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Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler 2019 Phyllis Chesler Organization

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


Embryo Litigation : The Legal Categorization Of Embryos As Protected Humans Or Property, Caroline Koboska 2019 Montclair State University

Embryo Litigation : The Legal Categorization Of Embryos As Protected Humans Or Property, Caroline Koboska

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

This thesis explores the issue of the unknown legal status of frozen embryos in the United States. With an examination of the issue through the discipline of law, it becomes evident that the lack of legislation and guidance on the issue has left it a matter up to the states, rather than the federal government. Central to the issue is the history and laws of abortion in the United States that can help provide precedent. The thesis examines embryos in light of property law, contract law, and family law. Also included is a review of embryos through a second discipline ...


Ix: Story About The Law Of Non-Discrimination - Documentary, Denzel Jenkins 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ix: Story About The Law Of Non-Discrimination - Documentary, Denzel Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to provide historical awareness for how Title IX, the anti-gender discrimination law in education, evolved to where it is today and the impact it has on universities in the United States. Strong-willed individuals sought change in the late 1960s and 1970s to prevent gender discrimination in education, thus beginning the creation of the law and making it a powerful tool for women’s rights. As Title IX expanded its reach, universities have been shaped by gender discrimination in athletics, sexual assault, harassment and rape. This project outlines the evolution of Title IX through research ...


The Relationship Between Aggression And Depression: Testing The Moderating Effects Of Age And Gender, Benjamin P. Comer 2019 Boise State University

The Relationship Between Aggression And Depression: Testing The Moderating Effects Of Age And Gender, Benjamin P. Comer

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to a) explore the research related to aggression and depression and b) test hypotheses that focus on the relationship between aggression and depression in relation to age and gender over time. Aggression and depression are discussed extensively by examining a broad range of literature that points to environmental, social, individual, psychological, and biophysiological influences. First, aggression and depression are discussed separately in terms of their underlying theory, biosocial perspectives, typologies, behavioral and personality abnormalities, brain structures related to each, and neurochemical/neurological influences. The final sections of the literature review discuss how aggression and ...


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Passed as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Law Enforcement Misconduct Statute 42 U.S.C. 14141 (§ 14141) authorizes the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate, and enter into a court-enforceable structural reform agreement with a law enforcement agency engaged in patterns or practices of systemic misconduct, violations of federal law, and unconstitutional policing.

Under § 14141 authority, 33 investigations of municipal police have been conducted since 1994 where the DOJ determined that a police agency was engaged in, or at unreasonable risk of engaging in, a pattern or practice of unconstitutional policing. Publicizing ...


Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan

Student Theses

Fatal use of force incidents involving police officers in the United States have recently seen widespread media attention, emotionally charged rhetoric, and calls for reform. The present study examines police use of force encounters with the mentally ill given the significant proportion of incidents and wanting body of literature. The objective of this study is to examine fatal police interactions to test whether those displaying signs of mental illness in encounters with law enforcement are more dangerous than those not displaying signs of mental illness. Open source data from the Washington Post were used from 2015 to 2018 (n=3942 ...


Dna Methylation Methods For Donor Age Prediction Using Touch Dna, Emily Neverett 2019 University of New Haven

Dna Methylation Methods For Donor Age Prediction Using Touch Dna, Emily Neverett

Master's Theses

The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated over 30 million individuals fall victim to human trafficking each year, of which, 50% are children below the age of 16. In 2012, the ILO reported there to be 168 million child laborers worldwide, with many trafficked into hazardous conditions to manufacture consumer products that are sold in developed countries. This is a modern form of slavery with poor working conditions, no access to education, and low wages. The hidden nature of this crime, however, makes it extremely difficult to identify and locate victims of forced child labor, and thus making it challenging to ...


Detection Of Larval Aggregations Using A Drone Mounted Thermal Imaging Camera, Megan Descalzi 2019 University of New Haven

Detection Of Larval Aggregations Using A Drone Mounted Thermal Imaging Camera, Megan Descalzi

Master's Theses

When a body’s temperature reaches ambient temperature after death, remote detection of the body can become difficult. At this point, useful search tactics include the use of cadaver dogs, search parties and aerial imaging devices, all of which can be costly and time-consuming for every day law enforcement use. This study investigated the potential of a novel search technique in which a small, unmanned aerial system (drone) mounted with a forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) was utilized to detect decomposing animal carcasses via the heat generated by associated Diptera larval aggregations. Hot water baths were utilized as analogs for larval ...


Investigating The Masking Effects Of Blood On Organic Gunshot Residue Using Gc/Ms, Raman, And Atr-Ftir, Tyler Willits 2019 University of New Haven

Investigating The Masking Effects Of Blood On Organic Gunshot Residue Using Gc/Ms, Raman, And Atr-Ftir, Tyler Willits

Master's Theses

Gunshot residue (GSR) can be an indicator for determining the distance of a firearm discharge and linking potential suspects and witnesses to a shooting event. However, the evidentiary value of inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), commonly used to detect GSR, has been called into question due to the potential for false negatives and false positives. Organic gunshot residue (OGSR) acts as supporting evidence; this increases the overall confidence of the examiner, as well as the value of gunshot residue evidence as a whole.

Current research has focused on three main areas for OGSR. The first is what compounds we should identify ...


Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin 2019 University of New Haven

Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin

Master's Theses

Research shows that the clustering of Registered Sex Offenders (RSOs) is connected to social disorganization. Residential patterns disrupt the reintegration of the RSO population. Utilizing data from Queens and the Bronx, NYC, this study examines RSO clustering in the two boroughs and explores the proximity of community resources to RSO addresses that may assist reintegration. Using data from the New York Megan’s Law and census data for Queens and Bronx Counties, maps were created to study the residential patterns of RSOs. The results show clustering of RSOs in areas with variables pertaining to high social disorganization and a lack ...


Commonsense Knowledge In Sentiment Analysis Of Ordinance Reactions For Smart Governance, Manish Puri 2019 Montclair State University

Commonsense Knowledge In Sentiment Analysis Of Ordinance Reactions For Smart Governance, Manish Puri

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Smart Governance is an emerging research area which has attracted scientific as well as policy interests, and aims to improve collaboration between government and citizens, as well as other stakeholders. Our project aims to enable lawmakers to incorporate data driven decision making in enacting ordinances. Our first objective is to create a mechanism for mapping ordinances (local laws) and tweets to Smart City Characteristics (SCC). The use of SCC has allowed us to create a mapping between a huge number of ordinances and tweets, and the use of Commonsense Knowledge (CSK) has allowed us to utilize human judgment in mapping ...


Exploring Places Of Street Drug Dealing In A Downtown Area In Brazil: An Analysis Of The Reliability Of Google Street View In International Criminological Research, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Ko-Hsin Hsu 2019 Montclair State University

Exploring Places Of Street Drug Dealing In A Downtown Area In Brazil: An Analysis Of The Reliability Of Google Street View In International Criminological Research, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Ko-Hsin Hsu

Elenice De Souza Oliveira

This study assesses the reliability of Google Street View (GSV) in auditing environmental features that help create hotbeds of drug dealing in Belo Horizonte, one of Brazil’s largest cities. Based on concepts of “crime generators” and “crime enablers,” a set of 40 items were selected using arrest data related to drug activities for the period between 2007 and 2011. These items served to develop a GSV data collection instrument used to observe features of 135 street segments that were identified as drug dealing hot spots in downtown Belo Horizonte. The study employs an intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics as a ...


Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz 2019 Ursinus College

Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz

Politics Honors Papers

Oral argument scholars like Adam Feldman have categorized the Supreme Court justices’ behavior during oral argument using the approach-based method, labeling each as one-sided, even-handed, or restrained. This approach is too narrowly constructed. Scholars sometimes categorize justices in terms of the tools they use, which include questions, hypotheticals, declarations, interruptions, tone of voice, and silence (Feldman 2018a). Neither of these methods alone produce a nuanced analysis of each justice’s actions during an individual case or across a Term. As the Court’s composition and dynamics are continuously changing, scholarship on oral argument needs to adapt to become more effective ...


Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich

Student Symposium

For my presentation, I will discuss an independent study I did with Dr. Durst in the Fall of 2018, in which I wrote about psychopaths and ways the criminal justice system (CJS) can protect society from them. I will first briefly define psychopathy and explain the personality traits associated with it. I will dedicate the rest of my time to explaining ways I believe the CJS can use information about psychopathy to protect society from criminals with that condition. Psychopathy is a subtype of antisocial personality disorder (APD) that is characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, manipulative and ...


The Irrational Appeal Of The Punishment Paradigm: How "Tough On Crime" Subverts Reason And Empathy, Curry Carr 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

The Irrational Appeal Of The Punishment Paradigm: How "Tough On Crime" Subverts Reason And Empathy, Curry Carr

Student Symposium

This investigation will examine the ways of thinking that facilitated the enactment of harsh sentencing laws in the U.S., with a specific focus on truth in sentencing laws in Illinois. Truth in sentencing laws dictate that people convicted of violent crimes must serve 85%-100% of their sentences, basically eliminating their chances for parole for good behavior. In the 1980s and 1990s almost every state enacted truth in sentencing laws after federal funding was promised to those who do. The implementation of these laws, in some ways, seemed to follow reason, especially when states lowered the requisite time served ...


Rehabilitate, Punish, Or Both?, Stephen Szambelan 2019 Carroll College

Rehabilitate, Punish, Or Both?, Stephen Szambelan

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Throughout American history the judicial systems have gone back and forth between which method they want to implement to reduce recidivism. There has been a constant question about which juvenile justice system is best between punitive and rehabilitative justice. Still today, many states are trying to figure out what justice works best for their juveniles. Studying previous articles and Montana State Judicial Statistics, I analyze the various approaches to confronting juvenile delinquency along with understanding why juveniles commit crimes. Looking at Montana youth court statistics we can see what is working and giving the juvenile the best chance to be ...


Crime Rate Perception: An Investigation Into Social Media Influence On Crime Rate Perception And Misconception, Kali Dunn, Caitlin Crawford, Shelbey Hughes 2019 University of North Alabama

Crime Rate Perception: An Investigation Into Social Media Influence On Crime Rate Perception And Misconception, Kali Dunn, Caitlin Crawford, Shelbey Hughes

Scholars Week 2019

This research explored the perceptions of how crime rates have changed compared to the current perception of previous generations, whether social media has influenced those perceptions, and if those perceptions remain even when presented with current and historical data on crime rates.


Victimization: Its Impact On Masculinity And Criminal Offending, Shon M. Reed, Alexis Kennedy 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Victimization: Its Impact On Masculinity And Criminal Offending, Shon M. Reed, Alexis Kennedy

Graduate Research Symposium (2018 - present)

Male vic,ms are an underrepresented group within society. Prior research has indicated that male vic,ms may feel a diminished sense of their own masculinity. Criminology has iden,fied that masculinity does play a role in some men’s decisions to engage in criminal behavior (Messerschmidt, 1993, 2016). It seems logical that these two concepts would be related. U,lizing self-­‐reported data from 135 college males, the current study analyzes the rela,onship between childhood vic,miza,on, masculinity beliefs, and the decision to engage in criminal/delinquent behavior.


Is It Acceptable For Juveniles To Be Tried As Adults?, Rachael L. Graber 2019 Cedarville University

Is It Acceptable For Juveniles To Be Tried As Adults?, Rachael L. Graber

Criminal Justice Capstone Research Papers

The adult court system has increasingly become a court for violent juveniles over time. Despite all the age restraints and changes in the law, the criminal court has still charged juveniles as young as 11 years old. This practice is unconstitutional and immoral. The constitution gives all American citizens the right to due process of law and the right not to be deprived of life, liberty, or happiness in the Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Trying juveniles as adults violates all three of these proposed amendments. This practice also creates issues due to the lack of attention to juvenile competency ...


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