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Service Dogs And Veterans: A Systematic Review, Madelyn Slaton-Sanford, Allison Hance 2019 Carroll College

Service Dogs And Veterans: A Systematic Review, Madelyn Slaton-Sanford, Allison Hance

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Since 2001, 2.7 million service members have served in Iraq and Afghanistan (Brown University, 2015). Approximately 11%-20% of veterans return home and are diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Powderhouse, 2017). With a large population suffering from PTSD, the United States Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is battling the necessity to provide coping mechanisms for veterans in need. Treatments include Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET), Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and medication. But these treatments are not “one size fits all.” In other words, some veterans are struggling to cope with PTSD regardless of their ...


Effect Of Mild Stress On Memory Retention, Emma Nylin, Hailey Vietz, Cameron Herriges, Joshua Plafcan, Keely Mills 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Mild Stress On Memory Retention, Emma Nylin, Hailey Vietz, Cameron Herriges, Joshua Plafcan, Keely Mills

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Numerous studies have shown the effects of how stress impacts memory, especially in clinical setting. However, less is known about how minor changes in stress can influence learning and memory. The current study looked at how self-report measures of stress can influence learning behavior. The current study used 55 participants from the General Psychology class at Carroll College. There was no significant difference between the total number of correct responses on factual questions between low stress and moderate to high stress. There was also no significant difference between the total number of correct responses on conceptual questions between low stress ...


The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956) claims that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently. Language-thought interaction is likely to be more complex in bilinguals because they have two languages that could influence their cognitive and perceptual processes.Lupyan’s (2012) Label-feedback Hypothesis proposes a mechanism underpinning language-thought interactions, arguingthat linguistic labels affect our conceptual and perceptual representations through top-down feedback.This thesis tested the Label-feedback Hypothesis by capitalizing on an interesting feature of Chinese. In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories (an exception issunflower), whereas in Chinese, some nouns provide ...


The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino 2019 University of Lynchburg

The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

With the increasing use of social media in the daily lives of undergraduate college students, it is important to investigate the effects of social media on psychological well-being and cognitive function. Lillard and Peterson (2011) found that overstimulating children’s televisions shows, such as SpongeBob, negatively impacted children’s impulsive behaviors and attention. The current research focused on emerging adults and considered the effect of overstimulation of social media, specifically Instagram, on anxiety level, self-esteem, fear of missing out (FoMo), and memory. Participants were randomly assigned into either the control (coloring on an Ipad) or experimental (Instagram stimulation) group and ...


The Effects Of Relationships On Ans Function And Wellness, Olivia M. Maples 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Relationships On Ans Function And Wellness, Olivia M. Maples

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The quality of relationships and social networks plays a vital role on well-being (Feeney & Collins, 2015). Social support is linked to positive biological profiles in that social support protects against the negative effects of changes in cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and immune function. Furthermore, when exploring Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) function, higher heart rate variability has been shown to reflect a psychophysiological state compatible with social interaction (Quintana, Guastella, Outhred, Hickie, & Kemp, 2012). Social support has been shown to buffer against the negative effects of life stressors (Cohen & Wills, 1985), and ultimately, mortality (Holt-Lunstad, Smith, & Layton, 2010). In summary, social relationships are ...


The Limits Of Sociality, Johnna B. McGovern 2019 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Limits Of Sociality, Johnna B. Mcgovern

Theses

There is a longstanding tradition in Western philosophy of emphasizing the capacity for reflection in theories about humans’ characteristic nature. In Talking to Ourselves: Reflection, Ignorance, and Agency, John Doris attempts to shift the focus to an emphasis on human sociality. Particularly, Doris argues that sociality, both implicitly and in the form of collaborative reasoning, is what makes humans best equipped for moral improvement. This collaborativism possesses a defining role in his account of agency and responsibility. This thesis attempts to gain an understanding of how sociality affects moral behavior and to argue that it is not conducive to agency ...


The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker 2019 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker

Theses

Abstract

Many attempts have been made by philosophers, political activists, psychologists, historians, social advocates, and others to explain the mechanisms at play in the perpetuation and resulting manifestations of systemic and institutional racism. On one side of the debate there lies a theory that there is an epistemic failure at the root of racial bias towards Blacks, white ignorance, a collective amnesia regarding what has and does take place in society, as it pertains to their oppression and isolation, like the view of philosopher Charles W. Mills. According to Mills, this type of ignorance, or non-knowing, is a cognitive phenomenon ...


Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley 2019 Western Michigan University

Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley

Honors Theses

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a learning disability that is very prevalent in today’s society. A closer look at this disability reveals that there are differences with males and females with regards to how the symptoms manifest. Females have a tendency to exhibit inattention whereas males are often hyperactive, which is much more obvious to others around them. This difference in symptoms has led to a drastic difference in terms of how ADHD is diagnosed and causes it to be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in females compared to males. The consequences that this delayed diagnosis may have on females can ...


Verbatim And Gist Extraction Among University Colleges, Ashley McMillon 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Verbatim And Gist Extraction Among University Colleges, Ashley Mcmillon

Undergraduate Research Conference

Fuzzy Trace Theory (FTT) posits that individuals use two different cognitive processes in encoding, storing, and retrieving information. One process (verbatim) encodes the details of the information, applying cost/benefit analysis when used for a decision. The other process (gist) encodes relational information extracted from the information and uses more intuition when applied to decisions. Often, use of one process over another can lead to different decisions. Further, there exists individual differences in the skill and preference for using these processes.

The current study examined whether differences in verbatim, and gist skill or preference would vary by university college (STEM ...


Time-Shifted Rationality And The Law Of Law's Leverage: Behavioral Economics Meets Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones 2019 Selected Works

Time-Shifted Rationality And The Law Of Law's Leverage: Behavioral Economics Meets Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

A flood of recent scholarship explores legal implications of seemingly irrational behaviors by invoking cognitive psychology and notions of bounded rationality. In this article, I argue that advances in behavioral biology have largely overtaken existing notions of bounded rationality, revealing them to be misleadingly imprecise - and rooted in outdated assumptions that are not only demonstrably wrong, but also wrong in ways that have material implications for subsequent legal conclusions. This can be remedied. Specifically, I argue that behavioral biology offers three things of immediate use. First, behavioral biology can lay a foundation for both revising bounded rationality and fashioning a ...


The Art Of Learning, Richard Rolapp 2019 Brigham Young University

The Art Of Learning, Richard Rolapp

Marriott Student Review

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Stress And Anxiety On A Cued Attention Task, Catalina L. Gonzalez 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Stress And Anxiety On A Cued Attention Task, Catalina L. Gonzalez

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Previous research has shown visual attention tasks like the Infant Orienting With Attention (IOWA) Task are effective in identifying individual differences in spatial attention (Ross-Sheehy et al., 2015). Given visual attention is influenced by factors like stress/anxiety (Grillon et al, 2016) it may be possible to use attention tasks to identify participants high in stress and/or anxiety. Fifty-four adults completed a modified version of the IOWA task. Participants then completed the Perceived Stress Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory, and were divided into three groups: Low_Stress/Low_Anxiety (LSLA), High_Stress/Low_Anxiety (HSLA), and High_Stress/High_Anxiety (HSHA). A Condition x Stress ...


Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar 2019 Western Michigan University

Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar

Honors Theses

Abstract

Compliance behaviors occurring prior to the delivery of an instruction, such as handing over preferred items, making eye contact, and folding hands in the ready position help prepare students for success in discrete-trial training (DTT) interventions. These behaviors are usually taught in early intervention with a continuous reinforcement schedule, but once they are mastered, they are rarely revisited or maintained. Without intermittent reinforcement of these behaviors, they are likely to decrease in frequency and may lead to the use of restrictive or intrusive methods to gain compliance during DTT sessions. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants design ...


Individual Differences In The Formation Of Cognitive Maps Based On Different Environments, Iuliia Kositcina 2019 Western University

Individual Differences In The Formation Of Cognitive Maps Based On Different Environments, Iuliia Kositcina

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Individual differences in the ability to build a mental cognitive map of an unfamiliar environment have been studied using both real-world environments (e.g., Ishikawa & Montello, 2006) and virtual environments (VEs) such as Silcton (Weisberg et al., 2014). The current study investigated whether the accuracy of a person’s cognitive map of their real-world, familiar environment was associated with the cognitive map they formed of an unfamiliar virtual environment in the lab. Forty-nine female undergraduate students provided frequently visited locations in their city of residence and explored the Silcton VE. They then completed direction estimation tasks that assessed the accuracy ...


Influence Of Mood On Language Use In Dyadic Social Interaction, Avery Keith 2019 Western University

Influence Of Mood On Language Use In Dyadic Social Interaction, Avery Keith

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

This study investigated how individuals’ mood influences changes in spoken language during dyadic social interaction. Twenty-eight female undergraduate students completed mood assessments, a self-monitoring questionnaire, and viewed a short film clip that induced them into either a positive, negative, or neutral mood. Each dyad engaged in a conversation that was audio-recorded. Participants’ use of affect and positive emotional words was associated with the corresponding usage of their conversational partner, suggesting that speakers mimicked their partners’ language style. Speakers also used higher emotional tone in their first minute of speech after conversing with someone in a positive mood, suggesting participants’ mood ...


Moving To The Head Of The Class: Exam Study Decisions When Courses Grade On A Curve, Lindsay Chassay 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Moving To The Head Of The Class: Exam Study Decisions When Courses Grade On A Curve, Lindsay Chassay

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Moving to the Head of the Class: Exam Study Decisions When Courses Grade on a Curve

Lindsay Chassay, Kevin L. Kenney, & Gary L. Brase

Department of Psychological Sciences

College of Arts and Sciences

Poor grades may result in lost scholarships, academic probation, or even removal from school. Aside from intellectual ability, course grades are the result of many decisions during a semester, including when and how to study for exams. This experiment investigated how students make decisions when their course grade is either based on set performance standards or on their performance relative to their classmates (i.e., curved”). Because grades are confidential, an individual student cannot be certain of their relative rank in a pure curved grading situation, meaning that any goal to achieve a certain letter grade is inherently fuzzy. Seventy-eight Kansas State University students (55 women, 23 men; Mage = 20.0 years, SDage = 2.6 years) participated in this online study for partial credit towards a psychology course requirement. Participants were randomly assigned to make studying decisions in a imagined class with either a normally-distributed (curved) grading distribution or a block (set threshold) grading distribution. Participants then completed 21 trials of a decision under risk task of choosing between studying for an exam or going out with friends. Each trial presented a choice between a ...


The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman 2019 Montclair State University

The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman

Cary Federman

The purpose of this essay is to examine the discourses that surrounded the life of Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of President William McKinley. The gaps in Czolgosz’s life, his peculiar silences, his poor health and the ambiguity and thinness of his confession, rather than taken as instances of mental and physical distress, have, instead, been understood as signs of a revolutionary anarchistic assassin. Czolgosz is an expression of a cultural tradition in somatic form. I argue that the discursive construction of criminality, already present in the late nineteenth century within the medical and human sciences, is what shaped Czolgosz ...


Analyzing Lynch’S City Imageability In The Digital Age, Mahbubur Meenar, Nader Afzalan, Amir Hajrasouliha 2019 Rowan University

Analyzing Lynch’S City Imageability In The Digital Age, Mahbubur Meenar, Nader Afzalan, Amir Hajrasouliha

Amir Hajrasouliha

This paper explores the role of virtual mapping environments in analyzing people’s perception of spaces and their implications
in planning. We examine how people interpret Kevin Lynch’s “city imageability” in the digital age by asking two questions: (1)
how can we create mental images of city elements by using virtual versus physical environments? (2) What are the strengths
and weaknesses of each method? We studied sixty-eight mental maps—created by thirty-four participants—identifying five
factors for disagreements on city elements: scale, eye level, details, accuracy/timeliness, and sensory/movement. We conclude
by suggesting how practitioners can take a ...


Cbt Plus Humor-Based Psychology Interventions: A Review Of The Research, Rachel Thompson 2019 Western Kentucky University

Cbt Plus Humor-Based Psychology Interventions: A Review Of The Research, Rachel Thompson

Psychology Capstone Projects

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated to be one of the most popular and useful psychological interventions used today (Ellis & Harper,1975; Bredemeier, Beck, & Grant, 2018; Jaya, Ascone, & Lincoln, 2018). However, a limitation of CBT is that it pathologizes behavior. Positive psychology is a supplementary theory that focuses on increasing positive emotions during psychological interventions and does not pathologize behavior. A limitation of studying positive emotions is due to the overlapping relationships between positive emotions. Positive emotions are highly related and are difficult to measure individually as opposed to negative emotions. Humor, amusement/mirth, is an observable positive emotion. Humor is a distinct ...


The Impact Of Guided Pretend Play On Preschool Children's Theory Of Mind, Valerie P. Bambha 2019 College of William and Mary

The Impact Of Guided Pretend Play On Preschool Children's Theory Of Mind, Valerie P. Bambha

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Theory of mind is a cognitive skill that allows us to recognize that others hold representations of the world that are separate from our own. This capability is measured in children through the false belief task, which most cannot successfully complete until age four. This finding has been taken to mean that children younger than four have difficulty reasoning about the perspectives of other people, a surprising claim given that at age two they begin to partake in pretend play that appears to involve adopting the persona of invented characters. The current study investigated whether pretend play could act as ...


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