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Phonetics and Phonology Commons

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Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird 2019 Montclair State University

Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird

Jonathan Howell

Most of our students, particularly undergraduates, are not destined to become phonologists, or even linguists. Our primary goal, then, ought not to be instruction of any specific theory, topic or dataset. The imperative is to develop in students the literacies which inform the practice of phonology but which will also serve students in other arenas. In this talk, we discuss a collaboration between phonologist and librarian to embed information literacy into a one-semester undergraduate introduction to phonology. We want to help students to uncover the threshold concepts identified as central to information literacy by the Association of College & Research Libraries ...


Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer 2019 CUNY Graduate Center, St. John’s University

Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer

Publications and Research

Objectives: To examine maturation of neural discriminative responses to an English vowel contrast from infancy to 4 years of age and to determine how biological factors (age and sex) and an experiential factor (amount of Spanish versus English input) modulate neural discrimination of speech.

Design: Event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses (MMRs) were used as indices of discrimination of the American English vowels [ε] versus [I] in infants and children between 3 months and 47 months of age. A total of 168 longitudinal and cross-sectional data sets were collected from 98 children (Bilingual Spanish–English: 47 male and 31 female sessions ...


The Pin/Pen Merger, Isaiah Solorzano 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

The Pin/Pen Merger, Isaiah Solorzano

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

The Sound Change Across Kansas: PEN/PIN Merger

Isaiah Solorzano, Mary Kohn

Department of English

College of Arts & Sciences

Mergers, a sound change that present themselves in the background of everyday conversations, usually going unnoticed and uninterrupted across speech communities. I am interested in the sound change of short vowels found in word pairs like pen-pin, shown to be changing [1]. In 2014, Strelluf suggested the low-back merger is present in Kansas City due, in part, to a large initial population of South Midland speakers. This study indicates the merger should be advancing [1]. We do not understand, entirely, how ...


The Status Of The Word-Final Domain And Linguistically-Constrained Language Learning Cues, Megan Rouch 2019 William & Mary

The Status Of The Word-Final Domain And Linguistically-Constrained Language Learning Cues, Megan Rouch

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Past experimental and theoretical research have argued that phonological devoicing as a word-final phenomenon only has inherent phonetic motivation to exist utterance-finally and that its presence at lower domain levels is due to analogy (Hock 1991, 1999; Hualde and Eager 2016). This evinces the idea that the word is not a domain tied to phonology inherently. Juxtaposingly, final devoicing (FD) is found phonetically at various prosodic domain levels. Final lengthening (FL) is also found at various prosodic levels, though is explained as only having a push to exist utterance-finally through a process similar to the “slowing down of a machine ...


A Perception Study Of Rioplatense Spanish, Cecelia Staggs 2019 Boise State University

A Perception Study Of Rioplatense Spanish, Cecelia Staggs

McNair Scholars Research Journal

Rioplatense Spanish (RPS; Argentina and Uruguay) is known for its distinctive pronunciation features. In Standard American Spanish, the sound associated with the letters ‘y’ or ‘ll’ is [j] (as in ‘yellow’), but in RPS the sound is [ʒ] (as in ‘measure’) or, more recently, [ʃ] (as in ‘shoe’). Previous studies found this sound change (from [ʒ] to [ʃ]) is almost complete in speakers from Uruguay and Argentina, but the change in Uruguay is more recent. In this study, RPS speakers from both countries were presented with audio recordings of words containing all possible variants of the sounds [j], [ʒ], and ...


Orthographic And Phonological Processing In Beginning Readers, Emily Fisher 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Orthographic And Phonological Processing In Beginning Readers, Emily Fisher

Senior Theses

In order to learn to “sound out” new words, children must have phonological awareness, the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sounds in words. However, in skilled readers, performance on phonological awareness tasks is influenced by orthographic awareness, the awareness of spelling patterns and constraints. Both orthographic and phonological awareness are essential to reading, however, until recently the role of orthographic knowledge in phonological awareness has not been thoroughly investigated in beginning readers. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between orthographic and phonological knowledge in beginning readers and established a proof of concept for the use of eye tracking ...


The Effects Of English Pronunciation Instruction On Listening Skills Among Vietnamese Learners, Nguyet Nguyen 2019 Grand Valley State University

The Effects Of English Pronunciation Instruction On Listening Skills Among Vietnamese Learners, Nguyet Nguyen

Masters Theses

Listening has been a neglected skill in both second language research and teaching practice (Khaghaninejad & Maleki, 2015; Nowrouzi, Tam, Zareian & Nimehchisalem, 2015) and recent research has shown that second language (L2) listening difficulties might relate to phonological problems besides syntactic and lexical knowledge (e.g., Suristro, 2018). There have been some empirical studies examining the effects of phonetic instruction on perceptual skills showing promising results (e.g., Aliaga-Garcia & Mora, 2009; Linebaugh & Roche, 2013). This study contributes to this area with a focus on investigating the impacts of English pronunciation instruction on listening skills among Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners, targeting the four English phonemes: word-final stop consonants /t/-/d/, the lax high front vowel /ɪ/ and the tense high front vowel /i/. Particularly, it examines whether pronunciation instruction would have effects on (a) students’ abilities to listen to and distinguish target phonemes, and (b) students’ abilities to listen to ...


L2 Learners And The Intelligiblity Of The Bostonian And Californian Accents, Russell Paul Kapryn 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

L2 Learners And The Intelligiblity Of The Bostonian And Californian Accents, Russell Paul Kapryn

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This thesis investigates issues of intelligibility through the lens and focus of prosody when the Bostonian and Los Angeles-based accents are heard in casually occurring conversation by native and non-native speakers. Over the spring and summer of 2017, six native speakers and 11 non-native speakers of English were interviewed from having listened to two 2.5 minute audio sample clips of speakers who have these accents. Respondents were asked questions such as what was difficult or easy or whether they could summarize the recordings for me. Findings indicate that while the native speakers often had difficulty with vocabulary due to ...


Text-Speech Alignment: A Robin Hood Approach For Endangered Languages, Claire Bowern, Rikker Dockum, Sarah Babinski, Hunter Craft, Anelisa Fergus, Dolly Goldenberg 2019 Yale University

Text-Speech Alignment: A Robin Hood Approach For Endangered Languages, Claire Bowern, Rikker Dockum, Sarah Babinski, Hunter Craft, Anelisa Fergus, Dolly Goldenberg

Yale Day of Data

Forced alignment automatically aligns audio recordings of spoken language with transcripts at the level of individual sounds, greatly reducing the time required to prepare data for linguistic analysis. However, existing algorithms are mostly trained on a few well-documented languages. We test the performance of three algorithms against manually aligned data on data from a highly endangered language. At least some tasks, unsupervised alignment (either based on English or trained from a small corpus) is sufficiently reliable for it to be used on legacy data for low-resource languages. Descriptive phonetic work on vowel inventories and prosody can be accurately captured by ...


Diphthongization Of /U/ In Midwestern American English, Catherina Narigon 2019 University of Iowa

Diphthongization Of /U/ In Midwestern American English, Catherina Narigon

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Some researchers have noted that /u/ in modern Midwestern American English (MAE) seems to deviate from past documentations of the vowel, but none have conducted acoustic analyses that specifically target /u/ in MAE. I conducted a survey to examine how /u/ surfaces when produced by native Midwestern speakers. I used recordings that I obtained from native Midwestern speakers reading a word list that I designed to test /u/ in a variety of phonetic environments. Using Praat and acoustic analysis techniques, I compared the F2 values produced for various test words to expected F2 values for monophthong /u/. I found widespread ...


Final Vowel Devoicing In Blackfoot, Samantha Leigh Prins 2019 The University Of Montana

Final Vowel Devoicing In Blackfoot, Samantha Leigh Prins

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This thesis presents a study of final vowel devoicing in Blackfoot, an indigenous language of Montana and Alberta. Previous research on final vowel devoicing in Blackfoot variously suggests word-final, phrase-final, and utterance-final vowel devoicing processes (e.g. Taylor 1965, Bliss & Gick 2009, Frantz 2017), though, the conditioning environment for this phenomenon had not been a research focus prior to this study. The present study investigates intonation units (IUs) as the conditioning domain for final vowel devoicing in Blackfoot.

Final vowel devoicing in Blackfoot is investigated here by examining the common word-final suffixes –wa (3SG.AN) and –yi (4SG) in two ...


Segmentation And Ur Acquisition With Ur Constraints, Max Nelson 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Segmentation And Ur Acquisition With Ur Constraints, Max Nelson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper presents a model that treats segmentation and underlying representation acquisition as parallel, interacting processes. A probability distribution over mappings from underlying to surface forms is defined us- ing a Maximum Entropy grammar which weights a set of underlying representation constraints (URCs) (Apoussidou, 2007; Pater et al., 2012). URCs are induced from observed surface strings and used to generate candidates. Structural ambiguity arising from the com- parison of segmented outputs to unsegmented surface strings is handled with Expectation Maximization (Dempster et al., 1977; Jarosz, 2013). The model successfully learns a simple voicing assimilation rule and segmentation via correspondences between ...


Learning Exceptionality And Variation With Lexically Scaled Maxent, Coral Hughto, Andrew Lamont, Brandon Prickett, Gaja Jarosz 2019 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Learning Exceptionality And Variation With Lexically Scaled Maxent, Coral Hughto, Andrew Lamont, Brandon Prickett, Gaja Jarosz

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A growing body of research in phonology addresses the representation and learning of variable processes and exceptional, lexically conditioned processes. Linzen et al. (2013) present a MaxEnt model with additive lexical scales to account for data exhibiting both variation and exceptionality. In this paper, we implement a learning model for lexically scaled MaxEnt grammars which we show to be successful across a range of data containing patterns of variation and exceptionality. We also explore how the model's parameters and the rate of exceptionality in the data influence its performance and predictions for novel forms.


Q-Theory Representations Are Logically Equivalent To Autosegmental Representations, Nick Danis, Adam Jardine 2019 Princeton University

Q-Theory Representations Are Logically Equivalent To Autosegmental Representations, Nick Danis, Adam Jardine

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We use model theory and logical interpretations to systematically compare two competing representational theories in phonology, Q-Theory (Shih and Inkelas, 2014, forthcoming) and Autosegmental Phonology (Goldsmith, 1976). We find that, under reasonable assumptions for capturing tone patterns, Q-Theory Representations are equivalent to Autosegmental Representations, in that any constraint that can be written in one theory can be written in another. This contradicts the assertions of Shih and Inkelas, who claim that Q-Theory Representations are different from, and superior to, Autosegmental Representations.


Rnn Classification Of English Vowels: Nasalized Or Not, Ling Liu, Mans Hulden, Rebecca Scarborough 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Rnn Classification Of English Vowels: Nasalized Or Not, Ling Liu, Mans Hulden, Rebecca Scarborough

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Vowel nasality is perceived and used by English listeners though it is not phonemic. Feature-based classifiers have been built to evaluate what features are useful for nasality perception and measurement. These classifiers require heavy high-level feature engineering with most features discrete and measured at discrete points. Recurrent neural networks can take advantage of sequential information, and has the advantage of freeing us from high-level feature engineering and potentially being stronger simulation models with a holistic view. Therefore, we constructed two types of RNN classifiers (vanilla RNN and LSTM) with MFCCs of the vowel as input to predict whether the vowel ...


The Effects Of Code-Mixing On Second Language Development, Aimee K. Spice 2018 Cedarville University

The Effects Of Code-Mixing On Second Language Development, Aimee K. Spice

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Second language development is an important topic of discussion in an increasingly multilingual world. This study aims to examine and detail research on the effects of code-mixing (CM) on second language development, answering how CM facilitates or constrains second language acquisition. Peer-reviewed articles on the topic published between 2013 and 2018 were examined and synthesized. Language learners/multilinguals answered questionnaires about their views on CM and second language acquisition, and a language teacher was interviewed regarding use of L1 in the language classroom and CM as a pedagogical tool. This study found that CM can be a beneficial tool for ...


A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone 2018 University of New Mexico

A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone

Shared Knowledge Conference

Although anyone can be assumed to engage in style-shifting to construct a persona (e.g. Podesva 2007b, Eckert 2008), in the case of drag performers it can be argued that style-shifting results not in an alternate persona but in a performative identity. With this hypothesis in mind, this case study uses a style-shifting paradigm to explore the varying social meanings of phonation type and vowel quality in the construction of a drag queen identity. The speech of two gay male Hispanic drag queens (DQs) from Albuquerque, New Mexico (ABQ) was investigated in various speech situations to identify social meanings indexed ...


Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., CCC-SLP, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., CCC-SLP 2018 Texas Christian University

Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., Ccc-Slp, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

English Language Learners (ELLs) with Selective Mutism (SM) mirror their typically developing, bilingual peers who are going through the silent period. The silent period is a normal phenomenon characterized by decreased expressive language and a general lack of communication that is temporary. Understanding second language acquisition and differentiating SM from the silent period, however, is critical to reduce over- and under-identification of children for services. Whereas bilingual children with SM do not speak in either of their languages, bilingual children in the silent period are only silent in their second language. Although limited information exists regarding assessment and treatment for ...


The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation presents a description of the sound patterns of Kachok, Austroasiatic language spoken in northeastern Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. The language is spoken by approximately 3000 people and is considered endangered (Simons & Fennig, 2018). Kachok is undocumented, and this dissertation is the first attempt to describe the language and its sound patterns. The goals of this dissertation are twofold: to contribute to linguistics and the science of phonetics and phonological typology, as well as increase the body of work on Austro-Asiatic languages, and to create resources for the Kachok language, culture, and people that have the potential to outlive the ...


Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Almost all studies on the phonetics of oral stop voicing patterns focus on languages with a voicing distinction. This gives rise to some debate regarding which aspects of voicing patterns arise from inherent articulatory effects related to the production of a voicing distinction, and which aspects are intentional adjustments by speakers meant to enhance a phonological contrast.

This study investigates the phonetic properties of oral stops in three No Voicing Distinction (NVD) languages; Bardi (bcj), Arapaho (arp), and Sierra Norte de Puebla Nahuatl (azz). NVD languages do not utilize the larynx to maintain a contrast between any two sounds in ...


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