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69. The Role Of Kinship And Siblings In Young Children’S Placement Preferences., Kelli Dickerson, Thomas D. Lyon, Jodi A. Quas 2019 University of California, Irvine

69. The Role Of Kinship And Siblings In Young Children’S Placement Preferences., Kelli Dickerson, Thomas D. Lyon, Jodi A. Quas

Thomas D. Lyon

Although considerable attention has been directed toward the most appropriate placement for children following removal from home due to maltreatment, very little of this attention has focused on children’s stated preferences, particularly when they are young. Specifically, children under 12 years of age are typically presumed incompetent to form reasoned judgments about their best interests in placement. This assumption, however, has rarely been tested directly. We surveyed 100 4- to 11-year-olds removed from home because of maltreatment about their placement preferences. Children were less likely to indicate they wanted to return home if they were placed with siblings or ...


An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. McCaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea 2019 University of Phoenix

An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. Mccaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea

The Qualitative Report

Transformative inquiry is a theoretical model designed to facilitate the inquiry of important and meaningful relationships that transform and potentiate us. Creswell (2007) described the essential elements of a research agenda: the axiological, ontological, epistemological, methodological, and rhetorical. Each carries with it assumptions that hold implications for practice and research. Transformative inquiry addresses all of these elements through considerations given to deep ecology, transdisciplinarity, integral meta-theory, heuristic research, and eudaimonistic philosophy, respectively. Transformative inquiry is an approach to understanding and fostering the full range of deep and meaningful relationships from the personal to the political, and beyond. It is a ...


Tapping Into Your Inner Superhero: Positive Interventions For At-Risk Youth Organizations, Chung H. Cheuk, Alexandra Bono, Henry Ritchie, Devon O'Malley 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Tapping Into Your Inner Superhero: Positive Interventions For At-Risk Youth Organizations, Chung H. Cheuk, Alexandra Bono, Henry Ritchie, Devon O'Malley

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Childhood poverty has been linked with gaps in physical, emotional, and cognitive outcomes. Previous research sheds light on potential interventions for helping at-risk youth. We combine these findings with proven positive psychology interventions to create a curriculum for an organization serving at-risk youth in Trenton, New Jersey. The workshops are geared towards teaching components that enable lasting well-being using existing positive psychology frameworks, such as Martin Seligman’s PERMA. We also adapt lessons using VIA Character Strengths and resiliency factors for an adolescent population, and leverage behavioral modeling, self-agency, and environmental mastery to create sustainable programming. If successful, these interventions ...


Exploring The Adulthood Transition Through The Eyes Of Adults Living With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Phenomenological Study Of Their Expectations, Perceptions, Experiences, And Goals Regarding Adulthood, Matthew Noakes 2019 Liberty University

Exploring The Adulthood Transition Through The Eyes Of Adults Living With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Phenomenological Study Of Their Expectations, Perceptions, Experiences, And Goals Regarding Adulthood, Matthew Noakes

Senior Honors Theses

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that makes daily, independent living difficult for many people around the world. Depending on the severity of ASD symptoms, individuals living with ASD rely on various supports to develop everyday skills. However, many of these supports fade away as these individuals transition out of high school into adulthood where they are introduced to an entirely new set of social systems including postsecondary institutions, workplace environments, independent/codependent living arrangements, and mature social relationships. Four emerging adults with ASD were interviewed to gather their expectations, perceptions, experiences, and goals regarding these different ...


Intimacy Idolization And Ego Development In Adolescence: Links To Social Relationships And Wellness In Early Adulthood, Rachel Brown 2019 James Madison University

Intimacy Idolization And Ego Development In Adolescence: Links To Social Relationships And Wellness In Early Adulthood, Rachel Brown

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This study aims to examine the interplay between ego development and intimacy development as predictive of later friendship and romantic relationship quality. It subsequently seeks to understand how balance and imbalances in friendship and romantic relationship quality, predicted by ego and intimacy development, are indicative of later markers for overall wellness. As such, adolescent reports of ego development and romantic intimacy were examined in relation to later reports of reliable alliance in both a close friendship and a romantic relationship. Ego development was predicted to be associated with higher levels of close friendship stability and lower levels of romantic stability ...


American And British Speech Differences In Low Socioeconomic Status Homes, Jennifer Markfeld 2019 James Madison University

American And British Speech Differences In Low Socioeconomic Status Homes, Jennifer Markfeld

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Background: Infants living in low socioeconomic status (SES) homes display lower developmental functioning by 12 months than mid- and high-SES infants, and speak fewer words on average as they grow older. Maternal speech is especially important for language development and has been found to be the largest predictor of SES-related differences in children’s vocabulary. Although there are documented differences between British and American infant language development, for example American infant lexicons are typically larger than age matched British infants, there is little research looking at caregiver speech across these countries in low SES groups.

Method: This retrospective study compared ...


Attachment In Middle Childhood Among Foster And Adopted Children: Preliminary Validation Of A Behavioral Observation System, Somer George 2019 James Madison University

Attachment In Middle Childhood Among Foster And Adopted Children: Preliminary Validation Of A Behavioral Observation System, Somer George

Dissertations

Abstract

The study of attachment in middle childhood, especially among foster and adoptive children, is a critical and timely one. An assessment that helps us understand the behavioral manifestations of attachment for these children, while considering the link with caregiving behavior and parental reflective functioning (PRF) can help to provide effective and efficient intervention leading to security and relational healing. This study examines the attachment patterns of 39 foster and adopted children (ages six to twelve) in the Modified Strange Situation Procedure (MSSP), with their caregivers. Association with caregiving patterns, PRF, and caregiver reported child behavior are analyzed using Pearson ...


An Initial Development Of A Hardiness Scale For Elementary School Students, Stephen Ferrara 2019 James Madison University

An Initial Development Of A Hardiness Scale For Elementary School Students, Stephen Ferrara

Educational Specialist

There are limited studies that have investigated levels of hardiness in children. There is even less information on finding hardiness scales that have been normed on children in elementary school. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Hardiness Scale for Children (HSC), which assesses the three subscales of hardiness: Challenge, Control, and Commitment. 121 elementary school students (2nd-5th grade) were selected to complete the HSC. Their parents were also asked to complete a three-item scale to measure their child’s hardiness. The results indicated that older children tended to give ...


High School Teachers’ Roles And Needs In Addressing Students Experiencing Trauma, Katherine Flemister 2019 James Madison University

High School Teachers’ Roles And Needs In Addressing Students Experiencing Trauma, Katherine Flemister

Educational Specialist

Childhood trauma is a hidden epidemic that can have profound impacts on children including significant educational impact. Teachers are responsible for the academic success of all of their students, so it is critical for teachers to be prepared to help a student who has been exposed to trauma to reintegrate back into the classroom. Almost all of the limited research available regarding a teacher’s role in helping students experiencing trauma has been conducted within the elementary schools, so the current study aimed to further the literature by exploring the role of high school teachers in helping students who have ...


Parental Acceptance Project: Affirming Gender Variant Youth, Shelley Faulkner 2019 James Madison University

Parental Acceptance Project: Affirming Gender Variant Youth, Shelley Faulkner

Educational Specialist

The number of gender expansive and gender variant youth has risen dramatically, leading to a mental health and education service gap that must be addressed. The author reviews relevant literature supporting the importance of the parent-child relationship via the lens of attachment theory, affirming that parental support for gender variant children is critical to their well-being and overall positive life outcomes. A curriculum for parents of gender variant children is proposed, in an effort to educate and support parents of gender variant children, so that they may in turn develop affirmative and supportive practices toward their children. The ultimate goal ...


Using An Eye-Tracking Training Paradigm To Teach Responsiveness To Joint Attention, Allison C. Brandmark 2019 James Madison University

Using An Eye-Tracking Training Paradigm To Teach Responsiveness To Joint Attention, Allison C. Brandmark

Masters Theses

Joint Attention (JA) is a social interaction in which attention is concurrently managed between an object or event and a social partner. One social partner initiates joint attention (IJA) by directing the attention of the other social partner. In return, the other social partner responds to joint attention (RJA) by following the social cues. A deficit in JA, which is commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, is correlated with delayed language development and lower levels of communication and social skills. Several studies have successfully trained both IJA and RJA using in-person methodologies. With the development of new technology ...


Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children's Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession, Kelly McWilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children's Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession, Kelly Mcwilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Background: Children are often hesitant to disclose transgressions, particularly when they feel implicated, and frequently remain reluctant until confronted with direct questions. Given the risks associated with direct questions, an important issue is how interviewers can encourage honesty through recall questions. Objective: The present study examined the use of three truth induction strategies for increasing the accuracy and productivity of children’s reports about a transgression. Participants: A total of 285 4-to-9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Methods: Each child took part in a play session with a stranger during which the child appeared to break some toys. A research assistant ...


68. Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children’S Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession., Kelly McWilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon 2019 CUNY John Jay College

68. Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children’S Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession., Kelly Mcwilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Background: Children are often hesitant to disclose transgressions, particularly when they feel implicated, and frequently remain reluctant until confronted with direct questions. Given the risks associated with direct questions, an important issue is how interviewers can encourage honesty through recall questions. Objective: The present study examined the use of three truth induction strategies for increasing the accuracy and productivity of children’s reports about a transgression. Participants: A total of 285 4-to-9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Methods: Each child took part in a play session with a stranger during which the child appeared to break some toys. A research assistant ...


68. Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children’S Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession., Kelly McWilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon 2019 CUNY John Jay College

68. Increasing Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children’S Recall Disclosures Of A Minor Transgression: The Effects Of Back-Channel Utterances, A Promise To Tell The Truth And A Post-Recall Putative Confession., Kelly Mcwilliams, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Shanna Williams, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Background: Children are often hesitant to disclose transgressions, particularly when they feel implicated, and frequently remain reluctant until confronted with direct questions. Given the risks associated with direct questions, an important issue is how interviewers can encourage honesty through recall questions. Objective: The present study examined the use of three truth induction strategies for increasing the accuracy and productivity of children’s reports about a transgression. Participants: A total of 285 4-to-9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Methods: Each child took part in a play session with a stranger during which the child appeared to break some toys. A research assistant ...


Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis 2019 East Tennessee State University

Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study was designed to examine differences in the effect of the number of children in the household (also known as “parity”) on the relationship between initiating joint attention (IJA) and language development. We reasoned that infants who are only children (i.e., in uniparous homes), relative to infants who have one or more siblings (i.e., in multiparous homes), would have more opportunity to engage in IJA, and would, therefore, acquire a larger number of object labels. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) there would be a positive correlation between the number of IJA bids and language overall ...


Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson 2019 East Tennessee State University

Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 1998, a seminal study on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and subsequent health risks catapulted ACEs and the study questionnaire into the zeitgeist. However, its childhood sexual abuse (CSA) item is problematic as it requires the perpetrator have been 5-years or older than the victim. To assess whether some survivors’ CSA is not identified by the current item, whether their exclusion prevents access to services requiring a four-threshold ACE score, and how their health outcomes compared to other CSA groups and controls, an international sample of 974 women completed an online survey assessing their current health and CSA history using ...


Adverse Childhood Experiences, Homeless Chronicity, And Age At Onset Of Homelessness, Joseph T. Tucciarone Jr. 2019 East Tennessee State University

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Homeless Chronicity, And Age At Onset Of Homelessness, Joseph T. Tucciarone Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Childhood adversity is associated with numerous negative outcomes across multiple domains, including mental and physical health, interrelationships, and social functioning. Notably, research suggests that childhood adversity has a dose-response relationship with these outcomes; that is, greater numbers of adverse experiences in childhood are associated with worse outcomes. These outcomes overlap with many risk factors of homelessness. This study sought to address two questions: 1) Does a dose-response relationship exist between childhood adversity and chronic homelessness? 2) Does childhood adversity negatively predict the age at which homelessness first occurs? Adults experiencing homeless who are accessing homeless services in the Tri-Cities area ...


Increasing Adult's Awareness Of The Importance Of End-Of-Life Care Discussions, Taylor Gardner 2019 California State University, Monterey Bay

Increasing Adult's Awareness Of The Importance Of End-Of-Life Care Discussions, Taylor Gardner

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

For many American families, end-of-life care is often not discussed, until advanced illness or injury has fully disrupted everyday life. There are many benefits to discussing end-of-life care prior to any medical complications. Research has shown that individuals who plan their end-of-life processes with a hospice service provider and family members report a higher quality of death than individuals receiving common health care during their final six months of life. In order to make families and friends more comfortable with end-of-life discussions, I will conduct two one-hour educational sessions to students at California State University, Monterey Bay.


Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Youth with certain risk factors (e.g., from a minority group, low-income status, previous contact with the juvenile justice system) are particularly at risk for juvenile delinquency and associated problems (e.g., school failure, mental health problems). In addition, these problems are quite costly to youth, their families, and society as a whole. Mentoring programs have shown modest, but consistent, effects in the prevention and reduction of juvenile delinquency and associated problems. Previous research has identified promising enhancements (i.e., advocacy/teaching roles for mentors, rigorous match processes, comprehensive mentor training, ongoing mentor support) that may increase the effectiveness of ...


Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler 2019 Phyllis Chesler Organization

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


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