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Crafted From Whole Cloth: Reverse Stash-House Stings And The Sentencing Factor Manipulation Claim, Molly F. Spakowski 2019 Buffalo Law Review

Crafted From Whole Cloth: Reverse Stash-House Stings And The Sentencing Factor Manipulation Claim, Molly F. Spakowski

Buffalo Law Review

Kenneth Flowers is currently serving a mandatory minimum sentence of 120 months imprisonment stemming from a conviction of conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute five or more kilograms of cocaine. While the ten-year prison sentence is very real, the five-kilograms of cocaine is not, and never was. Mr. Flowers was caught-up in one of the elaborate and overused “reverse stash-house sting” operations employed by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (“ATF”).

Mr. Flowers’ story is one of many similar cases resulting from the government operation conducted by the ATF known as a reverse stash-house sting operation. The ...


Connecting The Dots For Missing And Runaway Children, Tayla Moore 2019 Merrimack College

Connecting The Dots For Missing And Runaway Children, Tayla Moore

Criminology Student Work

With the general public’s help, the amount of time a youth is missing may lessen greatly. Bringing a youth home as soon as possible would decrease the chances of a youth encountering danger or traumatic events which could lead to emotional and mental struggles in their future. Moreover, focusing on America’s ability to rehabilitate youth who have run away and become subject to trauma is very important to creating safer communities; runaway or traumatized youth are at greater risk of chronic criminal involvement, so reducing this trauma may decrease mass incarceration and/or recidivism rates throughout the United ...


No Soldier Left Behind: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Veterans’ Treatment Courts, Stephen Ramunno 2019 Merrimack College

No Soldier Left Behind: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Veterans’ Treatment Courts, Stephen Ramunno

Criminology Student Work

Veterans’ Treatment Courts (VTCs) focus on rehabilitation, rather than incarceration, to address underlying causes of criminal behavior among veterans. Some criminal behavior in this population arises from substance abuse, traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health concerns (Justice for Vets, 2018). In order to determine the effectiveness of VTCs and the services provided, an in-depth and systematic analysis is crucial. In this research, a systematic approach was employed to analyze the current VTC process, participants selected, and recidivism rates among those who complete the sanctioned requirements. Following an adapted meta-analysis framework, evaluations of VTCs were ...


Disparities In Sentencing: The Impact Of Race, Gender And Mental Health, Briana Paige 2019 Old Dominion University

Disparities In Sentencing: The Impact Of Race, Gender And Mental Health, Briana Paige

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect that race and mental health play on sentence length in the United States. Mentally ill people are gradually being confined in prisons across the United States and there is an absence of literature that looks at the interaction of race and mental health in regards to sentencing. The focal concerns perspective provides the theoretical framework that guides this study. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine both state and federal prison inmates to examine the effect race, mental health and other extra-legal factors play on sentence length. Results show that ...


Involuntary Vs. Voluntary Care: The Mental Health Debate, Margaret DeParde 2019 Merrimack College

Involuntary Vs. Voluntary Care: The Mental Health Debate, Margaret Deparde

Honors Program Contracts

No abstract provided.


Reading Between The Lines: An Intersectional Media Analysis Of Female Sex Offenders In Florida Newspapers, Toniqua C. Mikell 2019 University of South Carolina

Reading Between The Lines: An Intersectional Media Analysis Of Female Sex Offenders In Florida Newspapers, Toniqua C. Mikell

Theses and Dissertations

The media is one of the furthest reaching social institutions of our society. It is a source of white patriarchal ideologies and a vehicle through which they are communicated. Female sex offenders represent a nexus of prescribed social and legal violations. This dissertation examines the reinforcement of patriarchal ideas in media coverage of female sex offenders by posing the question: how are female sex offenders portrayed in the media? Specifically, how are those portrayals racialized? Using an intersectional lens, this study employs a qualitative content analysis to examine the top five circulating newspapers in Florida and their coverage of female ...


Acculturation: Friend Or Foe Of The Career Aspirations And Educational Aspirations And Expectations Of Hispanic Youth?, Kyhara Nathalia Aguilera 2019 Old Dominion University

Acculturation: Friend Or Foe Of The Career Aspirations And Educational Aspirations And Expectations Of Hispanic Youth?, Kyhara Nathalia Aguilera

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

The modern American Dream says that anyone can be successful if they obtain higher education. Unfortunately, this system does not always meet the needs of our increasingly diverse society. Hispanic immigrant students face a hardship in pursuit of their education and career aspirations because many of them experience acculturation related stresses. This study seeks to investigate the role that acculturation plays in the career aspirations and educational aspirations and expectations of Hispanic students. I go beyond the current literature by exploring how acculturation is a significant factor in determining educational and career aspirations. Specifically, I examine whether different levels of ...


On-Duty Police Shootings: Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter 2005-2018, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Megan L. Swinehart 2019 Bowling Green State University

On-Duty Police Shootings: Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter 2005-2018, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Megan L. Swinehart

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

There were 97 nonfederal sworn law enforcement officers with the general powers of arrest (e.g., police officers, deputy sheriffs, state troopers) arrested in years 2005-2018 for murder or manslaughter resulting from an on-duty shooting where the officer shot and killed someone at incidents throughout the United States. Of those 97 officers, to date, only 35 have been convicted of a crime resulting from the on-duty shooting. This poster presents data on the arrested officers, criminal case dispositions, race of arrested officers and their victims, weapons possessed by victims who were shot and killed by police, and related variables.


Determination Of Vehicle Speed From Recorded Video Using Reverse Projection Photogrammetry And File Metadata, Brandon Epstein, Bryce Westlake 2019 Middlesex County, NJ Prosecutor's Office

Determination Of Vehicle Speed From Recorded Video Using Reverse Projection Photogrammetry And File Metadata, Brandon Epstein, Bryce Westlake

Faculty Publications

The prevalence of security and in‐car video has increased the number of motor vehicle accidents captured on digital video. However, inconsistencies in how to accurately determine time and distance for vehicle speed has led to examinations with varying results. A potential solution for calculating time intervals is to use frame timing contained within many digital video file's metadata, recorded with 0.000001 sec precision. This paper examines a fatal motor vehicle accident where frame timing information was used with distance measurements from reverse projection photogrammetry to calculate vehicle speed. A margin of error was then calculated based on ...


On-Duty Police Shootings: Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter 2005-2018, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Megan L. Swinehart 2019 Bowling Green State University

On-Duty Police Shootings: Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter 2005-2018, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe A. Wentzlof, Megan L. Swinehart

Philip M Stinson

There were 97 nonfederal sworn law enforcement officers with the general powers of arrest (e.g., police officers, deputy sheriffs, state troopers) arrested in years 2005-2018 for murder or manslaughter resulting from an on-duty shooting where the officer shot and killed someone at incidents throughout the United States. Of those 97 officers, to date, only 35 have been convicted of a crime resulting from the on-duty shooting. This poster presents data on the arrested officers, criminal case dispositions, race of arrested officers and their victims, weapons possessed by victims who were shot and killed by police, and related variables.


International Justice: Bringing The World Home Through Social Justice, Gabriel Rubin 2019 Montclair State University

International Justice: Bringing The World Home Through Social Justice, Gabriel Rubin

Gabriel Rubin

As the head of my university’s new International Justice program, I am well placed to speak about the trials and tribulations of teaching students about global politics. Our program draws in Sociology, Justice Studies, and Political Science students. The overarching goal is to make students aware of international issues ranging from genocide and terrorism to international migration and global institutions through the lens of social justice. The social justice lens is particularly effective because it provides a reason for exploring global issues. These issues are not bloodlessly described in my courses with the hopes of extracting causal variables. Instead ...


Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation Was Blocked After The Oklahoma City And London Bombings, Gabriel Rubin 2019 Montclair State University

Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation Was Blocked After The Oklahoma City And London Bombings, Gabriel Rubin

Gabriel Rubin

This article scrutinizes the legislative reactions to the Oklahoma City Bombing and the 2005 London Bombings to try to decipher why counter-terror legislation was substantially blocked after these attacks. It finds that the partisan composition of the government and executive approval ratings are critical to the passage of counter-terror laws. In light of the recent slew of counter-terror legislation passed worldwide, cases, where counter-terror legislation has been blocked, have become critically important. To this end, this article asks, “Why does counter-terror legislation get blocked when it does?” To answer the question, three variables are tested: partisan composition of the government ...


Do College Students’ Perceptions Of The Police Differ By Education Level And Major?, Lashanti Wilson Brown 2019 Illinois State University

Do College Students’ Perceptions Of The Police Differ By Education Level And Major?, Lashanti Wilson Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about the impact that higher education has on students’ perceptions of the police, especially with respect to justice education. This study examines perceptions of the police among college students at Illinois State University. It questions how differences in education levels, major, race, age, and gender affect student perceptions about the police. A 55-question online survey was administered to 451 students at Illinois State University.

Results revealed that those with more education did not have significantly different contact with police officers than those with less education, however, they were significantly more likely to report negative attitudes towards the ...


Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the first change to the Model Penal Code since its promulgation in 1962, the American Law Institute in 2017 set blameworthiness proportionality as the dominant distributive principle for criminal punishment. Empirical studies suggest that this is in fact the principle that ordinary people use in assessing proper punishment. Its adoption as the governing distributive principle makes good sense because it promotes not only the classic desert retributivism of moral philosophers but also crime-control utilitarianism, by enhancing the criminal law’s moral credibility with the community and thereby promoting deference, compliance, acquiescence, and internalization of its norms, rather than suffering ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 51: The Police Code Of Silence And Criminal Conspiracies, Philip M. Stinson 2019 Bowling Green State University

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 51: The Police Code Of Silence And Criminal Conspiracies, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear and Sean Blackmon that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on January 24, 2019.


Criminal-Justice Apps: A Modest Step Toward Democratizing The Criminal Process, Adam M. Gershowitz 2019 William & Mary Law School

Criminal-Justice Apps: A Modest Step Toward Democratizing The Criminal Process, Adam M. Gershowitz

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


"All The Flowers May Die, But The Thistles Will Live": Sex Trafficking Through The Eyes Of A Police Officer-Researcher, Robert Chrismas 2019 University of Manitoba

"All The Flowers May Die, But The Thistles Will Live": Sex Trafficking Through The Eyes Of A Police Officer-Researcher, Robert Chrismas

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article is a description of the research I conducted on the sex industry in Manitoba, Canada, from 2016-2017. I interviewed 61 people, of which six were political leaders, 23 were social workers, 24 were police officers, and eight were sex industry survivors. About half of the practitioners I interviewed are also sex industry survivors. As a veteran police officer with 35 years of law enforcement experience, my research journey was unique from conducting the interviews to reporting my findings. These are some of my experiences and the lessons I learned about gathering and sharing the stories of sex industry ...


Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke 2019 Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Cybercrime And Digital Forensics: Bridging The Gap In Legislation, Investigation And Prosecution Of Cybercrime In Nigeria, Kabiru H. Mohammed, Yusuf D. Mohammed, Abiodun A. Solanke

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) opens new avenues and ways for cybercriminals to commit crime. The primary goal of this paper is to raise awareness regarding gaps that exist with regards to Nigeria’s capabilities to adequately legislate, investigate and prosecute cases of cybercrimes. The major source of cybercrime legislation in Nigeria is an act of the National Assembly which is majorly a symbolic legislation rather than a full and active legislation. In perusing these avenues of inquiry, the authors seek to identify systemic impediments which hinder law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and investigators from properly carrying out ...


Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim 2019 Bridgewater State University

Awareness And Perception Of Cybercrimes And Cybercriminals, Hannarae Lee, Hyeyoung Lim

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Awareness is a starting point to recognize, understand, or know a situation or fact, and the perception makes a difference in how to deal with it. Although the term cybercrime may not be new to the most public and the police, not all of them are well aware of the nature and extent of cybercrimes, cybercriminals, and cyber-victims, which in turn affects their perceptions of matters. The four papers in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime empirically examine these important topics and discuss policy implications.


Integrating A Co-Occurring Disorders Intervention In Drug Courts: An Open Pilot Trial, David A. Smelson, Ian Farquhar, William H. Fisher, Karen Pressman, Debra A. Pinals, Barbara Samek, Mary-Kate Duffy, Leon Sawh 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Integrating A Co-Occurring Disorders Intervention In Drug Courts: An Open Pilot Trial, David A. Smelson, Ian Farquhar, William H. Fisher, Karen Pressman, Debra A. Pinals, Barbara Samek, Mary-Kate Duffy, Leon Sawh

Psychiatry Publications and Presentations

Little research has focused on systematically integrating clinical treatment within existing drug court procedures. This could be particularly useful for clients with substance use disorders, who comprise those on court dockets and often have co-existing mental health issues. This article reports on the preliminary outcomes of integrating MISSION-Criminal Justice (MISSION-CJ), a co-occurring mental health and substance use wraparound intervention, within two Massachusetts drug courts. In this open pilot, clients completed intake and 6-month follow-up assessments. The participants were primarily Caucasian (86%), male (82%), had at least 2 prior arrests, and received outpatient treatment for mental health (54%), alcohol use (51 ...


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