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Grassroots Globalism: Human Rights Cities And Local Human Rights Implementation, Jackie Smith 2019 University of Pittsburgh

Grassroots Globalism: Human Rights Cities And Local Human Rights Implementation, Jackie Smith

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This presentation reports on how local human rights activists are mobilizing around the United States's 2019-2020 Universal Periodic Review process in the UN Human Rights Council. Organizers with the US Human Rights Cities Alliance have been promoting "UPR Cities" to engage local activists in work to document local human rights conditions and develop recommendations for a national civil society stakeholder report that will be submitted to the UN Human Rights Council. The UPR Cities serves three key purposes: First, it helps inform and inspire local and trans-local mobilization and alliance building around a human rights framework, advancing analyses of ...


On The Need For Human Rights To Constitute Structural Change: Lessons For Colombia From The Arab Spring’S Failures, Anthony Chase 2019 Occidental College

On The Need For Human Rights To Constitute Structural Change: Lessons For Colombia From The Arab Spring’S Failures, Anthony Chase

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Transitional processes have nowhere failed as spectacularly than in the wake of the Arab Spring's "revolutions." Contrary to popular expectations, these revolutions gave way to counter-revolutions rather than transitions to democracy and pluralistic politics. This article argues that, by settling for transitions to mere formal democracies, an opportunity was lost to engage in necessary structural change. While understandable that transitional processes shied away from addressing controversial issues -- including how to translate diversity in religious, gender, sexual, and ideological domains into the foundation of new political communities -- not doing so was a fatal error as it left untouched preexisting structures ...


The Human Right To Science, Brian K. Gran, Anne Bryden, Mark Frezzo, John Dale 2019 Case Western Reserve University

The Human Right To Science, Brian K. Gran, Anne Bryden, Mark Frezzo, John Dale

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Human rights may be game changers to science. Science is under pressure. The ability to do science, to gain scientific educations, and to make and implement public policies based on science are under attack globally. Harms from doing science continue despite greater attention. Individuals are harmed in the name of science and scientists are persecuted for doing their work. The human right to science may change these scenarios. The human right to science belongs to everyone. Discrimination along lines of nationality, gender, skin color, beliefs, and other markers is not permitted. The human right to science bolsters other rights, including ...


Research Toward A Partially-Automated, And Crime Specific Digital Triage Process Model, Gary Cantrell, David Dampier, Yoginder S. Dandass, Nan Niu, Chris Bogen 2019 Marshall University

Research Toward A Partially-Automated, And Crime Specific Digital Triage Process Model, Gary Cantrell, David Dampier, Yoginder S. Dandass, Nan Niu, Chris Bogen

David Dampier

The digital forensic process as traditionally laid out begins with the collection, duplication, and authentication of every piece of digital media prior to examination. These first three phases of the digital forensic process are by far the most costly. However, complete forensic duplication is standard practice among digital forensic laboratories.

The time it takes to complete these stages is quickly becoming a serious problem. Digital forensic laboratories do not have the resources and time to keep up with the growing demand for digital forensic examinations with the current methodologies. One solution to this problem is the use of pre-examination techniques ...


A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander 2019 Bridgewater State University

A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-Shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This study constructed a structural model which consists of social demographic factors, experience of victimization, opportunity factors, and social context factors to explain the public’s fear of crime on social networking sites (SNS). The model is based on the risk interpretation model, which predicts that these factors influence users’ fear of crime victimization. Using data from 486 university students in South Korea, an empirically-tested model suggests that sex and age have direct and significant effects on fear of victimization, supporting the vulnerability hypothesis. Among opportunity factors, the level of personal information and the number of offending peers have significant ...


An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing 2019 Bridgewater State University

An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Limited research has considered individual perceptions of moral distinctions between consensual and nonconsensual intimate image sharing, as well as decision making parameters around why others might engage in such behavior. The current study conducted a perception analysis using mixed-methods online surveys administered to 63 participants, inquiring into their perceptions of why individuals engage in certain behaviors surrounding the sending of intimate images from friends and partners. The study found that respondents favored the concepts of (1) sharing images with romantic partners over peers; (2) sharing non-intimate images over intimate images; and (3) sharing images with consent rather than without it ...


Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett 2019 Bridgewater State University

Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The authors laid the groundwork for analyzing the crypto-economic incentives of interconnected blockchain networks and utilize situational crime prevention theory to explain how more secure systems can be developed. Blockchain networks utilize smaller blockchains (often called sidechains) to increase throughput in larger networks. Identified are several disadvantages to using sidechains that create critical exposures to the assets locked on them. Without security being provided by the mainchain in the form of validated exits, sidechains or statechannels which have a bridge or mainchain asset representations are at significant risk of attack. The inability to have a sufficiently high cost to attack ...


The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer LaPrade 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

New technology is rapidly emerging to fight increasing cybercrime threats, however, there is one important component of a cybercrime that technology cannot always impact and that is human behavior. Unfortunately, humans can be vulnerable and easily deceived making technological advances alone inadequate in the cybercrime fight. Instead, we must take a more holistic approach by using technology and better understanding the human factors that make cybercrime possible. In this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, three studies contribute to our knowledge of human factors and emerging cybercrime technology so that more effective comprehensive cybercrime prevention strategies ...


The Cost Of The Culturati: Studying The Neighborhood Stability Impact Of Cultural District Designations, Prakash Mishra 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Cost Of The Culturati: Studying The Neighborhood Stability Impact Of Cultural District Designations, Prakash Mishra

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Politics, Economics and World Affairs

The decision to declare a district for a specific cause is a critical policy decision; making an area an official office park or designated cultural site means it will attract specific types of residents and businesses and require specific amenities. This paper reviews the impact of designating a cultural district as a place-based policy, specifically by developing a measure of neighborhood stability and applying a stress test of neighborhood stability in cultural districts during the Great Recession. The model underpining the neighborhood stability measure is an optimal stopping time model which frames neighborhood rents as a Brownian motion with drift ...


Volume I | Issue Ii | 2019.Pdf, DUJPEW Editorial Board 2019 Dartmouth College

Volume I | Issue Ii | 2019.Pdf, Dujpew Editorial Board

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Politics, Economics and World Affairs

No abstract provided.


Masthead 2019, DUJPEW Editorial Board 2019 Dartmouth College

Masthead 2019, Dujpew Editorial Board

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Politics, Economics and World Affairs

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editor 2019, DUJPEW Editorial Board 2019 Dartmouth College

Letter From The Editor 2019, Dujpew Editorial Board

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Politics, Economics and World Affairs

No abstract provided.


Examining The Use Of Hebephilia And Paraphilia Non-Consent In Sexually Violent Predator (Svp) Evaluations, Nicole Graham 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining The Use Of Hebephilia And Paraphilia Non-Consent In Sexually Violent Predator (Svp) Evaluations, Nicole Graham

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sexually violent predator (SVP) legislation requires, in part, that an individual has a mental abnormality which causes difficulty in controlling sexual behavior. Previous research has found paraphilia not otherwise specified (NOS) to be one of the most prevalent diagnoses proffered in SVP evaluations. Since these studies, however, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) has updated the paraphilia NOS diagnosis in two ways. First, this diagnosis has been divided into two new diagnoses—other specified paraphilic disorder (OSPD) and unspecified paraphilic disorder. Second, OSPD requires an added specifier to indicate the individual’s source of sexual arousal. To date, no study ...


Exploring The Structural Effects On The Lethal Violence At The U.S. Counties Under The Situational Action Theory: An Application Of Multivariable Spatial Regression Model, Yunho Yeom 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Exploring The Structural Effects On The Lethal Violence At The U.S. Counties Under The Situational Action Theory: An Application Of Multivariable Spatial Regression Model, Yunho Yeom

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the stream analogy (Unnithan, Corzine, Huff-Corzine, & Whitt, 1994) and the frustration-aggression approach (Henry & Short, 1954) in lethal violence phenomenon analysis, several scholars have integrated theories from outside of their fields of study to understand lethal violence under a single theoretical framework. Some of these researchers have focused on deteriorating socioeconomic conditions and the collective attributional style when explaining the causes of lethal violence; others have failed to assume the non-independence of observation among contextual predictors. Recognizing these shortcomings, this study integrates the social components of situational action theory to examine their mediating effects on the relationship between socioeconomic context and lethal violence. At the same time, this study uses spatial analysis techniques to capture the spatial effect among the contextual predictors. These findings from the spatial analyses reveal that the geographical distribution of lethal violence in the U.S. counties is far from random; the spatial process needs to be considered in the aggregated analyses. This ...


A Microspectra Analysis Of Synthetic Wig Fibers, Jaclyn R. Beshlian 2019 CUNY John Jay College

A Microspectra Analysis Of Synthetic Wig Fibers, Jaclyn R. Beshlian

Student Theses

The goal of this study was to determine whether differentiation between 20 visually similar light brown synthetic wig fibers was possible with the use of a microspectrophotometer (MSP). Visually similar fibers were chosen to display the power of the instrument over the human eye. An MSP is an instrument that has the ability to aid in the analysis of certain microscopical samples. With this particular instrument one is able to collect the absorption and fluorescence spectra of microscopical colored samples without destroying the piece of evidence itself. Prior to any analysis with the MSP, the material of the fibers was ...


The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh 2019 CUNY John Jay College

The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh

Student Theses

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be an unreliable form of evidence (Loftus, Miller & Burns, 1978; Oswald & Coleman, 2007; Wells & Hasel, 2007; Loftus & Greenspan, 2017; Jaross, 2018; Wade, Nash, & Lindsay, 2018; Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher, 2018). Yet, this evidence is still used in the courts today, and, in fact, is perceived by jurors as important and compelling in comparison to other case factors (e.g., character evidence, physical evidence; Topp-Manriquez, McQuiston, & Malpass, 2014; Kabzińska, 2015). Additionally, eyewitnesses are sometimes requested to help create a facial composite of the suspect and, critically, these composites are then used as evidence during the trial. In addition to the confidence of the eyewitness and the presentation of the evidence (i.e., defense or prosecution), the present research examines how facial composites influence the decision-making process on the part of jurors. Overall, the present results suggest that there is a significant difference in ...


An Assessment Of The Impact Of Intimate Victim-Offender Relationship On Sentencing In Serious Assault Cases, Laura J. Hickman 2019 Portland State University

An Assessment Of The Impact Of Intimate Victim-Offender Relationship On Sentencing In Serious Assault Cases, Laura J. Hickman

Laura J. Hickman

It is generally agreed that a criminal justice system reflects the values of the society within which it exists. The presence of patriarchal social values will likely affect the response of the criminal justice system to intimate violence. While the perpetration of violence against another is a violation of an important social norm, patriarchal values may function to discount the seriousness of such an act, if the violence is perpetrated by a man against his girlfriend or wife. This discount of seriousness may lead to less severe punishment for men who assault their intimates than to men who assault nonintimates ...


Mental Health Jail Diversion: A Therapeutic Approach To Offending In Twenty-First Century America, Ryan J. Parent 2019 Merrimack College

Mental Health Jail Diversion: A Therapeutic Approach To Offending In Twenty-First Century America, Ryan J. Parent

Criminology Student Work

This analysis is concerned with understanding the facets of criminal justice diversion programs that successfully improve the mental wellbeing of participants and, as a subsequent effect, reduce offending amongst the mentally ill populous in the United States. An inquiry of pre-program and post-program data from both adult and juvenile mental health specific programs reveals that participation amongst both groups shows a meaningful reduction in new/repeat offending in comparison to non-participants. The data shows that the expansion of law enforcement Crisis Intervention Team’s (CIT’s) has a compounding effect to the positive results. A review of these programs in ...


Pagans, Christians, And Student Protesters, Stanley Fish 2019 Selected Works

Pagans, Christians, And Student Protesters, Stanley Fish

Stanley Fish

Stanley Fish’s contribution to the 2019 Editors’ Symposium: Pagans and Christians in the City.


After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

While an offender’s conduct before and during the crime is the traditional focus of criminal law and sentencing rules, an examination of post-offense conduct can also be important in promoting criminal justice goals. After the crime, different offenders make different choices and have different experiences, and those differences can suggest appropriately different treatment by judges, correctional officials, probation and parole supervisors, and other decision-makers in the criminal justice system.

Positive post-offense conduct ought to be acknowledged and rewarded, not only to encourage it but also as a matter of fair and just treatment. This essay describes four kinds of ...


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