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Cue-Based Reflexive Reference Resolution: Evidence From Korean Reflexive Caki, Namseok Yong 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cue-Based Reflexive Reference Resolution: Evidence From Korean Reflexive Caki, Namseok Yong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation aims to reveal cognitive mechanisms and factors that underlie the reflexive dependency formation. In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to the question of how our mind works in building linguistic dependencies (including an antecedent-reflexive dependency) because relevant research has proved promising and illuminating in regard to the properties (e.g., system architecture, computational algorithms, etc.) of human language processor and its close connection with other cognitive functions such as memory (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005; Lewis, Vasishth, & Van Dyke, 2006; McElree, 2000; McElree, Foraker, & Dyer, 2003; Van Dyke & Johns, 2012; Wagers, Lau, & Phillips, 2009). Building upon this line of research, the present dissertation provides empirical evidence to show that the parser can directly access potential antecedents (stored in memory) in forming an antecedent-reflexive dependency, using various linguistic cues and contextual knowledge available at the reflexive.

In order to make this claim, this dissertation examines the Korean mono-morphemic reflexive caki ‘self’ (also known as a long-distance anaphor), using acceptability judgment and self-paced reading methodologies, and asks (i) what linguistic factors guide its reference resolution and (ii) how they are applied to cognitive processes for memory retrieval and phrase structure building.

A series of acceptability judgment experiments (Experiments 1 through 5) show that caki has a very robust referential bias: it strongly prefers a subject antecedent. Moreover, it is established that syntactic constraints (e.g., binding constraints) are not the only available source of information during caki’s reference resolution. Indeed, various non-syntactic sources of information (or cues) can also determine caki’s reference resolution. Three self-paced reading experiments (Experiments 6 through 8) provide evidence compatible with the direct-access content-addressable memory retrieval model (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005; Lewis et al., 2006; McElree, 2000; Van Dyke & McElree, 2011)

Based on these experimental findings, I present an explanation of why caki preferentially forms a dependency with a subject antecedent. I argue that caki’s subject antecedent bias is driven both externally (i.e., syntactic prominence of a grammatical subject and first-mention advantage) and internally (i.e., frequency-based prediction on caki-subject dependency relation). Finally, I showcase how a referential dependency between caki and a potential antecedent can be constructed by the cue-based retrieval parser (Lewis et al., 2006; Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003).


Reframing Internationalization: Faculty Beliefs And Teaching Practices, Marco Tulluck 2019 University of Washington Tacoma

Reframing Internationalization: Faculty Beliefs And Teaching Practices, Marco Tulluck

Ed.D. Dissertations in Practice/Capstone Projects

This study applies Critical Race Theory as a critical lens to gain a clearer understanding of highly racialized policies and teaching practices around international student engagement in US higher education. The findings help to inform higher education leaders of how to support faculty to foster more inclusive and affirming learning environments for international students of color and other diverse student populations.

This mixed methods study employed a modified version of the Colorblind and Multicultural Ideology of STEM Faculty Measure as well as focus group interviews to gain a more complex understanding of how university faculty members’ beliefs align with colorblind ...


Touch Down In Pittsburghese, R. Thomas McCoy 2019 Johns Hopkins University, SAIS Bologna Center

Touch Down In Pittsburghese, R. Thomas Mccoy

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

In standard American English, down may take a DP object only if the DP indicates a path, as in I walked down the street. However, for some speakers of Pittsburgh English, it is also grammatical for down to take a DP object indicating a location or goal, as in She works down Baltimore (meaning ‘She works down in Baltimore’). In this work, I describe the distributional properties of this usage, which I name “touch down.” Based on these properties, I propose the syntactic analysis that touch down licenses a silent preposition where standard American English has an overt preposition, and ...


Customizing The Lingo Grammar Matrix Morphology, Sarah R. Moeller 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Customizing The Lingo Grammar Matrix Morphology, Sarah R. Moeller

Colorado Research in Linguistics

The LinGO Grammar Matrix is rapid development grammatical analyzer that is enabled by a customization system, including an online questionnaire. The questionnaire allows any linguist to quickly build a starter grammar for any language. However, its documentation is not easily navigable. This paper describes the process of customizing the morphological section of the grammar, using Lezgi case inflection as an example. It outlines how suggestions for helping potential users to gain confidence in using the Matrix.


Oral Explanations In University Teaching: The Role Of Projector Constructions In Spoken German, Anna Saller 2019 University of Boulder, Colorado

Oral Explanations In University Teaching: The Role Of Projector Constructions In Spoken German, Anna Saller

Colorado Research in Linguistics

This study explores the nature of oral explanations in German university teaching and focuses particularly on projections, which are a widely-used feature in order to guide the students’ attention. Projector constructions facilitate the production and organization of complex statements and allow the speaker to draw the students’ attention to crucial pieces of information. Furthermore, projections facilitate the drawing of inferences for the listener: The projector phrase opens up semantic and syntactic slots that need to be filled, so that the number of possible contents to follow is restricted. In German, the placement of the conjugated verb in the projected unit ...


A Multifactorial Analysis On The Syntactic Variations In One Kind Of Chinese Verb-Direction Construction (Vdc), Tao Lin 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

A Multifactorial Analysis On The Syntactic Variations In One Kind Of Chinese Verb-Direction Construction (Vdc), Tao Lin

Colorado Research in Linguistics

This research investigates the linguistic features that can predict native speakers’ choice of three word order alternations of one kind of Verb-Direction Constructions (VDCs) in Mandarin Chinese, i.e., object initial, middle, and final types. Previous work on the contributing features is done through qualitative observations, and the direction of some predictions is unclear. This paper provides corpus based quantitative studies on both monofactorial and multifactorial analyses, which clarify the effectiveness of most of these parameters. In addition to the discussed features, some new features, such as the use of certain classes of verbs and imperatives, are also introduced in ...


A Corpus-Based Linguistic Analysis Of Latin Frequentative Verbs, Jared Desjardins 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

A Corpus-Based Linguistic Analysis Of Latin Frequentative Verbs, Jared Desjardins

Colorado Research in Linguistics

Considering that Latin frequentative verbs have transparent morphological structure (the supine stem of the base verb concatenated with the frequentative -itare suffix and regular first conjugation inflectional endings), one would assume that the meaning of each such verb is related in a predictable way to that of its corresponding base verb, and that all members of the frequentative class share semantic entailments. However, frequentative verbs resist a uniform semantic analysis and can mean something entirely unpredictable from the sum of their parts, and traditional and contemporary definitions of frequentatives ignore the degree of idiomaticity between frequentative form and function and ...


Rhematization As Etiology In The Diagnosis Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Ayden Parish 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Rhematization As Etiology In The Diagnosis Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Ayden Parish

Colorado Research in Linguistics

Current psychiatric nosology emphasizes observable symptoms as the central schema by which mental illnesses should be classified; patients are identified as depressed or schizophrenic by virtue of observed behavior or reported experiences, rather than theoretical underlying causes that may lead to an array of diverse presentations. Within this schema, the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is somewhat an outlier—its identification relies not only on overt symptomatology, but also the identification of a particular etiology from traumatic moment to current distress. That is, symptoms diagnosed as PTSD not only index that diagnostic category, but also a previous pathogenic trauma ...


“Ownself Check Ownself”: The Role Of Singlish Humor In The Rise Of The Opposition Politician In Singapore, Velda Khoo 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

“Ownself Check Ownself”: The Role Of Singlish Humor In The Rise Of The Opposition Politician In Singapore, Velda Khoo

Colorado Research in Linguistics

The People’s Action Party (PAP) have won every election in Singapore since 1959 when the citystate was first granted self-governance. Over the years, its regime has been described as authoritarian by political observers (Rodan 2004; Tan 2012), the subjugation of the media a commonly brought-up example of the party’s ability to shut down contrasting political views (Seow,1998). With media laws that dictate the freedom of the press and protect the PAP’s interests, opposition parties have found it difficult to break their stronghold on the nation-state, and there has been no real political contestation in the general ...


Democratizing Interpretation, Anya Bernstein 2019 Selected Works

Democratizing Interpretation, Anya Bernstein

Anya Bernstein

Judges interpreting statutes sometimes seem eager to outsource the work. They quote ordinary speakers to define a statutory term, point to how an audience understands it, or pin it down with interpretive canons. But sometimes conduct that appears to diminish someone’s power instead sneakily enhances it. So it is with these forms of interpretive outsourcing. Each seems to constrain judges’ authority by handing the reins to someone else, giving interpretation a democratized veneer. But in fact, each funnels power right back to the judge.

These outsourcing approaches show a disconnect between the questions judges pose and the methods they ...


Expertise And Expression In Second Language Acquisition: An Embodied Perspective, Mia Burnett 2019 Linfield College

Expertise And Expression In Second Language Acquisition: An Embodied Perspective, Mia Burnett

Senior Theses

In directing our attention to mundane aspects of the human experience, we can discover new ways of interacting with and understanding the world. One such formative experience, regularly seen as mundane in much of the world, is learning a second language. It is no exaggeration to say that second language acquisition is one of the processes which most influences and drives our globalized world, and yet we understand and study this process relatively little.

Continuing the trends of naturalizing phenomenological inquiry, this project attempts to evaluate phenomenological approaches to skill acquisition alongside second language acquisition theory and research through an ...


Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird 2019 Montclair State University

Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird

Jonathan Howell

Most of our students, particularly undergraduates, are not destined to become phonologists, or even linguists. Our primary goal, then, ought not to be instruction of any specific theory, topic or dataset. The imperative is to develop in students the literacies which inform the practice of phonology but which will also serve students in other arenas. In this talk, we discuss a collaboration between phonologist and librarian to embed information literacy into a one-semester undergraduate introduction to phonology. We want to help students to uncover the threshold concepts identified as central to information literacy by the Association of College & Research Libraries ...


Affix Ordering And Templatic Morphology In Mandan, Ryan Kasak 2019 Yale University

Affix Ordering And Templatic Morphology In Mandan, Ryan Kasak

Linguistics Graduate Dissertations

Mandan [ISO: mhq] is a Siouan language traditionally spoken in northwestern North Dakota on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. The language no longer has any L1 speakers, and fewer than a dozen L2 speakers remain. This dissertation provides a description of the phonological and morphological systems of the language, as well as contextualizes these systems within a formal framework. The data come from an assembled corpus of over five hundred pages of transcribed traditional narratives and twenty hours of recordings of those narratives done in the 1970s, which is supplemented by data from more recent fieldwork done in the early ...


A Jewel Inlaid: Ergativity And Markedness In Nepali, Luke S. Lindemann 2019 Yale University

A Jewel Inlaid: Ergativity And Markedness In Nepali, Luke S. Lindemann

Linguistics Graduate Dissertations

Nepali presents with a complex case marking pattern in which ergative case is obligatory in perfective transitive clauses, disallowed in unaccusative intransitive clauses and copular clauses, and varies with the nominative elsewhere. Where ergative marking is variable, its usage correlates with a variety of semantic and pragmatic factors. The purpose of this investigation is to precisely delineate the grammatical domains for which ergative marking is variable and to provide a unified analysis of the semantic and pragmatic factors that correlate with its expression.

The study of pragmatic phenomena requires the implementation of multiple strategies for collecting language data. The data ...


Understanding High School English Learners’ Chronic Absenteeism, Patricia A. George 2019 Seton Hall University

Understanding High School English Learners’ Chronic Absenteeism, Patricia A. George

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Chronic absenteeism has significant implications for both the individual student and society at large and has been receiving attention for over a century. Every school day counts. Regular attendance provides students with opportunities to learn and has a strong link to achievement. Conversely, poor attendance has serious implications for high school students. For each subgroup of students there is a similar pattern: the likelihood of chronic absenteeism increases as students progress through high school. Notably, the U.S. Department of Education found English learners experience higher chronic absenteeism than their non-English learner peers when they reach high school. Furthermore, compared ...


Discursive Leadership: Exploring The "Black Box" Challenge In Transcultural Leadership Studies, Christopher Patrick Brown 2019 University of San Diego

Discursive Leadership: Exploring The "Black Box" Challenge In Transcultural Leadership Studies, Christopher Patrick Brown

Dissertations

The increasingly globalized U.S. workforce includes significant numbers of adult immigrants integrating into the North American professional sphere. As such, it is important to have concrete ways to study and interpret different cultures’ thinking about teamwork, and their models of enacting shared leadership and communication in a multicultural context. Since 2006, hundreds of millions in federal grant funding has been invested in university-based language and culture programs focused on training government personnel and heritage populations in the languages and cultures of the Middle East and Central and Southeast Asia. Little is known about the performative strengths and challenges of ...


Methods Of Teaching Latin: Theory, Practice, Application, Morgan A. Nicoulin 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Methods Of Teaching Latin: Theory, Practice, Application, Morgan A. Nicoulin

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this project, I present a way to effectively blend modern theories of language acquisition and the contemporary practice of teaching Latin. I intend to demonstrate that a curriculum is able to balance both traditional and innovative philosophies by adapting Second Language Acquisition Theory’s idealized way to learn a language to fit the realistic limitations of the classroom. I begin with a discussion of the history of language pedagogy, focusing on Latin’s influence on the study of language learning from antiquity to present. Next, I present the key topics in SLA and the practical implications of this research ...


I Feel Like That One Complementizer Is Not Enough, Aidan Kaplan 2019 Yale University

I Feel Like That One Complementizer Is Not Enough, Aidan Kaplan

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

This study presents a description and analysis of an instance of syntactic microvariation, which I call the like that construction. In this construction, an embedded CP is apparently introduced by two complementizers or complementizer-like elements, as in I feel like that we’re going to win the game. This construction is found to be acceptable to speakers from all over the US, with no apparent geographic constraints, while it is also unacceptable to many speakers. Using judgments from a consultant who accepts this construction as well as examples drawn from the Internet, I show that the syntactic properties of like ...


A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler 2019 Bellarmine University

A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler

Undergraduate Theses

This analysis of 21 opening statements probes at current persuasive practices employed by trial attorneys through the lens of mainstream legal advice and an expanded definition of rhetorical invention – one which includes both discovery and creation. An evaluation of such practice reveals the utility, and furthermore the duty of the advocate, to draw upon an expanded realm of available arguments.


Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis 2019 East Tennessee State University

Relationship Between Joint Attention And Language In Multiparous And Uniparous Households, Hannah C. Manis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study was designed to examine differences in the effect of the number of children in the household (also known as “parity”) on the relationship between initiating joint attention (IJA) and language development. We reasoned that infants who are only children (i.e., in uniparous homes), relative to infants who have one or more siblings (i.e., in multiparous homes), would have more opportunity to engage in IJA, and would, therefore, acquire a larger number of object labels. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) there would be a positive correlation between the number of IJA bids and language overall ...


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