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A Meta-Analysis Of Procedures To Change Implicit Measures, Patrick S. Forscher, Calvin K. Lai, Jordan R. Ast, Charles R. Ebersole, Michelle Herman, Patricia G. Devine, Brian A. Nosek 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Meta-Analysis Of Procedures To Change Implicit Measures, Patrick S. Forscher, Calvin K. Lai, Jordan R. Ast, Charles R. Ebersole, Michelle Herman, Patricia G. Devine, Brian A. Nosek

Psychological Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds| < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior.


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez 2019 University of Minho

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker 2019 Louisiana State University

Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Melodic dictation is a cognitively demanding process that requires students to hear a melody, then without any access to an external reference, transcribe the melody within a limited time frame. Despite its ubiquity in curricula within School of Music settings, exactly how an individual learns a melody is not well understood. This dissertation aims to fill the gap in the literature between aural skills practitioners and music psychologists in order to reach conclusions that can be applied systematically in pedagogical contexts. In order to do this, I synthesize literature from music theory, music psychology, and music education in order to ...


Empowered Learning Systems In Student Success, Craig C. Laupheimer 2019 Dominican University of California

Empowered Learning Systems In Student Success, Craig C. Laupheimer

Master of Science in Education | Master's Theses

Abstract/Description

Although various support systems are attempted by public schools to cause changes in student motivation and academic performance, students continue to consistently under perform and doubt their academic potential. A literature review revealed a growing body of research outlining a direct relationship between internal beliefs and performance outcomes. Yet little has been done to understand student thought patterns from their perspective, or to what extent they are able to recognize and address the internal systems of language, belief, and emotion that interact with learning. By analyzing a wide range of student perspectives, this study examines what tools and ...


Is #Cleaneating A Healthy Or Harmful Dietary Strategy? Perceptions Of Clean Eating And Associations With Disordered Eating Among Young Adults, Suman Ambwani, Meghan Shippe, Ziting Gao, S. Bryn Austin 2019 Dickinson College

Is #Cleaneating A Healthy Or Harmful Dietary Strategy? Perceptions Of Clean Eating And Associations With Disordered Eating Among Young Adults, Suman Ambwani, Meghan Shippe, Ziting Gao, S. Bryn Austin

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Background

Although “clean eating” is widely propagated through social media and anecdotal reports in the popular press, there is almost no scientific research on this potentially risky dietary strategy. The current investigation explored definitions and perceptions of “clean eating” and its associations with indicators of disordered eating among diverse U.S.-based undergraduates.

Method

Undergraduates (N = 148, Mage = 19.41 years, 70.3% women) were asked to define “clean eating” via an open-ended question and then read vignettes featuring five “clean” diets, all of which caused mild functional impairment across multiple domains. Participants rated the extent to which they ...


The Relationship Between Justice Perceptions, Conscientiousness And Workplace Behaviors Among Old And Young Employees, Martha P. Blanco Villarreal 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

The Relationship Between Justice Perceptions, Conscientiousness And Workplace Behaviors Among Old And Young Employees, Martha P. Blanco Villarreal

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research addressed the influence employee age has on organizational justice perceptions (OJPs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) through conscientiousness. Given the valuable contributions of older employees in the workforce, the aim of this study was to investigate the processes by which age affects justice perceptions, the expression of conscientiousness traits, and workplace behaviors. Additionally, a theoretical framework was provided where the conservation of resource, equity, fairness, socioemotional selectivity, and conscientiousness at work theorieshelp explain the linkages from the integrative model. A total of 179 MTurk workers participated in this study, which required participants to answer questions about their workplace ...


The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Anxiety is of importance within the field of cognition because it is often associated with adverse effects on attention, information processing, learning and memory (Eysenck, 1992, 2007). In existing literature, it has been reported that trait anxiety hinders cognitive performance (i.e., working memory capacity WMC). However, the relationship between trait anxiety and cognitive performance might be moderated by working memory capacity (WMC). For example, Owens (2014) reported that trait anxiety was negatively correlated with cognitive performance in the low WMC group and positively correlated to cognitive performance in the high WMC group. Although, past research on the working memory ...


Bound By Silence: Psychological Effects Of The Traditional Oath Ceremony Used In The Sex Trafficking Of Nigerian Women And Girls, Jennifer Millett-Barrett 2019 Dream On International, Africa and the United States

Bound By Silence: Psychological Effects Of The Traditional Oath Ceremony Used In The Sex Trafficking Of Nigerian Women And Girls, Jennifer Millett-Barrett

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Nigerian women and children have been trafficked to Italy over the last 30 years for commercial sexual exploitation with an alarming increase in the past three years. The Central Mediterranean Route that runs from West African countries to Italy is rife with organized crime gangs that have created a highly successful trafficking operation. As part of the recruitment process, the Nigerian mafia and its operatives exploit victims by subjecting them to a traditional religious juju oath ceremony, which is an extremely effective control mechanism to silence victims and trap them in debt bondage. This study explores the psychological effects of ...


Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The Dunning-Kruger Effect is a metacognitive phenomenon in which individuals who perform poorly on a task believe they performed well, whereas individuals who performed very well believe their performance was only average. To date, this effect has only been investigated in the context of performance on mathematical, logical, or lexical tasks, but has yet to be explored for its generalizability in episodic memory task performance. We used a novel method to elicit the Dunning-Kruger Effect via a memory test of item and source recognition confidence. Participants studied 4 lists of words and were asked to make a simple decision about ...


Blending Inductive And Deductive Processes In The English/Language Arts Classroom, Joseph M. Lynch 2019 Kansas State University

Blending Inductive And Deductive Processes In The English/Language Arts Classroom, Joseph M. Lynch

The Advocate

This article attempts to demonstrate how the inductive and deductive processing modes function together. Educational models associated with an inductive learning process provide a great opportunity for students to assess their accountability in the learning process. However, the lessons gleaned from such an inductive approach can be more insight-provoking when a synthesis of (or at least access to) deductive processing occurs. The topic is presented in two parts: The first part constitutes a review of the inductive/deductive dynamic through research, study, and theory across multiple learning contexts. The second part presents a qualitative study and data examples for the ...


Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos 2019 York University

Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Quantitative Reasoning: Individual Differences In Heart Rate And Response Latency, Abigail L. Van Nuland 2019 Missouri State University

Quantitative Reasoning: Individual Differences In Heart Rate And Response Latency, Abigail L. Van Nuland

MSU Graduate Theses

Math is something that all students are required to use at some point during their academic careers. Then they must use it again in the real world. Unfortunately, many students struggle with quantitative processing. In the current study, participants answered first grade level math problems in order to assess cognitive effort when solving math problem. Participants were then assigned randomly to one of two conditions; Answer or Equation. In the Answer Condition participants were asked to solve a series of math problems, whereby they were given a math equation and then they were asked to choose an answer. In the ...


The Fluid Representations Of Networks Estimating Liquid Viscosity, Jan Jaap R. van Assen, Shin'ya Nishida, Roland W. Fleming 2019 NTT Communication Science Laboratories

The Fluid Representations Of Networks Estimating Liquid Viscosity, Jan Jaap R. Van Assen, Shin'ya Nishida, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Selecting Maximally-Predictive Deep Features To Explain What Drives Fixations In Free-Viewing, Matthias Kümmerer, Thomas S.A. Wallis, Matthias Bethge 2019 University of Tübingen

Selecting Maximally-Predictive Deep Features To Explain What Drives Fixations In Free-Viewing, Matthias Kümmerer, Thomas S.A. Wallis, Matthias Bethge

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modelling Human Perception Of High Gloss Materials Using Neural Networks, Konrad E. Prokott, Hideki Tamura, Roland W. Fleming 2019 Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen

Modelling Human Perception Of High Gloss Materials Using Neural Networks, Konrad E. Prokott, Hideki Tamura, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto PhD 2019 Florida International University

Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd

MODVIS Workshop

It is now common among visual scientists to make inferences about neural population coding of stimuli from indirect measures such as those provided by neuroimaging and psychophysics. The success of such studies depends strongly on simulation work using standard population encoding models extended with decoders (in psychophysics) and measurement models (in neuroimaging). However, not all studies are accompanied by simulation work, and those that are tend to vary widely in their assumptions about encoding, decoding, and measurement. To solve these issues, we designed a Python package (PEMGUIN) to assist computational modelling by providing simple ways to manage encoders' tuning functions ...


Recovering Depth From Stereo Without Using Any Oculomotor Information, Tadamasa Sawada 2019 School of Psychology, Higher School of Economics

Recovering Depth From Stereo Without Using Any Oculomotor Information, Tadamasa Sawada

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system uses binocular disparity to perceive depth within 3D scenes. It is commonly assumed that the visual system needs oculomotor information about the relative orientation of the two eyes to perceive depth on the basis of binocular disparity. The necessary oculomotor information can be obtained from an efference copy of the oculomotor signals, or from a 2D distribution of the vertical disparity, specifically, from the vertical component of binocular disparity. It is known that oculomotor information from the efference copy and from the vertical disparity distribution can affect the perception of depth based on binocular disparity. But ...


An Observer Model Version Of General Recognition Theory, Fabian Soto PhD 2019 Florida International University

An Observer Model Version Of General Recognition Theory, Fabian Soto Phd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster 2019 University of Manchester

The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page

Graduate School of Art Theses

This text examines the complexity of attempting to empathize with bodies that are vastly othered from my own. This broad yet nuanced subject crosses epistemological boundaries and complicates the dualities between both the mind and body, and between the corporeal and the virtual. My desire to better understand the conditions of another’s experience originates from a painful traumatic loss which caused me to feel isolated and incomplete. In response to this suffering, I long to emotionally connect with other beings and create artwork that attempts to bridge the qualia of individual experience.

I am interested in the capacity (or ...


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