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Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar 2019 Western Michigan University

Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar

Honors Theses

Abstract

Compliance behaviors occurring prior to the delivery of an instruction, such as handing over preferred items, making eye contact, and folding hands in the ready position help prepare students for success in discrete-trial training (DTT) interventions. These behaviors are usually taught in early intervention with a continuous reinforcement schedule, but once they are mastered, they are rarely revisited or maintained. Without intermittent reinforcement of these behaviors, they are likely to decrease in frequency and may lead to the use of restrictive or intrusive methods to gain compliance during DTT sessions. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants design ...


Engaging Sacred Space And Experiencing God In The Mountains: A Study Of The Non-Traditional Worship Environment Of Mountain Cathedrals, An Ecumenical Meetup Group Based In Albuquerque, New Mexico, Brendan Isaiah Nixon 2019 University of New Mexico

Engaging Sacred Space And Experiencing God In The Mountains: A Study Of The Non-Traditional Worship Environment Of Mountain Cathedrals, An Ecumenical Meetup Group Based In Albuquerque, New Mexico, Brendan Isaiah Nixon

Geography ETDs

This paper focuses on the non-traditional Christian worship site of Mountain Cathedrals in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I argue that affectual and emotional responses are elicited from the congregants of Mountain Cathedrals through the process of sacralization. It is shown that Christian worship in a non-traditional outdoor setting affects the ways in which the congregants engage with, participate in, and create sacred space. I survey current literatures of sacred space, the contemporary Christian church, and non-traditional worships spaces. Using the literature as a backdrop, I utilize Mountain Cathedrals as a case study for understanding the ways in which sacred space is ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda McKilligan, Colleen M. Seifert 2019 Augusta University

Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert

Industrial Design Publications

Background: Problem exploration includes identifying, framing, and defining design problems and bounding problem spaces. Intentional and unintentional changes in problem understanding naturally occur as designers explore design problems to create solutions. Through problem exploration, new perspectives on the problem can emerge along with new and diverse ideas for solutions. By considering multiple problem perspectives varying in scope and focus, designers position themselves to increase their understandings of the “real” problem and engage in more diverse idea generation processes leading to an increasing variety of potential solutions.

Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate systematic patterns in problem ...


Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin 2019 William & Mary

Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Researchers have long observed different illusion magnitudes in verbal response tasks and visually-directed action tasks. The cause of such differences has been the topic of debate. The “two visual systems hypothesis” (TVSH) suggests that two separate visual pathways independently control a certain type of tasks. According to this theory, the difference in illusion magnitudes is caused by the different performance of these two pathways. An alternative theory is the “two modes of processing” (TMOP) hypothesis, which states that the two visual processing modes function within a single visual pathway but weigh the same set of visual information differently. According to ...


The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen 2019 William & Mary

The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The question of whether cognitive access is a constitutively necessary part of phenomenal consciousness has been the center of the debate of consciousness for several decades. It has been recognized that there exists a methodological puzzle in the study of consciousness (Block, 2006; Phillips, 2018). The puzzle can be roughly described as follows: how can we empirically find out whether certain cognitively inaccessible states are phenomenally conscious or not, when the way we identify conscious mental states is always confounded with cognitive access? This thesis reviews two current approaches to solve the methodological puzzle - one approach appeals to the Inference ...


Does Precuing A Target Location Narrow The Distribution Of Attention?, Brandy Brouhard, Jaclyn Adamson, Rachael Ashcraft, Bruce Warner 2019 Pittsburg State University

Does Precuing A Target Location Narrow The Distribution Of Attention?, Brandy Brouhard, Jaclyn Adamson, Rachael Ashcraft, Bruce Warner

Posters

Whether the distribution of attention in the visual field declines from the focal point as monotonically decreasing gradient or as Mexican-hat-like distribution is still an open question, with some evidences supporting the former (e.g., Eriksen & Yeh, 1985) and other evidences supporting the latter (e.g., Müller, Mollenhauer, Rösler, & Kleinschmidt, 2005). Our research group presented experiments at Midwestern Psychological Association last year that examined the effects of perceptual load, cue-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and set size on the distribution of attention. In the low-load condition, a strong quadratic trend was observed in the compatible flanker RTs, yielding a large flanker ...


Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, Nick Brzezinski 2019 SIT Graduate Institute

Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, Nick Brzezinski

Capstone Collection

This Training Course-linked Capstone (CLC) integrates learning related to experiential learning theory, engaged pedagogy, emergent learning, and the nature of consciousness, with relevant experience gained throughout my reflective practice phases at SIT Graduate Institute, toward my development as a trainer. This CLC is intended to serve as an exploratory window into the fundamental grounding for my approach to training, and the journey of my growth in applying theoretical principles in practice. It is rooted in my personal experiences with self-oppression and liberation, which I investigate in order to better understand the relationship between those two concepts, as well as their ...


Differences In Stimulus-Response Prediction And Reorientation Of Attention Relative To Student Athletic Background, Madelyn Quirk, Jessica Green 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Differences In Stimulus-Response Prediction And Reorientation Of Attention Relative To Student Athletic Background, Madelyn Quirk, Jessica Green

Senior Theses

Within the game of baseball, every hit, pitch, and catch, rely on a player’s ability to respond quickly and appropriately to the resulting play in a manner that allows them to be an asset on the field. The most successful athletes are those best able to allocate their attention to accomplish these goal-oriented tasks. To explore this attentional orientation, occipital neural recordings of alpha waves often show a preemptive shift in phase alignment according to temporal anticipations. Here we aimed to identify influences on voluntary attention using cueing paradigms to examine stimulus-response timing relative to validity and athletic background ...


Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi 2019 Florida School of Professional Psychology at National Louis University

Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi

Dissertations

Burnout is a widely researched stress-related phenomenon associated with numerous adverse outcomes for employees and organizations. Unfortunately, burnout is not well understood and research to this point has been flawed due to a lack of consensus on the definition, dimensionality, and context of the construct. Prevalent conceptualizations of burnout have been criticized for being arbitrarily developed without solid theoretical foundation and for failing to clearly distinguish burnout from depression or other work-related conditions such as compassion fatigue, secondary traumatization, and vicarious traumatization. The current project first examines relevant literature to identify commonalities among prevalent burnout conceptualizations. Then relevant stress research ...


The Effects Of Message Matching In Climate Change Persuasion, Matthew R. Penner 2019 Western Kentucky University

The Effects Of Message Matching In Climate Change Persuasion, Matthew R. Penner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Public opinions of climate change are not consistent with the reality that climate change is occurring. Effective persuasive messages must be created to ensure that irreparable damage to the environment is prevented. This study investigated the cognitive processes that occur when an individual is exposed to a persuasive message regarding environmental concerns that is matched to an individual’s personality characteristics like right wing authoritarianism and purity.

Messages on two environmental topics (solar panels and the Environmental Protection Agency) were created. Each topic was framed in multiple ways to test hypotheses about personality-based message matching. Participants completed a thought listing ...


The Generalization Of Fear Condition Between Viewed And Imagined Percepts, LAURYN MICHELLE BURLEIGH 2019 Louisiana State University

The Generalization Of Fear Condition Between Viewed And Imagined Percepts, Lauryn Michelle Burleigh

LSU Master's Theses

Mental images can provoke intense emotional states (Holmes & Matthews, 2010). Imagery and perception have common neural and physiological mechanisms, including activation of the early visual areas (Albers et al., 2013). We tested the prediction that individuals can acquire fear to imagined percepts and if this fear transfers to viewing percepts, using fMRI and self-reported measures to determine participants’ fear. The participants completed a task in which they viewed and imagined two stimuli, and were fear conditioned when imagining the CS+. Participants are only told that mild electrical stimulation will be paired with one of the stimuli, but not which stimulus, viewed or imagined. Participants completed 6 runs of each task after completing 6 runs of a habituation form of each task. Behaviorally, participants report greater fear when imagining the CS+ than imagining the CS-. When acquiring fear to an imagined stimulus, we found significant activation in the right insula. These findings are consistent with previous literature indicating that this regions are involved in processes related to emotional memory, autonomic arousal, and emotion-related motivation. Behaviorally, participants also report greater fear when viewing the CS+ than when viewing the CS-, though neither is ever paired with shock. When fear is generalized from an imagined precept to a viewed one (i.e., CS+ view > CS- view), we found no significant activation. We can conclude that participants generalize the fear acquired when imagining the stimulus to viewing the stimulus. Finally, participants also show a similar level of self-reported fear to fear conditioning acquired to imagining a stimulus as to when fear is acquired to viewing a stimulus. We found insular cortex and precentral gyrus activation when investigating the similarities between these processes. These results indicate: that humans can fear condition to imagined percepts, which involves activation of anterior insula; that this fear conditioning generalizes to instances of viewing the conditioned percept; and that differential conditioning to both imagined and viewed percepts produced a similar magnitude of subjective fear along with activation of the right anterior insula.


The Generalizability Of Transformational Leadership Across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis, Marcus Crede, Jaehee Jong, Peter Harms 2019 Iowa State University

The Generalizability Of Transformational Leadership Across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis, Marcus Crede, Jaehee Jong, Peter Harms

Psychology Publications

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the effectiveness of transformational leadership behaviors are moderated by a country’s cultural values and cultural practices.

Design/methodology/approach The authors describe a meta-analytic review of the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance (task performance and OCBs) using data from over 57,000 individuals, 215 samples and 34 countries. The authors examine whether this relationship is moderated by the cultural values and practices of the country in which the study was located – after first controlling for methodological factors.

Findings The authors find that cultural values and practices moderate ...


A Negative Effect Of A Contractive Pose Is Not Evidence For The Positive Effect Of An Expansivepose: Comment On Cuddy, Schultz, And Fosse (2018), Marcus Crede 2019 Iowa State University

A Negative Effect Of A Contractive Pose Is Not Evidence For The Positive Effect Of An Expansivepose: Comment On Cuddy, Schultz, And Fosse (2018), Marcus Crede

Psychology Publications

Cuddy,Schultz and Fosse (2018) present the results of p-curve analyses that are interpreted as providing "clear evidential value for power posing effects”. This commentary highlights that the vast majority of the studies included in the p-curve analyses were not designed in a way that could speak to the efficacy of power poses relative to a normal or neutral pose. Further, I discuss how the few studies that were designed to shed light on this issue indicate that any overall effect of physical pose on feelings of power, emotions, affect, and self-evaluations is almost entirely due to the negative effect ...


Statistical Learning Across Visual And Auditory Modalities, Christine Moreau, Marc Joanisse, Laura Batterink 2019 Psychology Department

Statistical Learning Across Visual And Auditory Modalities, Christine Moreau, Marc Joanisse, Laura Batterink

Western Research Forum

Our ability to learn language is accomplished by using structural patterns found in everyday language. We use these structural patterns in language through a process of Statistical Learning (SL) to implicitly predict sequences in speech and visual input. Our research explored how SL predicts patterns of auditory and visual learning in adults (N = 40; M = 27.1 years) to provide a more complete picture of SL.

For the auditory task, participants were tested on whether they learned a novel language that they passively listened to for 6 minutes. Implicit and explicit learning were assessed after the exposure phase. For the ...


Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev 2019 Lesley University

Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This art-based research explores whether — and, if so, how — the process of painting, together with witnessing and reflection on the process and imagery, further an understanding of intimacy. The research also examines the conditions that favor intimacy, the obstacles to intimacy, and the particular features of artistic media, processes and reflection, through the editing of video footage, that can further the intimate experience. The participants in the study were five adults (including the researcher) between the ages of thirty and eighty who were familiar with the creation of visual art. Among them were three women and two men who vary ...


Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, Katie N. Schenk 2019 Kansas State University

Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, Katie N. Schenk

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

This research-based essay explores the author’s experience with ADHD, as the essay’s formatting and usage of space evolves into a visual representation of the ADHD mind and questions the human capacity to identify, label, and differentiate inaccessible experiences. The common, often misinformed understanding of ADHD is disputed through in depth analyses of various brain functions. In particular, the atypical development of the executive functions housed in the ADHD person’s frontal lobe are explored through both contemporary research and personal experience, which are variously compared and contrasted to the supposed neurotypical experience. Consideration of ADHD’s lifelong stigma ...


Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine, gain, and ultimately share an understanding of certain cognitive differences, similarities, intelligence patterns, and preferences between competent monolingual (English) and multicompetent bilingual/multilingual first-year composition (FYC) college students. Within this project is an attempt to address the following questions: Do monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students show different strengths and weaknesses in their cognitive abilities? Are there learning preferences and literacy differences or similarities between monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students?

Primarily, two cognitive concepts were used in this examination to provide perspectives and quantitative data in response to the above questions ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. LaPaglia, Jason C.K. Chan 2019 Morningside College

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Person Perception, Bruce D. Bartholow, Cheryl L. Dickter 2019 College of William and Mary

Person Perception, Bruce D. Bartholow, Cheryl L. Dickter

Cheryl Dickter

The complexities of the brain and nervous system make neuroscience an inherently interdisciplinary pursuit, one that comprises disparate basic, clinical, and applied disciplines. Behavioral neuroscientists approach the brain and nervous system as instruments of sensation and response; cognitive neuroscientists view the same systems as a solitary computer with a focus on representations and processes. The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience marks the emergence of a third broad perspective in this field. Social neuroscience emphasizes the functions that emerge through the coaction and interaction of conspecifics, the neural mechanisms that underlie these functions, and the commonality and differences across social species ...


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