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Women's Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators And Fear Of Rape, Aaron George Cisneros 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Women's Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators And Fear Of Rape, Aaron George Cisneros

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The overarching goal of the present thesis was to study women’s perceptions of sexual assault perpetrators and how those perceptions relate to fear of sexual assault. Previous researchers have developed a substantial literature on predictors and correlates of sexual assault perpetration. What is not known is how accurate women’s perceptions are of these predictors. Rationale from both evolutionary mismatch theory and social psychological stereotype theory suggests that women’s perceptions may be inaccurate. In the present thesis, I tested a set of hypotheses designed to examine individual differences in women’s perceptions of sexual assault perpetrators and how ...


Fostering Metacognitive Skills: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Paul Welch, Annie Van Homrigh 2019 St Patrick's College (Townsville Qld)

Fostering Metacognitive Skills: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Paul Welch, Annie Van Homrigh

2009 - 2019 ACER Research Conferences

Metacognitive awareness, which is part of self regulated learning, includes the domains of knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Students with effective metacognitive skills are more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and strive to further improve their learning skills. This longitudinal cohort study uses the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Jr. MAI) to measure student metacognitive awareness across Years 7 to 10 in a north Queensland girls’ Catholic college.


Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Language Access In Early And Late Spanish-English Bilinguals: An Erp Study, Lissete Gimenez-Arce

Student Theses

Research suggests that code-switching between two languages is possible because there is nonselective access to both languages, i.e., both languages are interdependent and stored in a shared lexicon. In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to measure the neural processes associated with language access, in particular, the ERP components: N200 and N400. Although previous studies have utilized these ERPs to investigate language access using interlingual homographs, i.e., words that look the same in two languages but have different meanings, these have focused on comparisons of monolingual and bilinguals. In contrast, we used a design that looked ...


The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle 2019 University of French West Indies

The Influence Of Tropical Climate On Cognitive Task Performance And Aiming Accuracy In Young International Fencers, Nicolas Robin, Aurelie Collado, Stephane Sinnapah, Elisabeth Rosnet, Olivier Hue, Guillaume R. Coudevylle

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

This study examined how a tropical climate (TC) influences the cognitive and aiming task performances of young international fencers. The participants performed the tasks in TC and an air-conditioned room. In each session, they completed questionnaires evaluating affective states, fatigue, and comfort and thermal sensations. They also carried out cognitive tasks (simple and choice reaction time, attention, and vigilance tasks) and a motor task testing aiming accuracy with a sword while wearing protective clothing and a mask. TC, which was observed to decrease thermal discomfort, was revealed to decrease aiming accuracy and positive affective states. There was no deleterious effect ...


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney, Australia

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth 2019 Humboldt Universität zu Berlin

Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Research on the mental lives of farm animals is crucial to assess not only their physical but also their psychological wellbeing. Their current housing and handling practices are highly unlikely to meet their cognitive needs and demands, but our knowledge of their mental capacities is still limited. Although folk wisdom often refers to farm animals as dull and inflexible, recent studies show they have a rich interpretation of their environment and can solve complex problems. Yet an uncritical and anthropomorphic assessment of farm animal cognition and behaviour may lead to the attribution of an exaggerated amount of cognitive flexibility. Contrary ...


The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart BSc, Derek GV Mitchell PhD 2019 Western University

The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd

Western Research Forum

Background: Emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, which can cause it to have a distracting or facilitating effect on task performance for reasons that are poorly understood. The sensory modality through which it is presented may be one determining factor. Some findings suggest that auditory stimuli facilitate visual task performance while visual stimuli interfere with it, but there are conflicting findings.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that emotional content of a different sensory modality from the task improves task-related performance via a general alerting and arousing effect for all stimuli, while emotional content of the same modality disrupts performance when ...


Cross-Linguistic Effects Of Intention Recognition In Malay Bilinguals, Maziyah Mohamed, Debra Jared 2019 Western University

Cross-Linguistic Effects Of Intention Recognition In Malay Bilinguals, Maziyah Mohamed, Debra Jared

Western Research Forum

Does the language we speak influence the way we interpret intentions of others? Prior literature has shown that obligatory markers in a language may influence the way we think. In Malay texts, accidental actions are marked using a prefix. Malay speakers are, thus, quick to identify the accidental actions of others. Conversely, it may be that Malay speakers often interpret intentions as deliberate given a more ambiguous context where the prefix is absent. The goal of the current study was to determine whether this way of interpreting one’s intentions of others extends to English texts for Malay-English bilinguals. In ...


Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey 2019 Western University

Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

Attention is the cognitive processing that facilitates the ability to target and attend to relevant environmental stimuli, while filtering out irrelevant or distracting stimuli. Control over selective attention is theorized to be dependent on organized neural communication that stems from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To evaluate selective and sustained attention, mice were trained on the novel touchscreen rodent continuous performance task (rCPT), a task designed to emulate the human CPT. In the rodent version, images are continuously presented on a touchscreen, where mice have been trained to selectively respond to one image type while suppressing responses to all others ...


Developing A Scale To Measure Problems In Finding A Good Fit, Eonyou Shin, Te-Lin Chung, Mary Lynn Damhorst, Daniel W. Russell 2019 Virginia Tech

Developing A Scale To Measure Problems In Finding A Good Fit, Eonyou Shin, Te-Lin Chung, Mary Lynn Damhorst, Daniel W. Russell

Daniel W. Russell

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring perceived PFGF. This research conceptualized problems of finding a good fit (PFGF) as a consumer's generalized perception of fit problems based on prior experience with physical, aesthetic, and functional aspects of clothing. Scale development took place through item generation, preliminary tests of reliability and validity, and final scale validation. This study contributes to the literature of consumer fit perceptions by developing a scale to assess perceived PFGF that may be a key factor influencing multiple apparel shopping behaviors, such as returning unsatisfactory products and online shopping conversion ...


More Than Just Perception-Action Recalibration: Walking Through A Virtual Environment Causes Rescaling Of Perceived Space., Jonathan W. Kelly, Lisa S. Donaldson, Lori A. Sjolund, Jacob B. Freiberg 2019 Iowa State University

More Than Just Perception-Action Recalibration: Walking Through A Virtual Environment Causes Rescaling Of Perceived Space., Jonathan W. Kelly, Lisa S. Donaldson, Lori A. Sjolund, Jacob B. Freiberg

Jonathan W. Kelly

Egocentric distances in virtual environments are commonly underperceived by up to 50 % of the intended distance. However, a brief period of interaction in which participants walk through the virtual environment while receiving visual feedback can dramatically improve distance judgments. Two experiments were designed to explore whether the increase in postinteraction distance judgments is due to perception–action recalibration or the rescaling of perceived space. Perception–action recalibration as a result of walking interaction should only affect action-specific distance judgments, whereas rescaling of perceived space should affect all distance judgments based on the rescaled percept. Participants made blind-walking distance judgments and ...


Recalibration Of Perceived Distance In Virtual Environments Occurs Rapidly And Transfers Asymmetrically Across Scale, Jonathan W. Kelly, William W. Hammel, Zachary D. Siegel, Lori A. Sjolund 2019 Iowa State University

Recalibration Of Perceived Distance In Virtual Environments Occurs Rapidly And Transfers Asymmetrically Across Scale, Jonathan W. Kelly, William W. Hammel, Zachary D. Siegel, Lori A. Sjolund

Jonathan W. Kelly

Distance in immersive virtual reality is commonly underperceived relative to intended distance, causing virtual environments to appear smaller than they actually are. However, a brief period of interaction by walking through the virtual environment with visual feedback can cause dramatic improvement in perceived distance. The goal of the current project was to determine how quickly improvement occurs as a result of walking interaction (Experiment 1) and whether improvement is specific to the distances experienced during interaction, or whether improvement transfers across scales of space (Experiment 2). The results show that five interaction trials resulted in a large improvement in perceived ...


Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda McKilligan, Colleen M. Seifert 2019 Augusta University

Design By Taking Perspectives: How Engineers Explore Problems, Jaclyn K. Murray, Jaryn A. Studer, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert

Seda McKilligan

Background: Problem exploration includes identifying, framing, and defining design problems and bounding problem spaces. Intentional and unintentional changes in problem understanding naturally occur as designers explore design problems to create solutions. Through problem exploration, new perspectives on the problem can emerge along with new and diverse ideas for solutions. By considering multiple problem perspectives varying in scope and focus, designers position themselves to increase their understandings of the “real” problem and engage in more diverse idea generation processes leading to an increasing variety of potential solutions.

Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate systematic patterns in problem ...


Retrieval Enhances Route Knowledge Acquisition, But Only When Movement Errors Are Prevented., Jonathan W. Kelly, Shana Carpenter, Lori A. Sjolund 2019 Iowa State University

Retrieval Enhances Route Knowledge Acquisition, But Only When Movement Errors Are Prevented., Jonathan W. Kelly, Shana Carpenter, Lori A. Sjolund

Jonathan W. Kelly

Studies of the testing effect have shown that retrieval significantly improves learning. However, most of these studies have been restricted to simple types of declarative verbal knowledge. Five experiments were designed to explore whether testing improves acquisition of route knowledge, which has a procedural component consisting of actions to be performed at decision points (Golledge, 1991). Participants learned a route through a series of connected rooms in a virtual building. Each room contained multiple doors, only one of which led to the next room. During encoding, participants were shown the correct sequence of doors in a manner similar to global ...


Comparison Of Two Methods For Improving Distance Perception In Virtual Reality, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep, Brenna Klesel, Zachary D. Siegel, Seth George 2019 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Methods For Improving Distance Perception In Virtual Reality, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep, Brenna Klesel, Zachary D. Siegel, Seth George

Jonathan W. Kelly

Distance is commonly underperceived in virtual environments (VEs) compared to real environments. Past work suggests that displaying a replica VE based on the real surrounding environment leads to more accurate judgments of distance, but that work has lacked the necessary control conditions to firmly make this conclusion. Other research indicates that walking through a VE with visual feedback improves judgments of distance and size. This study evaluated and compared those two methods for improving perceived distance in VEs. All participants experienced a replica VE based on the real lab. In one condition, participants visually previewed the real lab prior to ...


Rescaling Of Perceived Space Transfers Across Virtual Environments., Zachary D. Siegel, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep 2019 Iowa State University

Rescaling Of Perceived Space Transfers Across Virtual Environments., Zachary D. Siegel, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep

Jonathan W. Kelly

Research over the past 20 years has consistently shown that egocentric distance is underperceived in virtual environments (VEs) compared with real environments. In 2 experiments, judgments of object distance (Experiment 1) and object size (Experiment 2) improved after a brief period of walking through the VE with continuous visual feedback. Whereas improvement of blind-walking distance judgments could be attributable to recalibration of walking, improvement in perceived size is considered evidence for rescaling of perceived space, whereby perceived size and distance increased after walking interaction. Furthermore, improvements in judged distance and size transferred to a new VE. Distance judgments, but not ...


Spatial Cognitive Implications Of Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Devi Acharya, Alfredo Velasco, Emanuel Bustamante, Alec G. Ostrander, Stephen B. Gilbert 2019 Iowa State University

Spatial Cognitive Implications Of Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Devi Acharya, Alfredo Velasco, Emanuel Bustamante, Alec G. Ostrander, Stephen B. Gilbert

Jonathan W. Kelly

Teleporting is a popular interface to allow virtual reality users to explore environments that are larger than the available walking space. When teleporting, the user positions a marker in the virtual environment and is instantly transported without any self-motion cues. Five experiments were designed to evaluate the spatial cognitive consequences of teleporting, and to identify environmental cues that could mitigate those costs. Participants performed a triangle completion task by traversing two outbound path legs before pointing to the unmarked path origin. Locomotion was accomplished via walking or two common implementations of the teleporting interface distinguished by the concordance between movement ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Procedures To Change Implicit Measures, Patrick S. Forscher, Calvin K. Lai, Jordan R. Ast, Charles R. Ebersole, Michelle Herman, Patricia G. Devine, Brian A. Nosek 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Meta-Analysis Of Procedures To Change Implicit Measures, Patrick S. Forscher, Calvin K. Lai, Jordan R. Ast, Charles R. Ebersole, Michelle Herman, Patricia G. Devine, Brian A. Nosek

Psychological Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds| < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior.


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez 2019 University of Minho

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Spatial Cognitive Implications Of Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Devi Acharya, Alfredo Velasco, Emanuel Bustamante, Alec G. Ostrander, Stephen B. Gilbert 2019 Iowa State University

Spatial Cognitive Implications Of Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Devi Acharya, Alfredo Velasco, Emanuel Bustamante, Alec G. Ostrander, Stephen B. Gilbert

Stephen B. Gilbert

Teleporting is a popular interface to allow virtual reality users to explore environments that are larger than the available walking space. When teleporting, the user positions a marker in the virtual environment and is instantly transported without any self-motion cues. Five experiments were designed to evaluate the spatial cognitive consequences of teleporting, and to identify environmental cues that could mitigate those costs. Participants performed a triangle completion task by traversing two outbound path legs before pointing to the unmarked path origin. Locomotion was accomplished via walking or two common implementations of the teleporting interface distinguished by the concordance between movement ...


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