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Internal And External Attention In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Tehila Eilam-Stock 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Internal And External Attention In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Tehila Eilam-Stock

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition affecting individuals throughout the lifespan. Sensory hypersensitivity and superior perceptual acuity are well documented in individuals with ASD, and may indicate heightened orientation of attention to external stimuli, as attention can augment sensory perception. Recent evidence from mind-wandering research suggests that the ability to disengage attention from the external environment and direct it internally to self-generated mentation is crucial for adaptive cognition and behavior, as it allows for incorporation of past knowledge and experience in the interpretation of novel situations. We hypothesized that ASD is related to an imbalance between externally ...


What Is In An Octopus's Mind?, Jennifer Mather 2019 Psychology, University of Lethbridge

What Is In An Octopus's Mind?, Jennifer Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

It is difficult to imagine what an animal as different from us as the octopus ‘thinks’, but we can make some progress. In the Umwelt or perceptual world of an octopus, what the lateralized monocular eyes perceive is not color but the plane of polarization of light. Information is processed by a bilateral brain but manipulation is done by a radially symmetrical set of eight arms. Octopuses do not self-monitor by vision. Their skin pattern system, used for excellent camouflage, is open loop. The output of the motor system of the eight arms is organized at several levels — brain, intrabrachial ...


Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells 2019 Iowa State University

Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells

Gary L. Wells

The conceptual frameworks provided by both the lineups-as-experiments analogy and Signal Detection Theory have proven important to furthering understanding of performance on eyewitness identification-procedures. The lineups-as-experiments analogy proposes that when investigators carry out a lineup procedure, they are acting as experimenters, and should therefore follow the same tried-and-true procedures that experimenters follow when executing an experiment. Signal Detection Theory offers a framework for distinguishing between factors that improve the trade-off between culprit and innocent-suspect identifications (discriminability) and factors that impact the frequency of suspect identifications (conservativeness). The present work offers an integration of these two conceptual frameworks. We argue that ...


A Risk Assessment And Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown 2019 Macquarie University

A Risk Assessment And Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

The precautionary principal is often invoked when talking about the evidence of sentience in animals, largely because we can never be certain what any animal is thinking or feeling. Birch (2017) offers a preliminary framework for the use of the precautionary principal for animal sentience combining an epistemic rule with a decision rule. I extend this framework by adding an evolutionary phylogentic approach which spreads the burden of proof across broad taxonomic groups and a risk assessment component which magnifies the likely impact by the number of animals involved.


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown 2019 University of Liverpool

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Recent empirical studies have reported evidence that many aquatic species, including fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, have the capacity for nociception and pain, and that their welfare should be taken into consideration. Some sceptics, rejecting the precautionary principle, have denied that any study demonstrates pain or other aspects of sentience in fish. This target article discusses some of the scientific shortcomings of these critiques through a detailed analysis of a study exploring nociception and analgesia in larval zebrafish.


Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown 2019 University of Liverpool

Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

The majority of commentaries are supportive of our position on the scepticism that muddies the waters surrounding fish pain and sentience. There is substantial empirical evidence for pain in fish. Animals’ experience of pain cannot be compared to artificial intelligence (AI) because AI can only mimic responses to nociceptive input on the basis of human observations and programming. Accepting that fish are sentient would not be detrimental to the industries reliant on fish. A more proactive discussion between scientists and stakeholders is needed to improve fish welfare for the benefit of all.


Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For decades researchers have used 2D stimuli under the assumption that they accurately represent real objects. This assumption has been challenged by recent vision and neuroeconomics research which has found that 2D images can evoke different neural and behavioural responses than real objects. The current study continues this line of research in the field of affective cognitive neuroscience; a field where small effect sizes are common and rapid habituation to affective stimuli used in the lab often occurs. The present study uses realistic 2D and 3D emotional images to determine the impact of visual dimension on affective responding. Subjective ratings ...


Fostering Metacognitive Skills: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Paul Welch, Annie Van Homrigh 2019 St Patrick's College (Townsville Qld)

Fostering Metacognitive Skills: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Paul Welch, Annie Van Homrigh

2009 - 2019 ACER Research Conferences

Metacognitive awareness, which is part of self regulated learning, includes the domains of knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Students with effective metacognitive skills are more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and strive to further improve their learning skills. This longitudinal cohort study uses the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Jr. MAI) to measure student metacognitive awareness across Years 7 to 10 in a north Queensland girls’ Catholic college.


Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce

Student Theses

Research suggests that code-switching between two languages is possible because there is nonselective access to both languages, i.e., both languages are interdependent and stored in a shared lexicon. In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to measure the neural processes associated with language access, in particular, the ERP components: N200 and N400. Although previous studies have utilized these ERPs to investigate language access using interlingual homographs, i.e., words that look the same in two languages but have different meanings, these have focused on comparisons of monolingual and bilinguals. In contrast, we used a design that looked ...


Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram 2019 University of Denver

Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life.

Methods

In two independent prospective cohorts in ...


Neural Entrainment Indexes Statistical Learning In Children, Christine Moreau 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Neural Entrainment Indexes Statistical Learning In Children, Christine Moreau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical learning is proposed as a mechanism for discovering structural patterns in speech through incidental exposure. However, studies have largely relied on assessing explicit memory after learning has occurred, which does not capture the time course and process of statistical learning per se. To better understand the dynamics of statistical learning, we assessed 8- to 12-year-old children using an EEG measure of learning, which captures changes in neural entrainment to words embedded in a continuous artificial language. Statistical learning was assessed post-learning using implicit and explicit behavioural tests. The neural entrainment results demonstrated rapid learning of word-level information, while post-learning ...


The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle 2019 University of French West Indies

The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

This study examined how a tropical climate (TC) influences the cognitive and aiming task performances of young international fencers. The participants performed the tasks in TC and an air-conditioned room. In each session, they completed questionnaires evaluating affective states, fatigue, and comfort and thermal sensations. They also carried out cognitive tasks (simple and choice reaction time, attention, and vigilance tasks) and a motor task testing aiming accuracy with a sword while wearing protective clothing and a mask. TC, which was observed to decrease thermal discomfort, was revealed to decrease aiming accuracy and positive affective states. There was no deleterious effect ...


A Study Of Multiple Predictors Of Cognitive Fatigue In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, Leila M. Mackay 2019 The University of Western Ontario

A Study Of Multiple Predictors Of Cognitive Fatigue In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, Leila M. Mackay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) commonly experience cognitive fatigue (CF), defined as a decrease in cognitive performance over a sustained activity and measured objectively or subjectively. In the present research, we evaluated the extent to which depression, anxiety, information processing speed, sleep quality, and disease severity predict subjective and objective CF, in a sample of 55 PwMS (37 females, M = 44.23). Although no statistically significant predictors of objective CF were demonstrated, all variables predicted subjective CF, R2adj = .384 [F (6, 40) = 5.783, p = .0002]. In particular, depression and information processing speed were found to be significant predictors of ...


Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, Jonathan Balcombe 2019 Independent Scientist and Author

Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

I respond to five commentaries on my 2016 book What a Fish Knows. The commentaries express more harmony than dissent about my interpretation of fishes as cognitive, aware individuals deserving better treatment by humankind.


Chicken Of The Sea, Jonathan Balcombe 2019 Independent Scientist and Author

Chicken Of The Sea, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Marino summarizes research showing that chickens perform cognitively and emotionally at a higher level than previously assumed. Here, I describe capacities of teleost fishes that parallel those of chickens, including the ability to recognize human faces, perspective-taking, and referential communication. Research on chickens and on fishes reveals an emerging trend in cognitive ethology: abilities once thought limited to a scant few highly intelligent non-humans may actually occur broadly across taxa.


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney, Australia

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth 2019 Humboldt Universität zu Berlin

Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Research on the mental lives of farm animals is crucial to assess not only their physical but also their psychological wellbeing. Their current housing and handling practices are highly unlikely to meet their cognitive needs and demands, but our knowledge of their mental capacities is still limited. Although folk wisdom often refers to farm animals as dull and inflexible, recent studies show they have a rich interpretation of their environment and can solve complex problems. Yet an uncritical and anthropomorphic assessment of farm animal cognition and behaviour may lead to the attribution of an exaggerated amount of cognitive flexibility. Contrary ...


The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart BSc, Derek GV Mitchell PhD 2019 Western University

The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd

Western Research Forum

Background: Emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, which can cause it to have a distracting or facilitating effect on task performance for reasons that are poorly understood. The sensory modality through which it is presented may be one determining factor. Some findings suggest that auditory stimuli facilitate visual task performance while visual stimuli interfere with it, but there are conflicting findings.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that emotional content of a different sensory modality from the task improves task-related performance via a general alerting and arousing effect for all stimuli, while emotional content of the same modality disrupts performance when ...


Cross-Linguistic Effects Of Intention Recognition In Malay Bilinguals, Maziyah Mohamed, Debra Jared 2019 Western University

Cross-Linguistic Effects Of Intention Recognition In Malay Bilinguals, Maziyah Mohamed, Debra Jared

Western Research Forum

Does the language we speak influence the way we interpret intentions of others? Prior literature has shown that obligatory markers in a language may influence the way we think. In Malay texts, accidental actions are marked using a prefix. Malay speakers are, thus, quick to identify the accidental actions of others. Conversely, it may be that Malay speakers often interpret intentions as deliberate given a more ambiguous context where the prefix is absent. The goal of the current study was to determine whether this way of interpreting one’s intentions of others extends to English texts for Malay-English bilinguals. In ...


Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey 2019 Western University

Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

Attention is the cognitive processing that facilitates the ability to target and attend to relevant environmental stimuli, while filtering out irrelevant or distracting stimuli. Control over selective attention is theorized to be dependent on organized neural communication that stems from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To evaluate selective and sustained attention, mice were trained on the novel touchscreen rodent continuous performance task (rCPT), a task designed to emulate the human CPT. In the rodent version, images are continuously presented on a touchscreen, where mice have been trained to selectively respond to one image type while suppressing responses to all others ...


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