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When A Stone Is Not A Stone: Memories Of Clerical Abuse, Charles V. Sords 2019 American Polarity Therapy Association

When A Stone Is Not A Stone: Memories Of Clerical Abuse, Charles V. Sords

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

From the fourth to the sixth grades, Charles V. Sords suffered traumatic sexual abuse by Catholic clergy. He suppressed these memories, yet the pain of what happened impacted every aspect of his life. As an adult, several strong, sensory experiences brought the truth of his childhood into focus. He confronted the Church—and the system that protected clerical criminals. This memoir is an account of childhood sexual abuse, the particularly shameful nature of being raped by priests, and how the Catholic Church’s method of handling this and similarly horrifying revelations has re-traumatized survivors.


Evaluating The Latent Variable Structure Of Episodic Long-Term Memory Abilities, Kyle Featherston 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Evaluating The Latent Variable Structure Of Episodic Long-Term Memory Abilities, Kyle Featherston

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I investigated how recall and recognition differ depending on the nature of the memory items and what one is asked to remember about them. Participants were asked to remember lists of various types of verbal items, including words, nonwords, common first names, and the names of common objects in pictures that they viewed, or to remember the contextual information that accompanied those items, including their size, location, color, or font. Immediately following presentation of each list, free recall or recognition tests for items or context were administered. It has been proposed that memory for context, or source memory, differs from ...


Comparing The Effects Of Mental Workload Between Visual And Auditory Secondary Tasks During Laparoscopy, James P. Corcoran 2019 Old Dominion University

Comparing The Effects Of Mental Workload Between Visual And Auditory Secondary Tasks During Laparoscopy, James P. Corcoran

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to test Wickens’ Multiple Resource Theory (MRT) by comparing performance and subjective workload on a visual-spatial secondary task with an auditory-spatial analog when paired with visual-spatial laparoscopic primary tasks. Two primary tasks were performed with a laparoscopic box trainer: a high workload task that consisted of transferring rings from one peg to another and a low workload task that consisted of grasping and placing large pencil erasers in a bowl. It was predicted that the visual-spatial secondary task would be more sensitive when paired with the laparoscopic primary task than the auditory analog. Findings ...


Whose Drive Is It Anyway? Using Multiple Sequential Drives To Establish Patterns Of Learned Trust, Error Cost, And Non-Active Trust Repair While Considering Daytime And Nighttime Differences As A Proxy For Difficulty, Scott Mishler 2019 Old Dominion University

Whose Drive Is It Anyway? Using Multiple Sequential Drives To Establish Patterns Of Learned Trust, Error Cost, And Non-Active Trust Repair While Considering Daytime And Nighttime Differences As A Proxy For Difficulty, Scott Mishler

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Semi-autonomous driving is a complex task domain with a broad range of problems to consider. The human operator’s role in semi-autonomous driving is crucial because safety and performance depends on how the operator interacts with the system. Drive difficulty has not been extensively studied in automated driving systems and thus is not well understood. Additionally, few studies have studied trust development, decline, or repair over multiple drives for automated driving systems. The goal of this study was to test the effect of perceived driving difficulty on human trust in the automation and how trust is dynamically learned, reduced due ...


Examining Validity Of Aha! Ratings As A Construct Of Insight, Ekaterina Y. Shurkova 2019 Old Dominion University

Examining Validity Of Aha! Ratings As A Construct Of Insight, Ekaterina Y. Shurkova

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Currently, there are two main views on insightful problem solving. Results of the studies supporting “business-as-usual” theory suggest that the processes involved in solving insight problems are the same as in analytical problem solving—slow, controlled, and effortful, while findings of the studies supporting the restructuring theory of insight suggest involvement of fast and automatic, one-trial-learning type of processes. The goal of the current study was to investigate the construct validity of the Aha! ratings, used in many studies as the measure of insight, by isolating its three components, effort, confidence, and suddenness, and examining their correlation with working memory ...


Information Sampling, Judgment And The Environment: Application To The Effect Of Popularity On Evaluations, Gaël LE MENS, Jerker DENRELL, Balázs KOVACS, Hulya KARAMAN 2019 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Information Sampling, Judgment And The Environment: Application To The Effect Of Popularity On Evaluations, Gaël Le Mens, Jerker Denrell, Balázs Kovacs, Hulya Karaman

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

If people avoid alternatives they dislike, a negative evaluative bias emerges because errorsof under-evaluation are unlikely to be corrected. Prior work that analyzed this mechanismhas shown that when the social environment exposes people to avoided alternatives (i.e. itmakes them resample them), then evaluations can become systematically more positive. Inthis paper, we clarify the conditions under which this happens. By analyzing a simplelearning model, we show that whether additional exposures induced by the socialenvironment lead to more positive or more negative evaluations depends on how priorevaluations and the social environment interact in driving resampling. We apply theseinsights to the study ...


Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe 2019 University of Georgia

Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe

Amanda Birnbaum

Self-efficacy theory proposes that girls who have confidence in their capability to be physically active will perceive fewer barriers to physical activity or be less influenced by them, be more likely to pursue perceived benefits of being physically active, and be more likely to enjoy physical activity. Self-efficacy is theorized also to influence physical activity through self-management strategies (e.g., thoughts, goals, plans, and acts) that support physical activity, but this idea has not been empirically tested.


Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Learning Compared To Implicit Grammar Learning In Adults, Leah Brainin, Marc Joanisse 2019 Western University

Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Learning Compared To Implicit Grammar Learning In Adults, Leah Brainin, Marc Joanisse

Western Research Forum

Compared to young children, the language learning process is much more difficult and less successful in adulthood. Little is known about how non-linguistic cognitive processes contribute to these age-dependent differences. We argue that language learning involves both explicit declarative memory processes to learn vocabulary and implicit procedural memory processes to learn grammatical patterns. In this preliminary study, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of declarative versus procedural learning in adults via an artificial language learning task. Participants ages 18 to 29 heard novel singular and plural words associated with images of common objects. The grammar of the language consisted ...


The Role Of Need For Cognition In Creative Thinking Processes, Vignesh Murugavel, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Victoria Kennel 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Role Of Need For Cognition In Creative Thinking Processes, Vignesh Murugavel, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Victoria Kennel

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Expanding on past findings, we examined the effects of need for cognition on different cognitive processes of creative problem-solving. We assessed need for cognition (NFC) and creative abilities of 180 undergraduates in problem construction, idea generation, and idea evaluation tasks. Regression analysis was used to test the effects of NFC on measures of creativity. Our findings indicate that NFC positively relates to the core creative processes of problem construction, idea generation, and idea evaluation. The theoretical and practical implication of our findings are discussed.


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives ...


An Analysis Of Performance-Based Perception In Competitive Baseball Players, Grant Schlimgen, Michael Dodd 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Analysis Of Performance-Based Perception In Competitive Baseball Players, Grant Schlimgen, Michael Dodd

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Abstract: The correlation between performance hitting a baseball and perceived ball size has been described in previous work (Witt & Proffitt, 2005). The article in question used recreational softball players to demonstrate that greater performance led to a perceived change in softball size, but discussed a desire to replicate their experiment with competitive professionals. Using athletes from a semi-collegiate baseball team during their summer season, we were able to find a correlation that although weaker, continues to propagate the relationship found in previous studies. The finding of a weaker relationship also sheds new insight into why elite athletes may fare better ...


Spiritually Focused Mindfulness Meditation: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of The Effect Of Spiritually Focused Mindfulness Meditation On Depression With A Clinical Population, Grace Lynn Bellingham 2019 Liberty University

Spiritually Focused Mindfulness Meditation: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of The Effect Of Spiritually Focused Mindfulness Meditation On Depression With A Clinical Population, Grace Lynn Bellingham

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This interpretative phenomenological analysis explored the use of spiritually focused mindfulness meditation for clinical depression. Although antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioral therapy are the leading evidence-based treatments for clinical depression, major depressive disorder is recurrent, and progressive and relapse rates are increasing. Numerous studies examining the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, which include the use of meditation to treat depression, have emerged in the literature. In this study, three individuals who met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder used spiritually focused mindfulness meditation for three weeks and participated in in-depth interviews to explore their experiences. Findings revealed significant ...


Going To School In The Forest: Changing Evaluations Of Animal-Plant Interactions In The Kichwa Amazon, Jeffrey T. Shenton 2019 Spalding University

Going To School In The Forest: Changing Evaluations Of Animal-Plant Interactions In The Kichwa Amazon, Jeffrey T. Shenton

Journal of Ecological Anthropology

For rural, indigenous communities the ways structural modernization, exposure to Western-scientific epistemologies, and formal schooling affect environmental reasoning remain unclear. For one Kichwa community in the Napo region of Ecuador, daily routines have re-oriented toward formal schooling but environmental learning opportunities remain intact. Here, while a Species Interaction Task elicited consensus across ages on inferred ecological interactions, younger people reasoned differently than older people: for them, animal interactions with flora were considered damaging, not neutral. Aspirational practices like schooling can thus reorient environmental reasoning, even in contexts in which young people share cultural understandings of local ecological relationships with adults.


Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Depression is characterized by altered sensitivity to rewards, with recent evidence suggesting that the ability to sustain responses to rewards across long experimental tasks is diminished. Most work on sustained reward responsiveness has taken a cat- egorical approach and focused on major depressive disorder. However, impairments in reward sensitivity are also found at lower levels of symptom severity and may be relevant for understanding basic mechanisms linking reward processing abnormali- ties to depression. The current study took a dimensional approach to examine the relation between depression symptoms and sustained reward responsiveness by examining how early neural responses to rewards and ...


An Exploration Of The Experience Of Adults With Learning Disabilities Through Art, Adi Greenboim-Zimchoni 2019 Lesley University

An Exploration Of The Experience Of Adults With Learning Disabilities Through Art, Adi Greenboim-Zimchoni

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This study employed arts-based research with phenomenological, qualitative inquiry to understand and explore the perspectives of adults with learning disabilities and their sense of self and support in inclusive and special education classrooms in Israel during their school years. In this study, the researcher attempted to take Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory (1979) one step further by examining the participants’ feelings and relationships with the people in their daily lives during childhood. The researcher met with 12 participants ages 18-31 diagnosed with learning disabilities between third and eleventh grade. Participants created drawings illustrating how they felt about teachers, parents, friends ...


Attitudes Towards Volunteerism And Individuals With Disabilities In High School Students As A Function Of Educational System In South Korea, H Baek, Cheryl L. Dickter 2019 College of William and Mary

Attitudes Towards Volunteerism And Individuals With Disabilities In High School Students As A Function Of Educational System In South Korea, H Baek, Cheryl L. Dickter

Cheryl Dickter

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Experiences Of Latino Community College Students On Academic Probation: A Case Study, Maria P. McPherson 2019 Concordia University - Portland

Understanding The Experiences Of Latino Community College Students On Academic Probation: A Case Study, Maria P. Mcpherson

Ed.D. Dissertations

The academic standards and policies of institutions of higher education consider student underachievement, among the other aspects of education. Academic standing addresses the probation status designed to intervene and inform students who are unable to meet certain academic institutional standards. However, there is a lack of research discussing the experiences of community college students on academic probation (AP). This qualitative case study explored the perceptions of Latino college students experiences with AP at a large community college on the west coast of the United States. Specifically, the transitions of Latino students to college as previous studies have demonstrated that their ...


Men And Masculinity: How The Brain And Heart Respond To Shame, Christopher Spromberg 2019 George Fox University

Men And Masculinity: How The Brain And Heart Respond To Shame, Christopher Spromberg

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

This dissertation examined the influence that level of adherence to traditionally masculine gender values, norms, and beliefs has on how men cognitively and physiologically respond to a shame based projective measure. A 2-stage study was used. In the first stage 208 undergraduate men responded to the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI; Mahalik, Burns, & Syzdek, 2007). Utilizing the total masculinity score from the CMNI, quartiles were constructed. The two extreme quartiles comprised 2 groups; most traditionally conforming (TMASC) and most non-traditionally conforming (NTMASC) to masculinity norms. Men from these groups (TMASC n = 11; NTMASC n = 13) were invited into the 2nd stage during which physiological measures were recorded while they viewed and responded to the Thurston-Cradock Test of Shame (TCTS ...


A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Connectionism is an approach to neural-networks-based cognitive modeling that encompasses the recent deep learning movement in artificial intelligence. It came of age in the 1980s, with its roots in cybernetics and earlier attempts to model the brain as a system of simple parallel processors. Connectionist models center on statistical inference within neural networks with empirically learnable parameters, which can be represented as graphical models. More recent approaches focus on learning and inference within hierarchical generative models. Contra influential and ongoing critiques, I argue in this dissertation that the connectionist approach to cognitive science possesses in principle (and, as is becoming ...


Cognitive, Behavioral, And Situational Influences On Relapse To Smoking After Group Treatment For Tobacco Dependence, Sara E. Lunden, Jami C. Pittman, Neelam Prashad, Ria Malhotra, Christine Sheffer 2019 CUNY City College

Cognitive, Behavioral, And Situational Influences On Relapse To Smoking After Group Treatment For Tobacco Dependence, Sara E. Lunden, Jami C. Pittman, Neelam Prashad, Ria Malhotra, Christine Sheffer

Publications and Research

Socioeconomic disparities in treatment failure rates for evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment are well-established. Adapted cognitive behavioral treatments are extensively tailored to meet the needs of lower socioeconomic status (SES) smokers and dramatically improve early treatment success, but there is little understanding of why treatment failure occurs after a longer period of abstinence than with standard treatment, why early treatment success is not sustained, and why long-term treatment failure rates are no different from standard treatments. We sought to understand the causes of treatment failure from the perspective of diverse participants who relapsed after receiving standard or adapted treatment in a ...


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