Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cognitive Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,441 Full-Text Articles 4,525 Authors 1,254,560 Downloads 215 Institutions

All Articles in Cognitive Psychology

Faceted Search

3,441 full-text articles. Page 129 of 130.

Investigating Familiarity's Contribution To Source Recognition, Matthew V. Mollison 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Investigating Familiarity's Contribution To Source Recognition, Matthew V. Mollison

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In a dual-process framework, two processes are involved in successful recognition memory: recollection involves the retrieval of specific information from the study episode, and familiarity supports recognition without remembering additional episodic details. The differences between these processes have been examined using patterns of activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) correlated with behavior. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these recognition memory processes, specifically with an early (approximately 300-500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later parietal (500-800 ms) effect relating to recognition. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when ...


The Relationship Between Individual Differences In Working Memory And Filtering Task-Irrelevant Information, In Children And Adults, Maria Kharitonova 2010 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Relationship Between Individual Differences In Working Memory And Filtering Task-Irrelevant Information, In Children And Adults, Maria Kharitonova

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

We are constantly bombarded with myriad pieces of information, of which only a portion is directly relevant to our immediate experiences. What determines how much irrelevant information we filter, and how quickly we can adjust the amount of filtering? This dissertation explores the possibility that working memory (WM), an ability to actively maintain task-relevant information, plays a critical role in dynamically adjusting filtering strategy, based on task demands. High filtering could result from upregulating top-down control, leading to processing only the task-relevant information. Low filtering could result from loosening this control, to allow for a larger amount of information to ...


Theta Oscillations In Top-Down Control Of Episodic Memory Retrieval, Erika Marie Nyhus 2010 University of Colorado, Boulder

Theta Oscillations In Top-Down Control Of Episodic Memory Retrieval, Erika Marie Nyhus

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The right prefrontal cortex and left parietal cortex have been implicated in the cognitive control of episodic memory retrieval. In addition, the relationship between executive function tasks and episodic retrieval indicate that they both depend on similar cognitive control processes. We recently proposed that theta oscillations represent interactions between brain systems for the control of episodic retrieval (reviewed in Nyhus & Curran, 2010). Top-down control of episodic retrieval is generally greater during source retrieval (e.g. retrieving contextual information such as the gender of the voice a word was studied in) than during item retrieval (e.g. retrieving whether a word ...


Stalking Myth Acceptance: An Investigaton Of Attitudinal Constructs Associated With Gender Differences In Judgments Of Intimate Stalking, Emily Elizabeth Dunlap 2010 University of Kentucky

Stalking Myth Acceptance: An Investigaton Of Attitudinal Constructs Associated With Gender Differences In Judgments Of Intimate Stalking, Emily Elizabeth Dunlap

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Emerging research has shown that women and men perceive criminal stalking differently, yet there is little research addressing why these differences exist. For example, mock juror research on intimate stalking has found that men are more likely than women to render lenient judgments (e.g., not-guilty verdicts). Understanding the underlying attitudes associated with differences in how men and women interpret whether certain behaviors would cause reasonable fear is crucial to an evaluation of current anti-stalking legislation. The primary goals of this research were: (1) to examine the extent to which beliefs that support stalking (i.e., stalking myth acceptance – SMA ...


When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell 2010 University of Kentucky

When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The present experiment investigated the role of gender stereotypes in cases in which a battered person kills his or her abuser. Regression analysis revealed an overall gender bias such that mock jurors were more likely to convict a man defendant who had killed his abusive wife than they were when a woman defendant who had killed her husband. Mediational analyses indicated that the relationship between abuser gender and verdict was partially mediated by sympathy toward the victim, and fully mediated by sympathy toward the defendant. Regression analysis also revealed an effect of abuser height, such that conviction rates were higher ...


Long-Term Effects Of Testing On The Recall Of Nontested Materials, Jason C.K. Chan 2010 Iowa State University

Long-Term Effects Of Testing On The Recall Of Nontested Materials, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Testing, or memory retrieval, is a powerful way to enhance long-term retention of studied material. Recent studies have shown that testing can also benefit later retention of related but nontested material (a finding known as retrieval-induced facilitation, Chan, McDermott, & Roediger, 2006), but the long-term consequences of this benefit is unknown. In the current experiment three retention intervals—20 minutes, 24 hours, 7 days—were used to assess the effects of testing on subsequent recall of the nontested material. The results indicate that the magnitude of retrieval-induced facilitation, like that of the testing effect (i.e., the memorial benefit of testing ...


A Conceptual Guide To Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Sarah Cover, Medha Tare, Judy Diamond 2010 University of Michigan

A Conceptual Guide To Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Sarah Cover, Medha Tare, Judy Diamond

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to profile natural history museum visitors’ reasoning about the evolution of seven organisms featured in Explore Evolution, an NSF funded exhibition. Seven current research studies on evolution were exhibited; each targeted different organisms: HIV, diatoms, ant/fungus, Hawaiian flies, Galapagos finches, humans/chimps, and fossilized whales. The exhibits illustrated a common set of evolutionary principles, variation, inheritance, selection, time, and adaptation, in diverse organisms.

Method: As part of the front-end evaluation, 32 museum visitors were interviewed and asked to explain evolutionary change in the seven organisms, though the term evolution was not mentioned ...


A Conceptual Guide To Natural History Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy N. Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Medha Tare, Sarah Thompson, Judy Diamond 2010 University of Michigan

A Conceptual Guide To Natural History Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy N. Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Medha Tare, Sarah Thompson, Judy Diamond

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Museum visitors are an ideal population for assessing the persistence of the conceptual barriers that make it difficult to grasp Darwinian evolutionary theory. In comparison with other members of the public, they are more likely to be interested in natural history, have higher education levels, and be exposed to the relevant content. If museum visitors do not grasp evolutionary principles, it seems unlikely that other members of the general public would do so. In the current study, 32 systematically selected visitors to three Midwest museums of natural history provided detailed open-ended explanations of biological change in seven diverse organisms. They ...


The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Whether we are learning how to play a new instrument, song, or even learn a second language, the nervous system relies on various forms of sensory feedback to establish task-specific sensorimotor representations. Over time, the plasticity of the nervous system permits neural reorganization and the formation of an ‘internal model’. It has been suggested that internal models represent neural maps of skilled movement that store the relationship between the motor commands, environment and sensory feedback responsible for their production. These internal representations are often investigated by altering a particular aspect of the sensory feedback associated with a given task. Arguably ...


The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman 2010 Wayne State University

The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman

Wayne State University Dissertations

While research into the role of semantic structure in the recognition of written and spoken words has grown, it has not looked specifically at the role of conversational context on the recognition of isolated words. This study was a corpus-based and behavioral exploration of a new semantic variable - sociality - and used on-line behavioral testing to obtain new word recognition data using the visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. The results consistently demonstrated that sociality is one of the most robust predictors of lexical decision performance. Overall, it appears that the visual lexical decision task is quite sensitive to the likelihood ...


C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle 2010 Wayne State University

C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle

Wayne State University Dissertations

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) have received a great deal of attention as biomarkers for the development of cardiovascular disease. Their utility in predicting cognitive function has also been assessed, though the findings are equivocal. The current study examined the relationship between elevated blood levels of CRP and Hcy and their effect on cognition across several cognitive domains. As baseline blood levels of CRP and Hcy and cognition are in part regulated by genetic factors, the impact of T carrier status for variants in the CRP -286 C>T>A and the MTHFR 677C>T ...


Investigating The Relationship Between Motor Resonance And Nonconscious Mimicry, Jeremy Hogeveen 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Investigating The Relationship Between Motor Resonance And Nonconscious Mimicry, Jeremy Hogeveen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Motor resonance refers to the mirroring of observed actions in one’s own motor system. It is possible that motor resonance is the neural mechanism underlying nonconscious mimicry (NCM)—the ubiquitous phenomenon wherein people mimic the behaviour of interaction partners (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). Previous research has shown that priming interdependent selfconstrual (interSC) increases mimicry (van Baaren et al., 2003). If motor resonance is the mechanism underlying NCM, then a manipulation known to facilitate mimicry (i.e. interSC) should increase motor resonance. In experiment one, we variably primed independent selfconstrual (indSC)—known to inhibit mimicryv—and interSC in a motor priming ...


The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated whether recognition memory requires two retrieval processes (i.e., familiarity and recognition) as stated by the Dual process theory or requires one retrieval process (i.e., familiarity) as stated by the Single process theory. The first experiment investigated the effects of A-B, A-C, A-D-, A-E interference on both word and picture pair recognition. As expected, it was found that a picture superiority effect was present in the baseline condition, but was reduced in the interference condition. Moreover, in the baseline condition, a non-mirror pattern (i.e., hits higher for picture pairs, but false alarm rates were the ...


A Differential Deficit In Time- Versus Event-Based Prospective Memory In Parkinson's Disease, Sarah Raskin, Stephen Paul Woods, Amelia Poquette, April McTaggart, Jim Sethna, Rebecca Williams, Alexander Troster 2010 Trinity College

A Differential Deficit In Time- Versus Event-Based Prospective Memory In Parkinson's Disease, Sarah Raskin, Stephen Paul Woods, Amelia Poquette, April Mctaggart, Jim Sethna, Rebecca Williams, Alexander Troster

Faculty Scholarship

Objective: The aim of the current study was to clarify the nature and extent of impairment in time- versus
event-based prospective memory in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prospective memory is thought to involve
cognitive processes that are mediated by prefrontal systems and are executive in nature. Given that
individuals with PD frequently show executive dysfunction, it is important to determine whether these
individuals may have deficits in prospective memory that could impact daily functions, such as taking
medications. Although it has been reported that individuals with PD evidence impairment in prospective
memory, it is still unclear whether they show a ...


Aging And Cognitive Control: Discriminating Stimulus From Response Deficits Of Attention, Kathryn A. Holt 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

Aging And Cognitive Control: Discriminating Stimulus From Response Deficits Of Attention, Kathryn A. Holt

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Feeling Of Knowing And Retrieval Failure: Tip-Of-The-Tongue State Is Not The Only Option, Amanda C. Gingerich 2010 Butler University

Feeling Of Knowing And Retrieval Failure: Tip-Of-The-Tongue State Is Not The Only Option, Amanda C. Gingerich

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We investigated whether individuals are able to differentiate being in a tip-of-the-tongue state from the metacognitive experience of knowing information, but being unable to recall it. Results indicate that being unable to recall known information is separate from, and more common than, experiencing a tip-of-the-tongue state.


The Effect Of Initial Entry Training On The Moral And Character Development Of Military Police Soldiers, Kenneth R. Williams 2010 Walden University

The Effect Of Initial Entry Training On The Moral And Character Development Of Military Police Soldiers, Kenneth R. Williams

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The U.S. Army conducts extensive training on its core values beginning with initial entry training (IET), commonly referred to as basic training, in order to shape soldiers' behavior and decision making in combat and noncombat situations. This mixed methods study addressed the problem of limited empirical research on the effects of U.S. Army IET on soldiers' moral and character development. The purpose was to explore the effects of Military Police (MP) IET on soldiers in training through a mixed methods quantitative and qualitative model. The theoretical framework for this study was based on Rest's four component model ...


Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning 2010 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study compared children's (N=96, mean age 4;1, range 2;8-5;3) and adults' (N=96, mean age 21 years) tolerance of word-onset modifications (e.g., wabbit and warabbit) and pseudo affixes (e.g., kocat and catko) in a label extension task. Trials comprised an introductory phase where children saw a picture of an animal and were told its name, and a test phase where they were shown the same picture along with one of a different animal. For `similar-name' trials, participants heard a word-form modification of the previously introduced name (e.g., introduced to a dib ...


The Experiences Of Incarceration On Indigenous Parents And Primary Care-Givers Of Juvenile Detainees, Simone Reid 2010 Edith Cowan University

The Experiences Of Incarceration On Indigenous Parents And Primary Care-Givers Of Juvenile Detainees, Simone Reid

Theses : Honours

Incarceration impacts on a number of people, not just the person sentenced. It has been suggested that the family of the prisoner can experience the prison sentence just as much, albeit differently, as the prisoner themself. Families remain important, as those prisoners who return to strong family networks are at less risk of recidivism. National research has been used to inform policy-makers, but every State has unique characteristics. The overrepresentation of Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal juveniles in juvenile detention, especially in Western Australia, has been well-documented. However, research examining the experiences of incarceration on family members is limited. This ...


Autonomy Support In Australian Higher Education: A Review Of Contextual And Situational Applications Of Self-Determination Theory, Nicolas Connault 2010 Edith Cowan University

Autonomy Support In Australian Higher Education: A Review Of Contextual And Situational Applications Of Self-Determination Theory, Nicolas Connault

Theses : Honours

Self-Determination Theory (SDT, Deci & Ryan, 2000) is a macro-theory of motivation that has received much support from empirical research in the last twenty years. One of its main tenets is that the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs-autonomy, competence and relatedness-is universally required for the attainment of optimal psychological well-being, health, growth and self-determined behaviour. Higher education in Australia, through its outcomes-based approach to academic success, is not typically designed to promote student autonomy. Self-Determination Theory posits that promoting students' autonomy should lead to better quality of learning, higher intrinsic motivation to study, lower attrition and enhanced subjective well-being. A ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress