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Derivational Development: Derivational Word Processing In Three English-Speaking Populations, Lisa Suzanne Kemp 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Derivational Development: Derivational Word Processing In Three English-Speaking Populations, Lisa Suzanne Kemp

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Native-English speaking adults use morphological decomposition to understand complex words (e.g. farmer becomes farm-er). Whether decomposition is driven by semantic organization is still unclear. It is also unclear whether ESL adults and elementary age children use the same word processing strategies as native speaking adults. This study tested an identical experimental procedure across three English-speaking populations: native speaking adults, non-native speaking adults and elementary age children. The first task tested how readers use base and suffix information in complex words and nonwords when the word featured only a base word, only a suffix, both a base and a ...


Prepositional Phrase Attachment Ambiguities In Declarative And Interrogative Contexts: Oral Reading Data, Tyler J. Peckenpaugh 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prepositional Phrase Attachment Ambiguities In Declarative And Interrogative Contexts: Oral Reading Data, Tyler J. Peckenpaugh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Certain English sentences containing multiple prepositional phrases (e.g., She had planned to cram the paperwork in the drawer into her briefcase) have been reported to be prone to mis-parsing of a kind that is standardly called a “garden path.” The mis-parse stems from the temporary ambiguity of the first prepositional phrase (PP1: in the drawer), which tends to be interpreted initially as the goal argument of the verb cram. If the sentence ended there, that would be correct. But that analysis is overridden when the second prepositional phrase (PP2: into her briefcase) is encountered, since the into phrase can ...


Heritage Speaker And Late Bilingual L2 Relative Clause Processing And Language Dominance Effects, LeeAnn S. Stevens 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Heritage Speaker And Late Bilingual L2 Relative Clause Processing And Language Dominance Effects, Leeann S. Stevens

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traditionally, heritage speakers are recognized as a heterogeneous group whose skills in their heritage language are unlike those of monolinguals or L2 learners of that language. Indeed, much evidence confirms the cognitive and linguistic uniqueness of this population. However, highly proficient heritage speakers may pattern more similarly to another bilingual population than typically assumed: first-generation late bilinguals.

The present study examines group-level processing differences between Spanish heritage speakers and Spanish-English late bilinguals in English, the second-learned and current societal majority language of these populations. Dominance is also analyzed as a possible effect of group processing differences, since traditionally and definitionally ...


Cue-Based Reflexive Reference Resolution: Evidence From Korean Reflexive Caki, Namseok Yong 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cue-Based Reflexive Reference Resolution: Evidence From Korean Reflexive Caki, Namseok Yong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation aims to reveal cognitive mechanisms and factors that underlie the reflexive dependency formation. In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to the question of how our mind works in building linguistic dependencies (including an antecedent-reflexive dependency) because relevant research has proved promising and illuminating in regard to the properties (e.g., system architecture, computational algorithms, etc.) of human language processor and its close connection with other cognitive functions such as memory (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005; Lewis, Vasishth, & Van Dyke, 2006; McElree, 2000; McElree, Foraker, & Dyer, 2003; Van Dyke & Johns, 2012; Wagers, Lau, & Phillips, 2009). Building upon this line of research, the present dissertation provides empirical evidence to show that the parser can directly access potential antecedents (stored in memory) in forming an antecedent-reflexive dependency, using various linguistic cues and contextual knowledge available at the reflexive.

In order to make this claim, this dissertation examines the Korean mono-morphemic reflexive caki ‘self’ (also known as a long-distance anaphor), using acceptability judgment and self-paced reading methodologies, and asks (i) what linguistic factors guide its reference resolution and (ii) how they are applied to cognitive processes for memory retrieval and phrase structure building.

A series of acceptability judgment experiments (Experiments 1 through 5) show that caki has a very robust referential bias: it strongly prefers a subject antecedent. Moreover, it is established that syntactic constraints (e.g., binding constraints) are not the only available source of information during caki’s reference resolution. Indeed, various non-syntactic sources of information (or cues) can also determine caki’s reference resolution. Three self-paced reading experiments (Experiments 6 through 8) provide evidence compatible with the direct-access content-addressable memory retrieval model (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005; Lewis et al., 2006; McElree, 2000; Van Dyke & McElree, 2011)

Based on these experimental findings, I present an explanation of why caki preferentially forms a dependency with a subject antecedent. I argue that caki’s subject antecedent bias is driven both externally (i.e., syntactic prominence of a grammatical subject and first-mention advantage) and internally (i.e., frequency-based prediction on caki-subject dependency relation). Finally, I showcase how a referential dependency between caki and a potential antecedent can be constructed by the cue-based retrieval parser (Lewis et al., 2006; Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003).


The Effects Of Language Background And Foreign Accent On Listening Comprehension, Sita Carraturo 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of Language Background And Foreign Accent On Listening Comprehension, Sita Carraturo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The act of listening to a linguistic signal is an involved process, and, rarely occurs in absolute silence. A person trying to listen and comprehend speech is likely in an environment that has some sort of additional noise: white noise from a fan, passing traffic, construction, or just other talkers. Each of these additional auditory signals creates an unfavorable environment for the listener who is trying to capture the target signal. Research has been able to quantify and describe the effects of noise on the comprehension of linguistic signals, and has also shown that that bilinguals and monolinguals — though their ...


Methods Of Teaching Latin: Theory, Practice, Application, Morgan A. Nicoulin 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Methods Of Teaching Latin: Theory, Practice, Application, Morgan A. Nicoulin

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this project, I present a way to effectively blend modern theories of language acquisition and the contemporary practice of teaching Latin. I intend to demonstrate that a curriculum is able to balance both traditional and innovative philosophies by adapting Second Language Acquisition Theory’s idealized way to learn a language to fit the realistic limitations of the classroom. I begin with a discussion of the history of language pedagogy, focusing on Latin’s influence on the study of language learning from antiquity to present. Next, I present the key topics in SLA and the practical implications of this research ...


Effect Of Consistent Singing On Maintenance Of Speech Intelligibility Following Lsvt®: A Retrospective Longitudinal Case Study, Rachel Ricca Beck 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Consistent Singing On Maintenance Of Speech Intelligibility Following Lsvt®: A Retrospective Longitudinal Case Study, Rachel Ricca Beck

Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s Disease is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting one’s ability to hone and refine volitional movement. Many with Parkinson’s report significant effects on voice and communication. Speech-language pathologists have long targeted the achievement of increased vocal volume through intensive voice therapy, with the most common program being Lee Silverman Voice Treatment® (LSVT®) (Ramig et al., 1994). While LSVT® is the most prominent type of voice therapy for individuals with Parkinson’s, other researchers have begun investigating therapeutic singing because of the similar functions it employs (e.g., increased breath support, utilization of entire vocal range).

The current ...


The Poetic Function Of Imagination: The Parallel Process Of Poiêsis, Angela Carlson 2019 Lesley University

The Poetic Function Of Imagination: The Parallel Process Of Poiêsis, Angela Carlson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

In the advent of Postmodernism, modern approaches to understanding the nature of things is being put into question. As the gap between objective and subjective realms of experiences is narrowing, there is an increased need for a more artful approach to science. This paper serves as my attempt to promote the field of Expressive Arts Therapy (ExATh) as a mode of poetic science for understanding the experience of ‘Being’ in the world. Through a critical review of the semantic development of the ancient Greek concepts poiêsis, noêsis, and aisthêsis, the imagination is identified as a function of alêthaic revealing, personified ...


The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956) claims that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently. Language-thought interaction is likely to be more complex in bilinguals because they have two languages that could influence their cognitive and perceptual processes.Lupyan’s (2012) Label-feedback Hypothesis proposes a mechanism underpinning language-thought interactions, arguingthat linguistic labels affect our conceptual and perceptual representations through top-down feedback.This thesis tested the Label-feedback Hypothesis by capitalizing on an interesting feature of Chinese. In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories (an exception issunflower), whereas in Chinese, some nouns provide ...


Effects Of Bilingualism On Language Processing: Evidence From Monolingual (English) And Bilingual (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, And Arabic) Speakers, Stephanie Castelin, Salim A. Mouloua, Gabriella A. Fiorino, Eric T. Bell, Paola N. Luigi, Zamira Y. Feliz, Andrea A. Alfonsi, Mustapha Mouloua 2019 University of Central Florida

Effects Of Bilingualism On Language Processing: Evidence From Monolingual (English) And Bilingual (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, And Arabic) Speakers, Stephanie Castelin, Salim A. Mouloua, Gabriella A. Fiorino, Eric T. Bell, Paola N. Luigi, Zamira Y. Feliz, Andrea A. Alfonsi, Mustapha Mouloua

Stephanie Castelin

The present study was designed to empirically examine the effects of bilingualism on language processing in relation to congruent and incongruent sentences. 59 monolingual and bilingual participants completed a semantic congruence decision task. Results indicated significant differences in accuracy and reaction time among monolingual and bilingual speakers.  These findings have theoretical implications and apply to both workplace and classroom settings for various learning and communication activities.  


Swearing In A Second Language, Grace Irwin 2019 Grand Valley State University

Swearing In A Second Language, Grace Irwin

Masters Theses

Second language learners often lack knowledge of L2 swear words, their appropriateness, and pragmatic function. Competence in L2 swearing is important for L2 learners to be able to express themselves expertly and understand others’ emotional expressions precisely. However, taboo language is rarely included explicitly in L2 curricula due to its controversial nature. This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning what second language users actually know about swearing in their L2. Some studies have attempted to determine learners’ receptive swearing competence (Jay & Janschewitz, 2008; Kapoor, 2016); however, the present study employs an updated measure of L2 pragmatic swearing competence to investigate ...


Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Learning Compared To Implicit Grammar Learning In Adults, Leah Brainin, Marc Joanisse 2019 Western University

Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Learning Compared To Implicit Grammar Learning In Adults, Leah Brainin, Marc Joanisse

Western Research Forum

Compared to young children, the language learning process is much more difficult and less successful in adulthood. Little is known about how non-linguistic cognitive processes contribute to these age-dependent differences. We argue that language learning involves both explicit declarative memory processes to learn vocabulary and implicit procedural memory processes to learn grammatical patterns. In this preliminary study, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of declarative versus procedural learning in adults via an artificial language learning task. Participants ages 18 to 29 heard novel singular and plural words associated with images of common objects. The grammar of the language consisted ...


Effects Of Context On Neural Oscillations During Free-Reading Of Stories, Max Cantor 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Effects Of Context On Neural Oscillations During Free-Reading Of Stories, Max Cantor

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Context plays a fundamental role in language comprehension; however, much of what we know about the effects of context come from isolated sentences, and the role of context during free-reading of naturalistic stories is less well understood. It is plausible that experimentally manipulated, isolated sentences provide fewer predictive affordances than stories, where the topic of a story may provide top-down contextual information in addition to the linguistic constraints on sentences. These sources of contextual information have been shown to affect language comprehension, as measured by eye movements and electroencephalographic (EEG) scalp potentials. We examined the effects of context on the ...


Feeling Languages: "A Diaspora Of Selves" Among Bi- And Multi-Lingual Students At The University Of Colorado Boulder, Chloe LaChapelle 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Feeling Languages: "A Diaspora Of Selves" Among Bi- And Multi-Lingual Students At The University Of Colorado Boulder, Chloe Lachapelle

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Languages are not only means of communication. Languages are embodied experiences that are emplaced in contexts; thus, they are imbued with feelings that affect speakers' expression of self. Using interview and survey data from 60 student research participants at the University of Colorado Boulder, this thesis finds that 91.67% of participants report feeling different to some degree when they speak different languages. By analyzing commonalities in the data, it was found that there are eight main feelings that participants experience when they speak a language: 1) confidence, 2) comfort, 3) enjoyment, 4) ability to express emotions, 5) humor, 6 ...


Psyc 355/Neur 355, Spencer Kelly 2019 Colgate University

Psyc 355/Neur 355, Spencer Kelly

Faculty Syllabi

Language is arguably the most powerful tool on the planet. Think of any product of human culture—all of it was influenced by language. This course asks four big questions about this unique device: What is language? Where did it come from? Is the brain designed for language? How does language affect thought? We will approach these questions from multiple perspectives, from linguistics to anthropology, neuroscience to philosophy and cognitive science to developmental psychology. In addition, you will become competent in the varied ways researchers attempt to answer these questions, with the ultimate goal of asking your own empirical questions ...


Storytelling Study, Samantha Irene Pepe 2019 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Storytelling Study, Samantha Irene Pepe

Honors Theses and Capstones

Expressive prosody (i.e., a manner of communication that is characterized by lively rhythm and tempo) and inexpressive prosody (i.e., monotone speech) present different environments for listening to a story during a read-aloud session. This study aims to assess whether there are visual attention differences for preschoolers in these varied prosodic environments and how this affects comprehension.


Linguistic Alignment Is Affected More By Lexical Surprisal Rather Than Social Power, Yang Xu, Jeremy Cole, David Reitter 2019 San Diego State University

Linguistic Alignment Is Affected More By Lexical Surprisal Rather Than Social Power, Yang Xu, Jeremy Cole, David Reitter

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Transient Blend States And Discrete Agreement-Driven Errors In Sentence Production, Matthew Goldrick, Laurel Brehm, Pyeong Whan Cho, Paul Smolensky 2019 Northwestern University

Transient Blend States And Discrete Agreement-Driven Errors In Sentence Production, Matthew Goldrick, Laurel Brehm, Pyeong Whan Cho, Paul Smolensky

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Errors in subject-verb agreement are common in everyday language production. This has been studied using a preamble completion task in which a participant hears or reads a preamble containing inflected nouns and forms a complete English sentence (“The key to the cabinets” could be completed as "The key to the cabinets is gold.") Existing work has focused on errors arising in selecting the correct verb form for production in the presence of a more ‘local’ noun with different number features (The key to the cabinets are gold). However, the same paradigm elicits substantial numbers of preamble errors ("The key to ...


Can Entropy Explain Successor Surprisal Effects In Reading?, Marten van Schijndel, Tal Linzen 2019 Johns Hopkins University

Can Entropy Explain Successor Surprisal Effects In Reading?, Marten Van Schijndel, Tal Linzen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Human reading behavior is sensitive to surprisal: more predictable words tend to be read faster. Unexpectedly, this applies not only to the surprisal of the word that is currently being read, but also to the surprisal of upcoming (successor) words that have not been fixated yet. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that readers can extract lexical information parafoveally. Calling this interpretation into question, Angele et al. (2015) showed that successor effects appear even in contexts in which those successor words are not yet visible. They hypothesized that successor surprisal predicts reading time because it approximates the reader’s ...


Guess Who’S Coming (And Who’S Going): Bringing Perspective To The Rational Speech Acts Framework, Carolyn Jane Anderson, Brian W. Dillon 2019 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Guess Who’S Coming (And Who’S Going): Bringing Perspective To The Rational Speech Acts Framework, Carolyn Jane Anderson, Brian W. Dillon

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We present a Rational Speech Acts approach to modeling how conversation participants reason about perspectival expressions. The interpretation of perspectival expressions, such as the motion verbs 'come' and 'go', depends on the point-of-view from which they are evaluated. In order to interpret a perspectival expression, the listener must jointly reason about the speaker’s intended message and their choice of perspective. We propose a Bayesian approach to this inference problem and describe an extension of the Rational Speech Acts model that incorporates perspective. We lay out three sets of predictions that this model makes relating to the lexical semantics of ...


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