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Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson

Publications of the Buros Center Professional Staff

The article discusses salient factors that influence the current context within which homeschooling occurs. Individual states have applied various approaches to establish regulations that both preserve the rights of homeschooling parents and fulfill the state’s obligation to ensure that its residents receive the education to which they are constitutionally entitled. Case and ethnographic studies or research involving small and selected samples often appear in outlets associated with homeschool advocacy groups or in outlets that are not mainstream. The paucity of empirical evidence derived from methodologically strong research paradigms has led to little certainty about many aspects of homeschooling including ...


An Analytical Study About The Dialectical Use Of Statistical Significance In Psychological And Educational Research, عايش صباح dr 2019 جامعة مولاي الطاهر سعيدة الجزائر

An Analytical Study About The Dialectical Use Of Statistical Significance In Psychological And Educational Research, عايش صباح Dr

International Journal for Research in Education

The statistical significance has been adopted more than 300 years ago, It has served an important purpose in promoting research in social sciences, however, there has been much controversy over the misuse and interpretation of the statistical significance test.Compelling criticisms of statistical significance testing can be found in virtually all areas of the social and life sciences, economics, sociology, education and psychology. Because it is the overwhelmingly dominant statistical method in these sciences, criticisms need to be taken seriously.

Yet, after half a century of cogent arguments against statistical significance and calls to adopt alternative practices some disciplines, such ...


Taking Multiple Regression Analysis To Task: A Review Of Mindware: Tools For Smart Thinking, By Richard Nisbett (2015), Jason Makansi 2019 Pearl Street Inc.

Taking Multiple Regression Analysis To Task: A Review Of Mindware: Tools For Smart Thinking, By Richard Nisbett (2015), Jason Makansi

Numeracy

Richard Nisbett. 2015. Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking.(New York, NY: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux). 336 pp. ISBN: 9780374536244

Nisbett, a psychologist, may not achieve his stated goal of teaching readers to “effortlessly” extend their common sense when it comes to quantitative analysis applied to everyday issues, but his critique of multiple regression analysis (MRA) in the middle chapters of Mindware is worth attention from, and contemplation by, the QL/QR and Numeracy community. While in at least one other source, Nisbett’s critique has been called a “crusade” against MRA, what he really advocates is that it not be ...


Measuring Gambling: Prevalence Of At Risk And Problematic Gambling In Chile 2015-2018., Juan Oyanedel Dr, Mariela Huenchumilla Ms, Andrés Rubio Mr 2019 Universidad Andrés Bello

Measuring Gambling: Prevalence Of At Risk And Problematic Gambling In Chile 2015-2018., Juan Oyanedel Dr, Mariela Huenchumilla Ms, Andrés Rubio Mr

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

This study reports the prevalence of problematic gambling in Santiago de Chile for the period 2015-2018. Two household-based surveys were implemented in the metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in 2015 and 2018 in order to assess changes on the prevalence, characteristics and severity of gambling (n=1030 each; SE=2,2% for a CI=95%). Severity of gambling was measured using the NODS scale.

Results show that during the analysed period the percentage of at-risk players has increased, passing from 14,3% to 16,1%, among them, we identified a decrease in the prevalence of pathological gamblers, passing from ...


Gambling-Related Harm And The Prevention Paradox, Matthew Browne 2019 CQUinversity

Gambling-Related Harm And The Prevention Paradox, Matthew Browne

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

Abstract (163 words)

The prevention paradox (PP) describes a situation in which a greater number of adverse events arise from lower-risk population categories, because they are more prevalent than higher-risk groups. There has been limited and conflicting evidence as to whether the PP applies to gambling-related harm.

We assessed the prevalence of 72 harmful consequences from gambling across four risk problem gambling risk categories. Respondents who had gambled on non-lottery forms in the past 6 months completed an online survey (N = 1,524, 49.4% male). The data were weighted to the known prevalence of these risk categories.

The prevalence ...


Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield 2019 Missouri State University

Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield

MSU Graduate Theses

The media ecosystem has grown, and political opinions have diverged such that there are competing conceptions of objective truth. Commentators often point to political biases in news coverage as a catalyst for this political divide. The Moral Foundations Dictionary (MFD) facilitates identification of ideological leanings in text through frequency of the occurrence of certain words. Through web scraping, the researcher extracted articles from popular news sources’ websites, calculated MFD word frequencies, and identified words’ respective valences. This process attempts to uncover news outlets’ positive or negative endorsements of certain moral dimensions concomitant with a particular ideology. In Experiment 1, the ...


Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus 2019 James Madison University

Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus

Masters Theses

The validity of scores from low-stakes tests may be compromised by examinee motivation. Expectancy-Value theory (EV) has been used to frame the antecedents of examinee motivation in low-stakes testing contexts. According to EV theory, the perceived value of the test and the expectancy to succeed on the test directly affect examinee effort, which then affects test performance. Cross-sectional research studies in low-stakes testing contexts offer some support of EV theory. Control-Value theory (CV) serves as another theory to understand motivation toward a task. CV theory encompasses the constructs of expectancy and value from EV theory, but incorporates test emotions as ...


An Investigation Into The Structure Of Self-Control, Parker A. Dreves 2019 East Tennessee State University

An Investigation Into The Structure Of Self-Control, Parker A. Dreves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Self-control has been measured using a variety of methods including self-report measures, cognitive inhibition tasks, delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks, and persistence and willpower tasks. Although these are all theoretically linked to processes involved in self-control, recent evidence has shown that these diverse measurement techniques relate only minimally to one another. Assuming that self-control is a reflective construct, this would indicate that many of these tasks are poor indicators of self-control. The present research challenges the common assumption that self-control is a reflective construct and instead proposes that self-control is a formative construct. Conceptualizing self-control as a formative ...


Effects Of Talker Variability On Categorization Of Spectrally Degraded Vowels., Emily A. Dickey 2019 University of Louisville

Effects Of Talker Variability On Categorization Of Spectrally Degraded Vowels., Emily A. Dickey

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

When a person listens to a context sentence with prominent higher frequencies, the subsequent vowel sound is more likely to be perceived as being of a lower frequency and vice versa. This is a spectral contrast effect (SCE). Recent work has shown that talker variability diminishes these SCEs. They were found to be smaller when 200 sentences were spoken by a different talker each time compared to one talker (Assgari & Stilp, 2015). Cochlear Implant (CI) users’ speech categorization is also influenced by SCEs but are known to struggle with talker discrimination. Here, I tested whether talker variability affected SCEs when ...


Selection Or Socialization? A Propensity Score Matched Study Of Personality And Life Events, Emorie Beck 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Selection Or Socialization? A Propensity Score Matched Study Of Personality And Life Events, Emorie Beck

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Across the lifespan, personality changes in normative ways, but the source of such change remains ambiguous. Life events may be one impetus of such change, but strong selection effects into such events makes it unclear whether such change is driven by already existing differences (selection) between people or socialization following life events. In a preregistered study, we test socialization and selection effects of the Big 5 and life events using a large (N = 19,627) representative sample of Germans and 12 life events (e.g. marriage, retirement) from the GSOEP. Using propensity score matching and Bayesian multilevel growth curve models ...


The Effects Of Relationships On Ans Function And Wellness, Olivia M. Maples 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Relationships On Ans Function And Wellness, Olivia M. Maples

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The quality of relationships and social networks plays a vital role on well-being (Feeney & Collins, 2015). Social support is linked to positive biological profiles in that social support protects against the negative effects of changes in cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and immune function. Furthermore, when exploring Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) function, higher heart rate variability has been shown to reflect a psychophysiological state compatible with social interaction (Quintana, Guastella, Outhred, Hickie, & Kemp, 2012). Social support has been shown to buffer against the negative effects of life stressors (Cohen & Wills, 1985), and ultimately, mortality (Holt-Lunstad, Smith, & Layton, 2010). In summary, social relationships are ...


Supervisor-Subordinate Conflict Negotiation: Examining The Core Concerns In Light Of Communication Accommodation And Gender Roles, Piyawan Charoensap-Kelly 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Supervisor-Subordinate Conflict Negotiation: Examining The Core Concerns In Light Of Communication Accommodation And Gender Roles, Piyawan Charoensap-Kelly

Dissertations

This quasi-experimental study examined a supervisor-subordinate negotiation of an emotion-laden conflict from the lens of the core concerns framework, communication accommodation theory, and gender roles research. Results empirically support CCF that, by accommodating or attending to the employees’ core concerns, managers can stimulate employees’ positive emotion and integrative intention. However, under- and overaccommodating the core concerns can lead to distributive intention. Additionally, the employees’ perception of manager goodwill can strengthen or attenuate the positive effect of core concerns accommodativeness on outcome variables especially for male managers. Thus, moderate accommodation is recommended for male managers. For female managers, the results show ...


Restructured Frame‐Of‐Reference Training Improves Rating Accuracy, Ming-Hong TSAI, Serena WEE, Brandon KOH 2019 Singapore Management University

Restructured Frame‐Of‐Reference Training Improves Rating Accuracy, Ming-Hong Tsai, Serena Wee, Brandon Koh

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The use of heuristic judgments is prevalent in organizations and negatively impacts accurate employee assessments. To minimize the negative impact of heuristic judgments (i.e., anchoring and adjustment), we aim to improve rating accuracy by restructuring frame‐of‐reference (FOR) training. We conducted five studies (N = 1,143) using different samples (three including participants with hiring experience), training environments (onsite and online), and rating contexts (evaluations of sales representatives, teachers, contract negotiation specialists, and retail store managers). Across the five studies, the average improvement in rating accuracy was at least twice as large for restructured FOR (vs. control) training as ...


A New Paradigm Of Discrimination And Measures Of Latino Linked Fate, Michael Herndon 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A New Paradigm Of Discrimination And Measures Of Latino Linked Fate, Michael Herndon

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Linked fate has long been used as a measure of group consciousness and is an important component of group political behavior. Though applying linked fate to Latinos can be complicated because of a widely diverse set of nationalities and historical contexts, Latinos have shown signs of group cohesion under certain circumstances. Despite this, there is still a sizable gap exploring the theory of linked fate as it pertains to Latinos. Furthermore, there is a near-absence of literature that critically dissects the roles of different kinds of discrimination as they pertain to perceptions of linked fate amongst Latinos. There are distinct ...


Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The following study sought to examine the psychological substrates of renewal (e.g.., context dependent extinction processes) for conditioned avoidance behaviors in rats. Using signaled active avoidance conditioning, rats acquired two-way shuttle responding, to two different auditory stimuli. These behaviors were then extinguished through exposure to the auditory stimuli where shuttling behavior was now without consequence. Subjects were then tested for renewal of avoidance in three distinct renewal sequences (e.g., ABA vs ABB, AAB vs AAA, and ABC vs ABB) in three separate groups of rats. It was found that subjects showed more responding to a stimulus presented outside ...


The Relationship Between Personality Characteristics And Creativity On Judgements Of Facial Attractiveness, Zhelin Wu 2019 Humboldt State University

The Relationship Between Personality Characteristics And Creativity On Judgements Of Facial Attractiveness, Zhelin Wu

Theses and projects

People may or may not realize that when they meet a physically attractive person, they are more likely to evaluate him or her as a smart and positive person compared to a less attractive person in the absence of other features besides physical attractiveness. This attractive halo effect has influenced multiple areas that include the job market, dating, and academic success. However, it is possible for other factors, such as one’s creativity and personality to affect one’s judged attractiveness level. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of facial attractiveness, creativity, and warm-cold personality characteristics ...


Neurobehavioral Measurements Of Natural And Opioid Reward Value, Aaron Paul Smith 2019 University of Kentucky

Neurobehavioral Measurements Of Natural And Opioid Reward Value, Aaron Paul Smith

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

In the last decade, (non)prescription opioid abuse, opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnoses, and opioid-related overdoses have risen and represent a significant public health concern. One method of understanding OUD is as a disorder of choice that requires choosing opioid rewards at the expense of other nondrug rewards. The characterization of OUD as a disorder of choice is important as it implicates decision- making processes as therapeutic targets, such as the valuation of opioid rewards. However, reward-value measurement and interpretation are traditionally different in substance abuse research compared to related fields such as economics, animal behavior, and neuroeconomics and may ...


Power Analysis By Simulation Using R And Simglm, Brandon LeBeau 2019 University of Iowa

Power Analysis By Simulation Using R And Simglm, Brandon Lebeau

Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations Publications

Power is a task that is commonly done prior to collecting data for a primary study. In most cases closed-form solutions are used to estimate power which may statistical assumptions to be able to perform the computations, for example assume residuals are normally distributed. In real-world data, these statistical assumptions may not hold, therefore estimates of power when these assumptions are assumed will likely be inflated. Power by simulation is another way to compute power estimates and offers significant flexibility to the user to explore the impact of various statistical assumption violations may have on power. This tutorial uses the ...


Predictive Relationship Between Family Support Partners And Caregiver Empowerment Levels, Kelli D. Taylor 2019 Walden University

Predictive Relationship Between Family Support Partners And Caregiver Empowerment Levels, Kelli D. Taylor

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In recent years, family support partners (FSPs) have been hired to work in the behavioral health care system for the state in which this study was conducted. FSPs are legacy caregivers, meaning they have raised a child with a mental health illness. At the time of this study, there was not a set criterion in the state to measure the effectiveness or benefits of FSPs working with families. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to determine whether a caregiver's level of empowerment, as measured by the Family Empowerment Scale (FES), was increased through working with an FSP ...


When Empathy Only Goes So Far: Development Of A Trait Parochial Empathy Scale, Anna Maria C. Behler 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

When Empathy Only Goes So Far: Development Of A Trait Parochial Empathy Scale, Anna Maria C. Behler

Theses and Dissertations

Empathy, the ability to feel and/or understand another’s emotional state, plays a significant role in interpersonal interactions, mitigating hostility and enhancing affiliation and helping. However, empathy also biases interpersonal reactions. For example, at the group level empathy can become amplified towards members of their ingroup and blunted towards individuals in outgroups, a term called parochial empathy. Currently, no validated measures of parochial empathy at the dispositional level exist, and development of such a scale would be important to understanding the role of group-based emotions in prejudice and discrimination against outgroups. I conducted five studies to develop and validate ...


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