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Comparing The Effects Of Racial Segregation On Homicide Trends In Two Major Us Cities, Taylor Sullivan 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Comparing The Effects Of Racial Segregation On Homicide Trends In Two Major Us Cities, Taylor Sullivan

Criminal Justice

This study focuses on the effects that racial segregation has on homicide rates. Using two major cities that have similar demographics, Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California, this paper studies homicide rates at checkpoints over a span of time while also recording poverty rates and racial isolation. The Uniform Crime Report put out by the Federal Bureau of Investigation will provide data about homicides in the two cities for the respective years. Racial segregation is still an incessant issue throughout the country and causes issues through three major factors, economy, culture, and politics. These issues cause tension between minority and ...


Deterring Online Music And Movie Piracy In Adults, Carolyn Solimine 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Deterring Online Music And Movie Piracy In Adults, Carolyn Solimine

Criminal Justice

Online piracy of music and movies is common, despite being a form of theft and copyright infringement. Many individuals do not realize the real-life impacts of online piracy on artists and the entertainment industry. Moreover, few perpetrators are caught or punished for their actions. This allows potential perpetrators to rationalize and neutralize their piracy-related behaviors and, thus, avoid feelings of guilt or shame. This research uses an online experimental survey to examine framing tactics that may be used to prime feelings of guilt and shame and, in turn, deter online piracy. The survey exposed participants to one of three experimental ...


Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler 2019 Phyllis Chesler Organization

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


Ix: Story About The Law Of Non-Discrimination - Documentary, Denzel Jenkins 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ix: Story About The Law Of Non-Discrimination - Documentary, Denzel Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to provide historical awareness for how Title IX, the anti-gender discrimination law in education, evolved to where it is today and the impact it has on universities in the United States. Strong-willed individuals sought change in the late 1960s and 1970s to prevent gender discrimination in education, thus beginning the creation of the law and making it a powerful tool for women’s rights. As Title IX expanded its reach, universities have been shaped by gender discrimination in athletics, sexual assault, harassment and rape. This project outlines the evolution of Title IX through research ...


The Relationship Between Aggression And Depression: Testing The Moderating Effects Of Age And Gender, Benjamin P. Comer 2019 Boise State University

The Relationship Between Aggression And Depression: Testing The Moderating Effects Of Age And Gender, Benjamin P. Comer

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to a) explore the research related to aggression and depression and b) test hypotheses that focus on the relationship between aggression and depression in relation to age and gender over time. Aggression and depression are discussed extensively by examining a broad range of literature that points to environmental, social, individual, psychological, and biophysiological influences. First, aggression and depression are discussed separately in terms of their underlying theory, biosocial perspectives, typologies, behavioral and personality abnormalities, brain structures related to each, and neurochemical/neurological influences. The final sections of the literature review discuss how aggression and ...


Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan

Student Theses

Fatal use of force incidents involving police officers in the United States have recently seen widespread media attention, emotionally charged rhetoric, and calls for reform. The present study examines police use of force encounters with the mentally ill given the significant proportion of incidents and wanting body of literature. The objective of this study is to examine fatal police interactions to test whether those displaying signs of mental illness in encounters with law enforcement are more dangerous than those not displaying signs of mental illness. Open source data from the Washington Post were used from 2015 to 2018 (n=3942 ...


Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin 2019 University of New Haven

Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin

Master's Theses

Research shows that the clustering of Registered Sex Offenders (RSOs) is connected to social disorganization. Residential patterns disrupt the reintegration of the RSO population. Utilizing data from Queens and the Bronx, NYC, this study examines RSO clustering in the two boroughs and explores the proximity of community resources to RSO addresses that may assist reintegration. Using data from the New York Megan’s Law and census data for Queens and Bronx Counties, maps were created to study the residential patterns of RSOs. The results show clustering of RSOs in areas with variables pertaining to high social disorganization and a lack ...


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Passed as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Law Enforcement Misconduct Statute 42 U.S.C. 14141 (§ 14141) authorizes the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate, and enter into a court-enforceable structural reform agreement with a law enforcement agency engaged in patterns or practices of systemic misconduct, violations of federal law, and unconstitutional policing.

Under § 14141 authority, 33 investigations of municipal police have been conducted since 1994 where the DOJ determined that a police agency was engaged in, or at unreasonable risk of engaging in, a pattern or practice of unconstitutional policing. Publicizing ...


Exploring Places Of Street Drug Dealing In A Downtown Area In Brazil: An Analysis Of The Reliability Of Google Street View In International Criminological Research, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Ko-Hsin Hsu 2019 Montclair State University

Exploring Places Of Street Drug Dealing In A Downtown Area In Brazil: An Analysis Of The Reliability Of Google Street View In International Criminological Research, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Ko-Hsin Hsu

Elenice De Souza Oliveira

This study assesses the reliability of Google Street View (GSV) in auditing environmental features that help create hotbeds of drug dealing in Belo Horizonte, one of Brazil’s largest cities. Based on concepts of “crime generators” and “crime enablers,” a set of 40 items were selected using arrest data related to drug activities for the period between 2007 and 2011. These items served to develop a GSV data collection instrument used to observe features of 135 street segments that were identified as drug dealing hot spots in downtown Belo Horizonte. The study employs an intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics as a ...


Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich

Student Symposium

For my presentation, I will discuss an independent study I did with Dr. Durst in the Fall of 2018, in which I wrote about psychopaths and ways the criminal justice system (CJS) can protect society from them. I will first briefly define psychopathy and explain the personality traits associated with it. I will dedicate the rest of my time to explaining ways I believe the CJS can use information about psychopathy to protect society from criminals with that condition. Psychopathy is a subtype of antisocial personality disorder (APD) that is characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, manipulative and ...


The Irrational Appeal Of The Punishment Paradigm: How "Tough On Crime" Subverts Reason And Empathy, Curry Carr 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

The Irrational Appeal Of The Punishment Paradigm: How "Tough On Crime" Subverts Reason And Empathy, Curry Carr

Student Symposium

This investigation will examine the ways of thinking that facilitated the enactment of harsh sentencing laws in the U.S., with a specific focus on truth in sentencing laws in Illinois. Truth in sentencing laws dictate that people convicted of violent crimes must serve 85%-100% of their sentences, basically eliminating their chances for parole for good behavior. In the 1980s and 1990s almost every state enacted truth in sentencing laws after federal funding was promised to those who do. The implementation of these laws, in some ways, seemed to follow reason, especially when states lowered the requisite time served ...


Rehabilitate, Punish, Or Both?, Stephen Szambelan 2019 Carroll College

Rehabilitate, Punish, Or Both?, Stephen Szambelan

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Throughout American history the judicial systems have gone back and forth between which method they want to implement to reduce recidivism. There has been a constant question about which juvenile justice system is best between punitive and rehabilitative justice. Still today, many states are trying to figure out what justice works best for their juveniles. Studying previous articles and Montana State Judicial Statistics, I analyze the various approaches to confronting juvenile delinquency along with understanding why juveniles commit crimes. Looking at Montana youth court statistics we can see what is working and giving the juvenile the best chance to be ...


Crime Rate Perception: An Investigation Into Social Media Influence On Crime Rate Perception And Misconception, Kali Dunn, Caitlin Crawford, Shelbey Hughes 2019 University of North Alabama

Crime Rate Perception: An Investigation Into Social Media Influence On Crime Rate Perception And Misconception, Kali Dunn, Caitlin Crawford, Shelbey Hughes

Scholars Week 2019

This research explored the perceptions of how crime rates have changed compared to the current perception of previous generations, whether social media has influenced those perceptions, and if those perceptions remain even when presented with current and historical data on crime rates.


Victimization: Its Impact On Masculinity And Criminal Offending, Shon M. Reed, Alexis Kennedy 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Victimization: Its Impact On Masculinity And Criminal Offending, Shon M. Reed, Alexis Kennedy

Graduate Research Symposium (2018 - present)

Male vic,ms are an underrepresented group within society. Prior research has indicated that male vic,ms may feel a diminished sense of their own masculinity. Criminology has iden,fied that masculinity does play a role in some men’s decisions to engage in criminal behavior (Messerschmidt, 1993, 2016). It seems logical that these two concepts would be related. U,lizing self-­‐reported data from 135 college males, the current study analyzes the rela,onship between childhood vic,miza,on, masculinity beliefs, and the decision to engage in criminal/delinquent behavior.


Is It Acceptable For Juveniles To Be Tried As Adults?, Rachael L. Graber 2019 Cedarville University

Is It Acceptable For Juveniles To Be Tried As Adults?, Rachael L. Graber

Criminal Justice Capstone Research Papers

The adult court system has increasingly become a court for violent juveniles over time. Despite all the age restraints and changes in the law, the criminal court has still charged juveniles as young as 11 years old. This practice is unconstitutional and immoral. The constitution gives all American citizens the right to due process of law and the right not to be deprived of life, liberty, or happiness in the Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Trying juveniles as adults violates all three of these proposed amendments. This practice also creates issues due to the lack of attention to juvenile competency ...


Game Day Alters Crime Pattern In The Vicinity Of Sport Venues In Cleveland, Oh, Brian E. Menaker, Devan A. McGranahan, Richard D. Sheptak Jr. 2019 Texas A & M University - Kingsville

Game Day Alters Crime Pattern In The Vicinity Of Sport Venues In Cleveland, Oh, Brian E. Menaker, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Richard D. Sheptak Jr.

Journal of Sport Safety and Security

Sports venues can increase opportunity for crime and public order disturbances when they are in use, but the impact of sport venues on their local communities have largely been overlooked by sport management research. Theories from criminology provide utility for local public safety officers to plan for event-specific patterns in local criminal activity, but most research of the impact of sport venues on crime has either been theoretical or applied broadly at societal or city levels. Here, we consider routine activity theory and crime pattern theory to better understand the increased frequency of crime events within the local neighborhoods of ...


Fans Gone Wild: An Interdisciplinary Review Of Spectator Violence, Ryan Radmall 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Fans Gone Wild: An Interdisciplinary Review Of Spectator Violence, Ryan Radmall

Graduate Research Symposium (2018 - present)

Spectator violence refers to physical violence that occurs at special events within entertainment venues. This phenomenon can be problematic for event attendees, promoters, and security at these events.


Exploring The Women’S Needs And Risks Assessment (Wrna) In The Czech Republic, Tereza Trejbalova, Emily J. Salisbury 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring The Women’S Needs And Risks Assessment (Wrna) In The Czech Republic, Tereza Trejbalova, Emily J. Salisbury

Graduate Research Symposium (2018 - present)

The focus of practitioners and academics alike has been shifting towards gender-responsive treatment of justice-involved women. One instrument that accounts for the realities of justice-involved women is the Women’s Needs and Risks Assessment (WRNA). In order to inquire about its validity outside the US, this tool was piloted in the Czech Republic in 2016 with 148 women prisoners. The study examined whether the WRNA is valid in the Czech Republic, and how well it predicts the disciplinary infractions of incarcerated women with different cultural backgrounds. Results suggest external validity of the WRNA as several of the gender-neutral (e.g ...


Femicide In The News: How Newspaper Articles Represent The Killing Of Women & Girls In Detroit And Ciudad Juárez, Danielle Branch 2019 Western Michigan University

Femicide In The News: How Newspaper Articles Represent The Killing Of Women & Girls In Detroit And Ciudad Juárez, Danielle Branch

Honors Theses

In the year 2017 alone, 87,000 women were intentionally murdered across the globe, while 58% of these victims were murdered by someone they knew — family members or intimate partners (Global Study on Homicide: Gender-Related Killing of Women and Girls, 2018). The intentional killing of women and girls, typically by men and motivated by gender, is classified as a crime called “femicide.” Broader definitions of femicide simply state that it is the murder of women and girls, by someone of any gender, regardless of their motive. In some regions of the world, this phenomenon is more prevalent than in others ...


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