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The Effects Of Historical Alcohol Use On Neuropsychological Functioning In Older Adults Following A Traumatic Brain Injury, Ryan Sever 2019 National Louis University

The Effects Of Historical Alcohol Use On Neuropsychological Functioning In Older Adults Following A Traumatic Brain Injury, Ryan Sever

Dissertations

The present study aimed to determine the effects of alcohol abuse and dependence in long term functioning of older adults who have experienced a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The research question being answered in the current study was if a history of alcohol abuse or dependence would worsen neuropsychological functioning in older adults who experienced at least one moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Participants of the study were selected from the more extensive database provided by the Brain Aging in Vietnam War Veterans (DOD-ADNI) database. All participants were Vietnam War veterans between the ages of 61 and ...


Heroic Consciousness, Scott T. Allison 2019 University of Richmond

Heroic Consciousness, Scott T. Allison

Heroism Science

This article describes heroic consciousness – how heroes perceive, experience, and think about the world. I describe the transformation of consciousness from its pre-heroic state to its heroic state. Pre-heroic consciousness is characterized by nescient and maladaptive thinking, dualism, separation, mono-rationality, and a naïve sense of empowerment. Heroic consciousness is exemplified by nondualism, unity, transrationality, and the wisdom of tempered empowerment. Heroic consciousness is achieved via three routes: (1) traversing the hero’s journey, (2) effective use of specific spiritual practices, and/or (3) participation in hero training programs. I discuss the implications of heroic consciousness for individual and global well-being.


Derivational Development: Derivational Word Processing In Three English-Speaking Populations, Lisa Suzanne Kemp 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Derivational Development: Derivational Word Processing In Three English-Speaking Populations, Lisa Suzanne Kemp

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Native-English speaking adults use morphological decomposition to understand complex words (e.g. farmer becomes farm-er). Whether decomposition is driven by semantic organization is still unclear. It is also unclear whether ESL adults and elementary age children use the same word processing strategies as native speaking adults. This study tested an identical experimental procedure across three English-speaking populations: native speaking adults, non-native speaking adults and elementary age children. The first task tested how readers use base and suffix information in complex words and nonwords when the word featured only a base word, only a suffix, both a base and a ...


Memory-Guided Selective Attention: An Instance Theory Of Automatic Attentional Control, Nicholaus Paul Brosowsky 2019 The Graduate Center of the City University of New York

Memory-Guided Selective Attention: An Instance Theory Of Automatic Attentional Control, Nicholaus Paul Brosowsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control enables flexible goal-directed behavior via attention and action selection processes that prioritize goal-relevant over irrelevant information. These processes allow us to behave flexibly in the face of contradicting or ambiguous information and update behavior in response to the changing environment. Furthermore, they are thought to be in direct opposition to learned, automatic processing in that they enable us to disregard learned behaviors when they are inconsistent with our current goals. The strict dichotomy between stimulus-driven and goal-driven influences, however, has downplayed the role of memory in guiding attention. The position forwarded in this thesis is that a memory-based ...


The Use Of Infographics To Assess Context Processing, Beliz Hazan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Use Of Infographics To Assess Context Processing, Beliz Hazan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Among high-order cognitive functions is the use of context to enhance comprehension of language or visual scenes. Although use of context is known to be impaired in certain clinical populations (e.g., schizophrenia), no existing test adequately assesses this construct. To fill this gap, we developed and attempted to validate a test of context use that employed Infographics (information graphics), which requires the use of context to interpret visual displays. The primary hypothesis was that interpreting Infographics would be sensitive to context processing. We further hypothesized that different levels of cognitive processing (requiring basic perceptual, real-world application, or verbal reasoning ...


The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh 2019 CUNY John Jay College

The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh

Student Theses

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be an unreliable form of evidence (Loftus, Miller & Burns, 1978; Oswald & Coleman, 2007; Wells & Hasel, 2007; Loftus & Greenspan, 2017; Jaross, 2018; Wade, Nash, & Lindsay, 2018; Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher, 2018). Yet, this evidence is still used in the courts today, and, in fact, is perceived by jurors as important and compelling in comparison to other case factors (e.g., character evidence, physical evidence; Topp-Manriquez, McQuiston, & Malpass, 2014; Kabzińska, 2015). Additionally, eyewitnesses are sometimes requested to help create a facial composite of the suspect and, critically, these composites are then used as evidence during the trial. In addition to the confidence of the eyewitness and the presentation of the evidence (i.e., defense or prosecution), the present research examines how facial composites influence the decision-making process on the part of jurors. Overall, the present results suggest that there is a significant difference in ...


The Effect Of Peer Collaboration On Kinematic Problem Solving, Alyssa DeRonda 2019 Seton Hall University

The Effect Of Peer Collaboration On Kinematic Problem Solving, Alyssa Deronda

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Kinematic problems, a type of physics problem that involves object motion, pose a challenge for adults (Caramazza, McCloskey, & Green, 1981; Kozhevnikov, Motes, & Hegarty, 2007; McCloskey, 1983b; McCloskey, Washburn, & Felch, 1983). Adults often incorrectly predict the path of a moving object despite having prior experience with moving objects or formal physics education (Caramazza et al., 1981; Kaiser, Jonides, & Alexander, 1986). One way to improve kinematic problem solving may be through peer collaboration. Working together with a partner to solve a problem allows both people to help each other remember important parts of a complex problem and discuss different perspectives (Dimant & Bearison, 1991; Fawcett & Garton, 2005; Kozhevnikov & Thornton, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978). The current study investigated whether peer collaboration can improve kinematic problem solving by evaluating adults’ performance on near and far transfer tasks after completing kinematic practice problems. Of special interest was the use of spatially-oriented language. Participants were assigned to one of three practice conditions: Collaborative, Alone-Talk, or Alone-Quiet. Results showed that peer collaboration did not affect performance on practice problems or near and far transfer tasks. However, analysis of ...


Firearm Availability And Storage Practices Among Military Personnel Who Have Thought About Suicide, Craig J. Bryan, AnnaBelle O. Bryan, Michael D. Anestis, Lauren Khazem, Julia Harris, Alexis May, Cynthia Thomsen 2019 University of Utah

Firearm Availability And Storage Practices Among Military Personnel Who Have Thought About Suicide, Craig J. Bryan, Annabelle O. Bryan, Michael D. Anestis, Lauren Khazem, Julia Harris, Alexis May, Cynthia Thomsen

Faculty Publications

More than 60% of US military suicides occur at home and involve a firearm. Nearly all military firearm suicides (95%) involve a personally owned firearm. Nonmilitary data indicate that the risk of suicide is 6 times higher in households with a firearm, although this risk may be reduced if the firearms are kept unloaded and/or locked. Because attempts using firearms have very high fatality rates, safe firearm storage practices could be an important component of comprehensive suicide prevention in the military. This study examined associations of firearm ownership and storage practices with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among military personnel.


Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adults struggle with learning language components involving categorical relations such as grammar while achieving higher proficiency in vocabulary. The cognitive and neural mechanisms modulating this learning difference remain unclear. The present thesis investigated behavioural and neural differences between vocabulary and grammar processing in adults using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Participants took part in an artificial language learning paradigm consisting of novel singular and plural words paired with images of common objects. Findings revealed higher accuracy scores and faster response times on semantic vocabulary judgement trials compared to grammar judgement trials. Singular vocabulary judgement was associated with neural activity in part ...


Arousal And Anxiety Level Influences On Golf Putting Performance, Chloe Paulsen, Ryan Yoder 2019 Coastal Carolina University

Arousal And Anxiety Level Influences On Golf Putting Performance, Chloe Paulsen, Ryan Yoder

Honors Theses

Arousal levels can help and hinder performance in various sports and many athletes manipulate arousal levels during practice or competitions. Professional golfers typically putt in complete silence but studies have shown that stimulus can help performance. Twelve participants completed general and sport anxiety questionnaires before completing 3 golf putts at a target under 30 seconds with a music stimulus for each group. Music stimulus had an affect on the moderate arousal level groups showing the best performance with the slowest time to complete the putting task. This shows that putting may be performed better with moderate auditory arousal to produce ...


Domestic Violence, Cognition And The Church, Melissa Ponce-Rodas, Karl Bailey 2019 Andrews University

Domestic Violence, Cognition And The Church, Melissa Ponce-Rodas, Karl Bailey

Karl Bailey

Recognizing and building upon the advances the church has made, regarding raising awareness of DV as a problem for our members and our congregations, this session will utilize a cognitive model to inform next steps to inform behavioral change efforts. A multi-step model, building on current change efforts in our churches and communities, will be discussed.


Exploring The Moderating Effect Of Maternal Scaffolding On The Temperament - Language Development Relationship, Chelsea L. Robertson 2019 East Tennessee State University

Exploring The Moderating Effect Of Maternal Scaffolding On The Temperament - Language Development Relationship, Chelsea L. Robertson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have examined the relationship between a child’s temperament and its effect on his or her early language development. However, few studies have investigated the detrimental effects a child’s negative affectivity may have on their language development and potential ways these effects may be limited through parental behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate if physical or verbal maternal scaffolding behaviors moderated the effect negative affect has on language development. Although it was expected that maternal encouragement of physical activity would play a moderating role in the relationship between temperament and language development, no such relationship was ...


Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson

Publications of the Buros Center Professional Staff

The article discusses salient factors that influence the current context within which homeschooling occurs. Individual states have applied various approaches to establish regulations that both preserve the rights of homeschooling parents and fulfill the state’s obligation to ensure that its residents receive the education to which they are constitutionally entitled. Case and ethnographic studies or research involving small and selected samples often appear in outlets associated with homeschool advocacy groups or in outlets that are not mainstream. The paucity of empirical evidence derived from methodologically strong research paradigms has led to little certainty about many aspects of homeschooling including ...


Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This research study investigated the effects that font type and amount of time had on the reading comprehension. It was predicted that students restricted with time and given difficult-to-read font (Haettenschweiler) would perform more poorly because more cognitive resources are being utilized to decode the typography compared to an easy-to-read font (Times New Roman). Consequently, there would be fewer cognitive resources available to comprehend and remember the material. Previous research has consistently shown that subjects perform better from reading or memorizing words in difficult-to-read font. However, almost all previous research has consisted of short passages, thereby limiting ecological validity. Results ...


Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce

Student Theses

Research suggests that code-switching between two languages is possible because there is nonselective access to both languages, i.e., both languages are interdependent and stored in a shared lexicon. In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to measure the neural processes associated with language access, in particular, the ERP components: N200 and N400. Although previous studies have utilized these ERPs to investigate language access using interlingual homographs, i.e., words that look the same in two languages but have different meanings, these have focused on comparisons of monolingual and bilinguals. In contrast, we used a design that looked ...


Do Psychopathic Traits Influence Distractibility By Empathy-Eliciting Pictures?, Priya M. Reji 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Do Psychopathic Traits Influence Distractibility By Empathy-Eliciting Pictures?, Priya M. Reji

Student Theses

Empathy is a crucial component in forming interpersonal connections, and reflects the ability to share and understand the feelings of others. Psychopathy is often associated with a reduced ability to feel and display empathetic concern towards other people. The Response Modulation Hypothesis argues that such individuals have an attentional deficit, which makes it difficult for them to shift focus between stimuli, thus individuals who have high scores on the interpersonal-affective factor of psychopathy have an increased ability to ignore emotional stimuli that are goal-irrelevant. The current study investigated whether psychopathic traits would influence distractibility on an emotional Stroop (eStroop) task ...


Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram 2019 University of Denver

Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life.

Methods

In two independent prospective cohorts in ...


The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle 2019 University of French West Indies

The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

This study examined how a tropical climate (TC) influences the cognitive and aiming task performances of young international fencers. The participants performed the tasks in TC and an air-conditioned room. In each session, they completed questionnaires evaluating affective states, fatigue, and comfort and thermal sensations. They also carried out cognitive tasks (simple and choice reaction time, attention, and vigilance tasks) and a motor task testing aiming accuracy with a sword while wearing protective clothing and a mask. TC, which was observed to decrease thermal discomfort, was revealed to decrease aiming accuracy and positive affective states. There was no deleterious effect ...


Neurocognitive Evidence On The Impact Of Topical Familiarity In Creative Outcomes, Rafal Jonczyk, Janet van Hell, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Zahed Siddique 2019 Pennsylvania State University and Adam Mickiewicz University

Neurocognitive Evidence On The Impact Of Topical Familiarity In Creative Outcomes, Rafal Jonczyk, Janet Van Hell, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Zahed Siddique

Gül Okudan-Kremer

Engineering programs, in general, do not explicitly address the need to enhance divergent thinking. To a certain extent this is due to a lack in knowledge on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying divergent thinking, and creative ideation more generally. We hypothesize that we can help enhance our students’ divergent thinking and creative processing outcomes by investigating the impacts of carefully selected methods and tools enabled by developments in the robust analysis of engineering ideation performance, and neurocognitive responses to creativity.

In this paper, we present an experiment using the Event-Related brain Potentials (ERP) technique and creative language use (funded ...


Better With Science: Strengthening Patron Learning, Heather Simmons, Alyson Drake, Joseph Lawson 2019 University of Georgia School of Law Library

Better With Science: Strengthening Patron Learning, Heather Simmons, Alyson Drake, Joseph Lawson

Presentations

A baseline understanding of cognitive theory and educational psychology concepts is critical to successful student learning. With librarians in all settings providing more teaching and training than ever, designing educational experiences with these concepts in mind will result in greater retention and understanding for their patrons. This program will discuss five important ideas from cognitive learning science and give examples of how librarians and other information professionals can incorporate those theories into their instructional offerings. Participants will then work in groups to brainstorm ways various theories can be applied as they design or restructure their own instructional programs.

Takeaways:

1 ...


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