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The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog 2019 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

How can we explain consciousness? This question has become a vibrant topic of neuroscience research in recent decades. A large body of empirical results has been accumulated, and many theories have been proposed. Certain theories suggest that consciousness should be explained in terms of brain functions, such as accessing information in a global workspace, applying higher order to lower order representations, or predictive coding. These functions could be realized by a variety of patterns of brain connectivity. Other theories, such as Information Integration Theory (IIT) and Recurrent Processing Theory (RPT), identify causal structure with consciousness. For example, according to these ...


Pain-Related Fear: Metacognitive And Health Belief Predictors Of Cogniphobia, Maddison Miles 2019 James Madison University

Pain-Related Fear: Metacognitive And Health Belief Predictors Of Cogniphobia, Maddison Miles

Masters Theses

Individuals who have an unreasonable fear of headache pain or painful re-injury during cognitive exertion are said to suffer from a pain-related fear referred to as cogniphobia. Specifically, individuals high in cogniphobia avoid cognitive tasks in an attempt to reduce the risk of initiating or exacerbating headache-related pain. While health beliefs concerning pain-related fear have been examined through the concept of kinesiophobia, defined as the unreasonable fear of pain or painful re-injury during physical movement, little research has been done through a cognitive framework. The health anxiety beliefs, metacognitive factors, and negative thinking patterns related to cogniphobia remain unclear. This ...


Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long

Theses and Dissertations

In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...


The Role Of Dreams, Intuition, And Social Influences On Conscious Decision-Making Processes, Robert Bouffard 2019 University of Rhode Island

The Role Of Dreams, Intuition, And Social Influences On Conscious Decision-Making Processes, Robert Bouffard

Senior Honors Projects

The average person makes approximately 35,000 conscious decisions per day, which, accounting for the daily amount of sleep a person gets, is equivalent to a decision madeevery two seconds. Upon realizing the frequency, I sought to find a distinctive connectionbetween the conscious and unconscious when it pertains to how people make decisions. I hypothesized that people make decisions regarding their personal relationships with the help of intuition, which I considered to be the ultimate link between our dreams and our conscious thought. I also believed the concept of intuition was entirely dependent on our processing and decoding of dreams ...


Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire

Theses and Dissertations

Experiential learning continues to play a vital role in agricultural education and mechanization laboratories (Shoulders & Myers, 2013). An essential component of experiential learning is critical reflection. Critical reflection helps students process and construct meaning from laboratory experiences. A study conducted by Shoulders and Myers (2013) revealed that only 15.4% of the agricultural educators the researchers interviewed incorporated reflective practices laboratory experiences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of critical reflection on students’ achievement following five agricultural mechanization laboratory activities. The results from this study revealed that critical reflection had a consistently positive effect on immediate cognitive achievement but not delayed cognitive achievement among the participants of this study; however, the results for delayed cognitive achievement were mixed. Recommendations include further research into effective practices for helping students increase long term learning from laboratory instructions.


Queerness, Witchcraft, And Embodied Presence: Aesthetic Knowings Of What A Body Can Do, Megan Bigelow 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Queerness, Witchcraft, And Embodied Presence: Aesthetic Knowings Of What A Body Can Do, Megan Bigelow

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Taking as a point of entry the critique of representation and affirming the limitations of the cuts that language makes, this capstone project explores the imbrications and assemblages between Foucault’s concept of subjugated knowledges, witchcraft and other body-based ways of knowing and being, and the consciousness of non-human forms such as plants and through the framework of non-representational theory, process philosophies, aesthetics, queerness, and the concept of difference itself.

Since such theories themselves are living, breathing entities, this capstone project explores the ideological split that has occurred between sacred and secular beliefs, moving through different figures such as nuns ...


Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik 2019 Chapman University

Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. Van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Despite progress in cognitive neuroscience, we are still far from understanding the relations between the brain and the conscious self. We previously suggested that some neuroscientific texts that attempt to clarify these relations may in fact make them more difficult to understand. Such texts—ranging from popular science to high-impact scientific publications—position the brain and the conscious self as two independent, interacting subjects, capable of possessing opposite psychological states. We termed such writing ‘Double Subject Fallacy’ (DSF). We further suggested that such DSF language, besides being conceptually confusing and reflecting dualistic intuitions, might affect people’s conceptions of moral ...


The Poetic Function Of Imagination: The Parallel Process Of Poiêsis, Angela Carlson 2019 Lesley University

The Poetic Function Of Imagination: The Parallel Process Of Poiêsis, Angela Carlson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

In the advent of Postmodernism, modern approaches to understanding the nature of things is being put into question. As the gap between objective and subjective realms of experiences is narrowing, there is an increased need for a more artful approach to science. This paper serves as my attempt to promote the field of Expressive Arts Therapy (ExATh) as a mode of poetic science for understanding the experience of ‘Being’ in the world. Through a critical review of the semantic development of the ancient Greek concepts poiêsis, noêsis, and aisthêsis, the imagination is identified as a function of alêthaic revealing, personified ...


The Effect Of Color On Time Perception And Task Performance, Jake Hensz, Max Hart, Melissa Banuelos, Chad Shire 2019 Rowan University

The Effect Of Color On Time Perception And Task Performance, Jake Hensz, Max Hart, Melissa Banuelos, Chad Shire

Student Research Symposium Posters

Program: BS in Psychological Science

IRB#: Pro2018000277

The current study investigates the relationship between color and time perception. Prior research suggests that red stimuli create a greater temporal distortion than other colors, and that the direction of the distortion (i.e. underestimation or overestimation) varies with context. Research also shows that red stimuli tend to have negative effects on performance in academic contexts, perhaps due to the psychological and physiological arousal. This study specifically investigates the effect of arousal on this relationship, being the first to investigate the relationship between red, time perception, arousal, and task performance on a concurrent ...


The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956) claims that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently. Language-thought interaction is likely to be more complex in bilinguals because they have two languages that could influence their cognitive and perceptual processes.Lupyan’s (2012) Label-feedback Hypothesis proposes a mechanism underpinning language-thought interactions, arguingthat linguistic labels affect our conceptual and perceptual representations through top-down feedback.This thesis tested the Label-feedback Hypothesis by capitalizing on an interesting feature of Chinese. In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories (an exception issunflower), whereas in Chinese, some nouns provide ...


The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker 2019 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker

Theses

Abstract

Many attempts have been made by philosophers, political activists, psychologists, historians, social advocates, and others to explain the mechanisms at play in the perpetuation and resulting manifestations of systemic and institutional racism. On one side of the debate there lies a theory that there is an epistemic failure at the root of racial bias towards Blacks, white ignorance, a collective amnesia regarding what has and does take place in society, as it pertains to their oppression and isolation, like the view of philosopher Charles W. Mills. According to Mills, this type of ignorance, or non-knowing, is a cognitive phenomenon ...


Pan Negro: En Pos De Una Pedagogía De Liberación, Lizely M. López 2019 University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Pan Negro: En Pos De Una Pedagogía De Liberación, Lizely M. López

Vernacular: New Connections in Language, Literature, & Culture

La producción literaria del escritor y pedagogo catalán Emili Teixidor es reconocida por su misión pedagógica. Su labor consistía en la creación de una literatura dirigida al público lector infantil y juvenil con objetivos pedagógicos específicos para formar lectores ágiles. Teixidor no se limitó a la población lectora infantil y juvenil, también produjo literatura dirigida a adultos. De su producción literaria para adultos, destaca Pan negro (2003), novela galardonada con varios premios, entre estos el premio Joan Crexells al mejor libro en 2003 y llevada a la pantalla grande en 2011 por el director Agustín Villaronga.

En Pan negro (2010 ...


Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar 2019 Western Michigan University

Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar

Honors Theses

Abstract

Compliance behaviors occurring prior to the delivery of an instruction, such as handing over preferred items, making eye contact, and folding hands in the ready position help prepare students for success in discrete-trial training (DTT) interventions. These behaviors are usually taught in early intervention with a continuous reinforcement schedule, but once they are mastered, they are rarely revisited or maintained. Without intermittent reinforcement of these behaviors, they are likely to decrease in frequency and may lead to the use of restrictive or intrusive methods to gain compliance during DTT sessions. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants design ...


Engaging Sacred Space And Experiencing God In The Mountains: A Study Of The Non-Traditional Worship Environment Of Mountain Cathedrals, An Ecumenical Meetup Group Based In Albuquerque, New Mexico, Brendan Isaiah Nixon 2019 University of New Mexico

Engaging Sacred Space And Experiencing God In The Mountains: A Study Of The Non-Traditional Worship Environment Of Mountain Cathedrals, An Ecumenical Meetup Group Based In Albuquerque, New Mexico, Brendan Isaiah Nixon

Geography ETDs

This paper focuses on the non-traditional Christian worship site of Mountain Cathedrals in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I argue that affectual and emotional responses are elicited from the congregants of Mountain Cathedrals through the process of sacralization. It is shown that Christian worship in a non-traditional outdoor setting affects the ways in which the congregants engage with, participate in, and create sacred space. I survey current literatures of sacred space, the contemporary Christian church, and non-traditional worships spaces. Using the literature as a backdrop, I utilize Mountain Cathedrals as a case study for understanding the ways in which sacred space is ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda McKilligan, Colleen M. Seifert 2019 Augusta University

Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert

Industrial Design Publications

Background: Problem exploration includes identifying, framing, and defining design problems and bounding problem spaces. Intentional and unintentional changes in problem understanding naturally occur as designers explore design problems to create solutions. Through problem exploration, new perspectives on the problem can emerge along with new and diverse ideas for solutions. By considering multiple problem perspectives varying in scope and focus, designers position themselves to increase their understandings of the “real” problem and engage in more diverse idea generation processes leading to an increasing variety of potential solutions.

Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate systematic patterns in problem ...


Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin 2019 William & Mary

Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Researchers have long observed different illusion magnitudes in verbal response tasks and visually-directed action tasks. The cause of such differences has been the topic of debate. The “two visual systems hypothesis” (TVSH) suggests that two separate visual pathways independently control a certain type of tasks. According to this theory, the difference in illusion magnitudes is caused by the different performance of these two pathways. An alternative theory is the “two modes of processing” (TMOP) hypothesis, which states that the two visual processing modes function within a single visual pathway but weigh the same set of visual information differently. According to ...


The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen 2019 William & Mary

The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The question of whether cognitive access is a constitutively necessary part of phenomenal consciousness has been the center of the debate of consciousness for several decades. It has been recognized that there exists a methodological puzzle in the study of consciousness (Block, 2006; Phillips, 2018). The puzzle can be roughly described as follows: how can we empirically find out whether certain cognitively inaccessible states are phenomenally conscious or not, when the way we identify conscious mental states is always confounded with cognitive access? This thesis reviews two current approaches to solve the methodological puzzle - one approach appeals to the Inference ...


Does Precuing A Target Location Narrow The Distribution Of Attention?, Brandy Brouhard, Jaclyn Adamson, Rachael Ashcraft, Bruce Warner 2019 Pittsburg State University

Does Precuing A Target Location Narrow The Distribution Of Attention?, Brandy Brouhard, Jaclyn Adamson, Rachael Ashcraft, Bruce Warner

Posters

Whether the distribution of attention in the visual field declines from the focal point as monotonically decreasing gradient or as Mexican-hat-like distribution is still an open question, with some evidences supporting the former (e.g., Eriksen & Yeh, 1985) and other evidences supporting the latter (e.g., Müller, Mollenhauer, Rösler, & Kleinschmidt, 2005). Our research group presented experiments at Midwestern Psychological Association last year that examined the effects of perceptual load, cue-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and set size on the distribution of attention. In the low-load condition, a strong quadratic trend was observed in the compatible flanker RTs, yielding a large flanker ...


Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, Nick Brzezinski 2019 SIT Graduate Institute

Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, Nick Brzezinski

Capstone Collection

This Training Course-linked Capstone (CLC) integrates learning related to experiential learning theory, engaged pedagogy, emergent learning, and the nature of consciousness, with relevant experience gained throughout my reflective practice phases at SIT Graduate Institute, toward my development as a trainer. This CLC is intended to serve as an exploratory window into the fundamental grounding for my approach to training, and the journey of my growth in applying theoretical principles in practice. It is rooted in my personal experiences with self-oppression and liberation, which I investigate in order to better understand the relationship between those two concepts, as well as their ...


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