The Perfecting Of The Octopus, 2019 independent ethologist
The Perfecting Of The Octopus, Ila France Porcher
Cephalopods split away from the phylogenetic tree about half a billion years ago, and octopus evolution has been accelerated by an extremely low survival rate. This helps explain why this unusual animal presents qualities found in no other. It has a radially organized nervous system with a processing centre for each of its eight tentacles. Yet, although this might suggest that each tentacle has its own centre of consciousness, it remains just one animal, with one mouth to feed, and one life to lose, and it behaves as if it is centrally controlled. Its capacity for a range of intelligent ...
Octopus Experience, 2019 University of Sydney, Australia
Octopus Experience, Peter Godfrey-Smith
The first part of this commentary attempts to get "inside" the octopus mind a little further than Mather does, drawing on her description of octopus cognition in many places but diverging in others. The second part outlines other disagreements with her account of the animals, especially in the area of social behavior.
Just Policy Paralysis?, 2019 Texas A & M University - College Station
Just Policy Paralysis?, Clare Palmer, Bob Fischer
Treves et al. (2019) argue that policy making should include the interests and well-being of present and future generations of humans and nonhumans. There are deep and abiding conflicts of interest both between and within these groups. Trying to factor in so many considerations is likely to generate political gridlock. The authors need to explain how to avoid this.
Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, 2019 Montclair State University
Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan
Humans have long viewed themselves in a favorable light. This bias is consistent with a general pattern of self-enhancement. Neural systems in the medial prefrontal cortex underlie this way of thinking, which, even when false, may be beneficial for survival. It is hence not surprising that we often disregard contrary evidence in believing ourselves superior.
“I Am Not An Animal”, 2019 Animal Studies Repository
“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino
The answer to Chapman & Huffman’s question — “Why do we want to think humans are different?” — lies in the work of Ernest Becker and the social psychology literature known as Terror Management Theory, according to which our deep anxiety about animality and death can drive our need to feel superior to the other animals.
Diversity On Human Difference: Unanimity On Human Responsibility, 2019 McGill University
Diversity On Human Difference: Unanimity On Human Responsibility, Colin A. Chapman, Michael A. Huffman
Further commentaries on our original target article add important new points and expand our understanding of the differences between animals, particularly between non-human and human primates. But whether they affirm or deny that humans are unique, all commentators agree that our special abilities mean we should be taking responsibility for the care of nature and the plants and animals it supports. We ask: is humankind doing this?
Examining The Effects Of Energy Drinks On Academic Performance, 2019 Georgia Southern University
Examining The Effects Of Energy Drinks On Academic Performance, Alyssa P. Roberson
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Reports of energy drink (ED) consumption have grown among the United States population. Research suggests reasons for consumption vary across populations, including increased attention and enhanced endurance performance. However, ED consumers could suffer from negative effects of ED, including health problems, caffeine overdose, and death. Energy drink consumption is also linked to substance use. Despite risks of consuming ED, heavy use of EDs remains among college students, often to help with academic performance; however, research has not examined effects of ED consumption on perceived and actual academic performance. This study evaluated relationships among ED consumption, self-efficacy, and academic performance in ...
Utilizing Music Therapy To Enhance Competency Restoration Treatment, 2019 University of Denver
Utilizing Music Therapy To Enhance Competency Restoration Treatment, Cory Linder
Graduate School of Professional Psychology: Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects
In Dusky v. the United States (1960), the Supreme Court ruled that the U.S. Constitution requires all defendants to be competent to proceed before the judge issues a verdict. Specifically, to stand trial, defendants must have a factual and rational understanding of court proceedings and the capacity to work with their attorneys. Those who are found incompetent to proceed frequently have severe and persistent mental illness and often exhibit cognitive deficits (Mossman et al., 2007). Competency restoration utilizes therapeutic services to treat symptoms that inhibit defendants from being opined competent to proceed. Existing research suggests music therapy can be ...
Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, 2019 Kimmela Center
Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.
Sacrificial Lambs, 2019 University of Queensland, Australia
Sacrificial Lambs, Clive Phillips
Sheep evolved from the mouflon as mountain animals, able to escape predation by leaping between rock ledges. Their defense was their agility. Humans brought them to the plains, where the agility was less useful, but their lack of aggression, speed or weaponry against predators made them a prime target to become one of man’s meat providers. A perfect animal in many ways, with extraordinary perceptive powers and some remarkable cognitive skills, they are often treated with complete disregard for their welfare. Yet sheep themselves won’t tell us this, for a sheep that alerted others to its weakness really ...
Is Knowing Enough To Change Human Attitudes And Actions?, 2019 Hunter College, CUNY
Is Knowing Enough To Change Human Attitudes And Actions?, Liv Baker
Marino & Merskin present evidence on key aspects of cognition, such as theory of mind, learning, emotional valence, and sociality, to make a convincing argument that sheep are due consideration as individual sentient beings. With this information, what will it take to produce a real, meaningful shift in our attitudes and actions towards other animals, including a species as disadvantaged as sheep? What else do we need to know?
Positive Sentience Is Underrated, 2019 Association for Respectful Cohabitation
Positive Sentience Is Underrated, Teya Brooks Pribac
My commentary focuses on two aspects of ovine (well-)being considered in the review: the developmental context and (un)fulfilled potentialities.
Sheeple? The Need For More Research On Sheep Cognition, 2019 University of Otago
Sheeple? The Need For More Research On Sheep Cognition, Michael Colombo, Damian Scarf
Marino & Merskin (2019) provide a comprehensive review of the cognitive abilities of sheep. If research with other animals is any guide, there may be justification for the view that the abilities of sheep have been underestimated, and their review will likely stimulate more research into sheep cognition.
Sheep In Aesop’S And Phaedrus’S Fables, 2019 Tilburg University
Sheep In Aesop’S And Phaedrus’S Fables, Matteo Colombo, Chiara Raucea
Sheep feature in various animal fables. Marino & Merskin suggest that “we” view sheep as “docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid,” but animal fables do not support this view. In Aesop’s and Phaedrus’s fables, sheep are a primary target of injustice; but they are not passive targets. Sheep endure injustice actively and honestly. They are intelligent, aware and outspoken about their own condition.
What Should We Do About Sheep? The Role Of Intelligence In Welfare Considerations, 2019 Australian National University
What Should We Do About Sheep? The Role Of Intelligence In Welfare Considerations, Heather Browning
Marino & Merskin (2019) demonstrate that sheep are more cognitively complex than typically thought. We should be cautious in interpreting the implications of these results for welfare considerations to avoid perpetuating mistaken beliefs about the moral value of intelligence as opposed to sentience. There are, however, still important ways in which this work can help improve sheeps’ lives.
What Every Shepherd Knows, 2019 Centre d'Eco-Etho Recherche et Education.
What Every Shepherd Knows, Marthe Kiley-Worthington
The findings of the research reviewed by Marino & Merskin have been common knowledge to shepherds for millennia. Many of them are also evolutionary necessities for all mammals, especially social ones.
The Problem Is Not Discourses Of Production; It Is Production Itself, 2019 Florida Int'l University
The Problem Is Not Discourses Of Production; It Is Production Itself, Sean Hermanson
The mistreatment of sheep is not because of fables, stereotypes, unconscious cultural paradigms, our collective consciousness, anthropocentricism, human arrogance, or our drive to dominate. Nonetheless, protections for sheep used in research and agriculture ought to be strengthened.
Science, Social Critique, And The Need For Ethics, 2019 Union College
Science, Social Critique, And The Need For Ethics, Peter Woodford, Alecia Carter
Marino & Merskin’s target article on the cognitive and psychological capacities of sheep commendably aims to use science to critique human practice. However, the article fails to make specific recommendations about how human-sheep relations should change going forward. We also underscore two problematic assumptions highlighted by other commentators: (1) that cognitive complexity is important to the case for the moral status of non-human animals and (2) that the way humans use and treat animals is caused by our conception of animals’ capacities. Scientists should engage more with philosophy and ethical theory to articulate the implications of animal capacities for human ...
Octopus Umwelt Or Umwelten?, 2019 University of Central Florida
Octopus Umwelt Or Umwelten?, Luis H. Favela
Even if its intelligent behaviors are the product of decentralized control systems, Mather argues that the octopus has an “Umwelt,” and, thus, a mind. I argue that Umwelt does not provide a conceptual basis for understanding the octopus as having a mind. First, Umwelt does not refer only to an organism’s perceptual abilities. Second, in providing evidence for decentralized control systems that underlie intelligent behaviors, Mather makes a case against an octopus Umwelt. Instead, the octopus is more akin to a collection of systems, or Umwelten, than a single system with an Umwelt.
The Ingenuity Of Cephalopods, 2019 ECOBIOMAR, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC)
The Ingenuity Of Cephalopods, Angel Guerra
I present a brief overview of the richness of cephalopod behavioral, neural and cognitive traits.