages were associated with more instrumental traits but fewer socio-emotional traits, while high PC candidates were assumed to have more socio-emotional traits but fewer instrumental traits. Similar results were found when participants ...


I Love You (But I Can't Look You In The Eyes): Explicit And Implicit Self-Esteem Predict Verbal And Nonverbal Response To Relationship Threat, Julie Longua Peterson 2010 Loyola University Chicago

I Love You (But I Can't Look You In The Eyes): Explicit And Implicit Self-Esteem Predict Verbal And Nonverbal Response To Relationship Threat, Julie Longua Peterson

Dissertations

Research has revealed the value of studying communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, in couple conflict discussions (Gottman & Levenson, 2000; Noller, Feeney, Bonnell, & Callan, 1994). In fact, the study of behavioral reactions to relationship conflict has been central to predicting important relationship outcomes, such as relationship satisfaction and breakup (e.g. see Gottman, 1998 for a review). The goal of the current dissertation was to explore how explicit (i.e., conscious, deliberate) and implicit (i.e., unconscious, automatic) self-esteem correspond to people's self-reported approach and avoidance verbal and nonverbal behaviors following a relationship threat manipulation (Study 1) and people's observer-rated approach and avoidance verbal and nonverbal behaviors in an actual conflict discussion (Study 2). Results revealed the importance of both explicit and implicit self-esteem for predicting responses to relationship threat, revealing a pattern of results consistent with the risk regulation model (Murray et al., 2006; 2008). These studies also revealed the value of understanding how perceptions of a partner's commitment moderate the relation between implicit self-esteem and risk regulation dynamics. The results of the current research provide some of the first evidence that implicit self-esteem influences romantic relationship regulation dynamics during relationship conflict.


Development And Validation Of The Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere Scale, Scott P. King 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Development And Validation Of The Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere Scale, Scott P. King

Dissertations

This dissertation details the development and validation of the Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere (WIA) scale over two studies. Given the growing number of older adults in the American workforce and the possibility of four generations working side by side, the WIA scale was designed to measure attitudes and perceptions about workers of different ages in the workplace. In Study 1, using a sample of workers from a non-profit organization, 23 initial items were reduced to 18, including five subscales: Intergenerational Contact, Workplace Intergenerational Retention, Positive Affect, Workplace Generational Inclusiveness, and Lack of Stereotypes. The relationships between WIA scores and mentoring, perceptions ...


Creating A Balance In Sentencing Offenders: A Step Towards Restorative Justice, Lindsay Nichols 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Creating A Balance In Sentencing Offenders: A Step Towards Restorative Justice, Lindsay Nichols

Master's Theses

Public sentencing preferences often determine the sentencing statutes created by legislators. Extracting public opinion is typically done through mass public opinion polls; however, research has found that these polls often produce misleading findings. In order to accurately dissect the various layers of laypersons' sentencing choices, a victim impact statement (VIS) and a statement of offender remorse were manipulated within a crime scenario depicting moderately severe crimes. A total of 215 participants were randomly assigned to one of the 16 conditions in this 2 (crime type: residential burglary or unarmed robbery) x 2 (VIS: absence or presence) x 2 (offender remorse ...


Effects Of Discrete Positive Emotions On Attitude Change, Jennifer Lee Smith 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Effects Of Discrete Positive Emotions On Attitude Change, Jennifer Lee Smith

Master's Theses

This study examines the influence of discrete incidental positive emotions (joy and contentment) on participants' attitudes and cognitive responses. Prior persuasion research has focused almost exclusively on negative emotions or comparisons between positive and negative moods. A 2 (argument strength: weak or strong) x 3 (emotional state: joy, contentment, or neutral) between-participants factorial design was used in this study. Participants (N = 460) were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Analyses revealed consistent argument strength effects on attitudes and cognitive responses. Compared to the joy and neutral conditions, participants in the contentment condition tended to generate fewer positive cognitive ...


Public Responsiveness To Victim's Recommendations In Their Sentencing Decisions: Role Of Victim's Race, Victim Impact Statement And Judge's Instructions, Mary Elizabeth Talbot 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Public Responsiveness To Victim's Recommendations In Their Sentencing Decisions: Role Of Victim's Race, Victim Impact Statement And Judge's Instructions, Mary Elizabeth Talbot

Master's Theses

A total of 191 participants completed the 2 (Race of victim: African American, Caucasian) x 2 (Content of Victim Impact Statement (VIS): Sentence Recommendation Only, Both Sentence Recommendation and Harm Statement) x 2 (Jury Guidelines for VIS: No guidance, Explicit instructions to weigh the harm statement with other aggravating and mitigating factors) between subjects factorial design study. The study assessed the relationship between the victim's race (African-American or Caucasian), the content of victim impact statements, and the judge's guidelines/instructions for interpreting/using the Victim Impact Statement (VIS) in the sentencing phase of a defendant's trial for ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Team Coaching, Performance Feedback, And Collective Efficacy On Small Group Performance, Rachael Nichole Martinez 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Investigation Of The Effects Of Team Coaching, Performance Feedback, And Collective Efficacy On Small Group Performance, Rachael Nichole Martinez

Master's Theses

Research has demonstrated that there are a variety of factors that influence group performance such as team coaching, feedback, and collective efficacy. A study was conducted to determine whether consultative team coaching improves performance and at what point--beginning or middle--it is most beneficial to the team. One hundred eleven dyads, comprised of 222 students, participated in this study. The dyads performed a task twice in which they were given team coaching before the first attempt, after the first attempt, or not at all. In addition, feedback was manipulated such that teams received positive or negative feedback after their first attempt ...


The Stigmatization Of Mental Illness And Drug Addiction Among The Criminally Involved, Brenda Arsenault 2010 Loyola University Chicago

The Stigmatization Of Mental Illness And Drug Addiction Among The Criminally Involved, Brenda Arsenault

Master's Theses

This study examined the perceived stigma of mental illness compared to drug addiction among a sample of criminally involved persons who receive probation services through the Cook County Adult Probation Department. The first section of the study surveyed current probation clients using a modification of the PSAS scale by Luoma, Rye, Kohlenberg, Hayes, Fletcher & Pratte (2010), and assessed levels of stigma consciousness with a modified version of the SCQ (Pinel, 1999). Three groups of participants were surveyed for their perceptions of stigma and stigma consciousness. The first group consisted of drug probation case management clients with no known mental health ...


The Theories Of Deindividuation, Brian Li 2010 Claremont McKenna College

The Theories Of Deindividuation, Brian Li

CMC Senior Theses

Has it ever occurred to you to wonder why a soldier would sacrifice his life by jumping on a bomb to save the rest of his brigade? Or why an individual in a gang might display respectable behavior when alone but swear and vandalize when in the group? The phenomenon of people getting pulled into crowds and adopting the group’s mentalities and behaviors has been recognized but not fully researched. However, it has been recorded in early literature and research that it is human nature to want to fit into a group, for example in Abraham Maslow’s (1943 ...


Therapeutic Discourse And The American Public Philosophy: On American Liberalism's Troubled Relationship With Psychology, Clifford D. Vickrey 2010 Colby College

Therapeutic Discourse And The American Public Philosophy: On American Liberalism's Troubled Relationship With Psychology, Clifford D. Vickrey

Honors Theses

I explore the main currents of postwar American liberalism. One, sociological, emerged in response to the danger of mass movements. Articulated primarily by political sociologists and psychologists and ascendant from the mid-fifties till the mid-seventies, it heralded the "end of ideology." It emphasized stability, elitism, positive science and pluralism; it recast normatively sound politics as logrolling and hard bargaining. I argue that these normative features, attractive when considered in isolation, taken together led to a vicious ad hominem style in accounting for views outside the postwar consensus. It used pseudo-scientific literature in labeling populists, Progressives, Taft conservatives, Goldwaterites, the New ...


No, I’M Really, Really Bad At Math: Competition For Self-Verification, Alexandra E. Wesnousky 2010 Colby College

No, I’M Really, Really Bad At Math: Competition For Self-Verification, Alexandra E. Wesnousky

Honors Theses

In their theory of self-verification, Swann and Read’s (1981) postulate that people like feedback that is consistent with their self-concept. Researchers have yet to examine what happens when two individuals are both seeking feedback from each other to verify their self-concept on the same domain. When individuals are competing against someone to verify a similarly held self-concept, they should try to seek more polarized feedback, especially when the domain is highly important. In two experiments, participants expected to receive computer feedback on their responses to identity-related questions, either based on their own responses or on how they compared to ...


Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole 2010 Iowa State University

Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole

Jessica K Swanner

Two laboratory studies with 332 student participants investigated secondary confessions (provided by an informant instead of the suspect). Participants allegedly caused or witnessed a simulated computer crash, then were asked to give primary or secondary confessions during interrogation. Study 1 replicated the false evidence effect for primary confessions. Secondary confessions were obtained at a high rate, which was increased by false evidence in combination with incentive to confess. In Study 2 a confederate either confessed to or denied crashing the computer. Incentive increased the rate of secondary confession only in the presence of a denial; that is, incentive increased the ...


The Distortionary Effect Of Evidence On Primary Behavior, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Distortionary Effect Of Evidence On Primary Behavior, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Essay, we analyze how evidentiary concerns dominate actors’ behavior. Our findings offer an important refinement to the conventional wisdom in law and economics literature, which assumes that legal rules can always be fashioned to achieve socially optimal outcomes. We show that evidentiary motivations will often lead actors to engage in socially suboptimal behavior when doing so is likely to increase their likelihood of prevailing in court. Because adjudicators must base decisions on observable and verifiable information—or, in short, evidence—rational actors will always strive to generate evidence that can later be presented in court and increase their ...


The 2008 Election: Prior Belief Strength, Cognitive Dissonance, And Voter Reactions, Elicia Chelsey Lair 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The 2008 Election: Prior Belief Strength, Cognitive Dissonance, And Voter Reactions, Elicia Chelsey Lair

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. Leadership can occur across great distances, as when a leader influences followers who are distributed across differing contexts, but in many cases leadership occurs in an intact group that exists in a specific locale: Teams, boards, advisory councils, and classrooms arc all examples of groups that work toward shared goals with, in many cases, the help and guidance of a leader. Leadership can be considered a set of personality traits or a specific set of behaviors enacted by an individual, but an interpersonal, group-level conceptualization considers Ieadership to ...


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. This chapter describes group-centered leadership, leading change in groups, leaders in groups, decision-making and leadership and social influence and leadership.


The Impact Of Blatant Stereotype Activation And Group Sex-Composition On Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie K. Johnson, Susan Elaine Murphy, Kerry Hogue Skinnell 2010 University of Richmond

The Impact Of Blatant Stereotype Activation And Group Sex-Composition On Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie K. Johnson, Susan Elaine Murphy, Kerry Hogue Skinnell

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The individual and combined impact of blatant stereotype activation and solo status or mixed-sex groups on the self-appraisals, performance, and anxiety of female leaders was examined across three laboratory studies. The first study utilized a two-condition, two-stage design in which female leaders were exposed to a blatant stereotype threat or control condition after which they completed a leadership task. In the second stage, the threatened leaders received a solo status manipulation (leading a group of men) while the control condition did not. In the second study a 2 (blatant threat, no blatant threat) by 2 (solo status, all-female group) fully ...


Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick 2010 University of Richmond

Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research investigates the empirical assumptions behind the claim that leaders exaggerate the importance of their group’s goals more so than non-leaders and that they may use these beliefs to justify deviating from generally accepted moral requirements when doing so is necessary for goal achievement. We tested these biased thought processes across three studies. The results from these three studies established the more-important-than-average effect, both for real and illusory groups. Participants claimed that their group goals are more important than the goals of others, and this effect was stronger for leaders than for non-leading group members. In Study 3 ...


Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Therapy groups are designed to promote the health and adjustment of their members. Initially used when the demand for services outstripped available health care providers, therapists discovered that group approaches offered unique benefits over more individualistic therapies. Some of these benefits include a reduced sense of isolation and uniqueness, mutual support, exposure to positive models, and the opportunity to develop coping skills by interacting with others. Therapists now use groups to address a variety of psychological and physical maladies, and their methods are as varied as those used in individual approaches. Even though the idea of having people suffering from ...


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