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A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander 2019 Bridgewater State University

A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-Shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This study constructed a structural model which consists of social demographic factors, experience of victimization, opportunity factors, and social context factors to explain the public’s fear of crime on social networking sites (SNS). The model is based on the risk interpretation model, which predicts that these factors influence users’ fear of crime victimization. Using data from 486 university students in South Korea, an empirically-tested model suggests that sex and age have direct and significant effects on fear of victimization, supporting the vulnerability hypothesis. Among opportunity factors, the level of personal information and the number of offending peers have significant ...


An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing 2019 Bridgewater State University

An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Limited research has considered individual perceptions of moral distinctions between consensual and nonconsensual intimate image sharing, as well as decision making parameters around why others might engage in such behavior. The current study conducted a perception analysis using mixed-methods online surveys administered to 63 participants, inquiring into their perceptions of why individuals engage in certain behaviors surrounding the sending of intimate images from friends and partners. The study found that respondents favored the concepts of (1) sharing images with romantic partners over peers; (2) sharing non-intimate images over intimate images; and (3) sharing images with consent rather than without it ...


Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett 2019 Bridgewater State University

Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The authors laid the groundwork for analyzing the crypto-economic incentives of interconnected blockchain networks and utilize situational crime prevention theory to explain how more secure systems can be developed. Blockchain networks utilize smaller blockchains (often called sidechains) to increase throughput in larger networks. Identified are several disadvantages to using sidechains that create critical exposures to the assets locked on them. Without security being provided by the mainchain in the form of validated exits, sidechains or statechannels which have a bridge or mainchain asset representations are at significant risk of attack. The inability to have a sufficiently high cost to attack ...


The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer LaPrade 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

New technology is rapidly emerging to fight increasing cybercrime threats, however, there is one important component of a cybercrime that technology cannot always impact and that is human behavior. Unfortunately, humans can be vulnerable and easily deceived making technological advances alone inadequate in the cybercrime fight. Instead, we must take a more holistic approach by using technology and better understanding the human factors that make cybercrime possible. In this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, three studies contribute to our knowledge of human factors and emerging cybercrime technology so that more effective comprehensive cybercrime prevention strategies ...


Examining The Use Of Hebephilia And Paraphilia Non-Consent In Sexually Violent Predator (Svp) Evaluations, Nicole Graham 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining The Use Of Hebephilia And Paraphilia Non-Consent In Sexually Violent Predator (Svp) Evaluations, Nicole Graham

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sexually violent predator (SVP) legislation requires, in part, that an individual has a mental abnormality which causes difficulty in controlling sexual behavior. Previous research has found paraphilia not otherwise specified (NOS) to be one of the most prevalent diagnoses proffered in SVP evaluations. Since these studies, however, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) has updated the paraphilia NOS diagnosis in two ways. First, this diagnosis has been divided into two new diagnoses—other specified paraphilic disorder (OSPD) and unspecified paraphilic disorder. Second, OSPD requires an added specifier to indicate the individual’s source of sexual arousal. To date, no study ...


Exploring The Structural Effects On The Lethal Violence At The U.S. Counties Under The Situational Action Theory: An Application Of Multivariable Spatial Regression Model, Yunho Yeom 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Exploring The Structural Effects On The Lethal Violence At The U.S. Counties Under The Situational Action Theory: An Application Of Multivariable Spatial Regression Model, Yunho Yeom

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the stream analogy (Unnithan, Corzine, Huff-Corzine, & Whitt, 1994) and the frustration-aggression approach (Henry & Short, 1954) in lethal violence phenomenon analysis, several scholars have integrated theories from outside of their fields of study to understand lethal violence under a single theoretical framework. Some of these researchers have focused on deteriorating socioeconomic conditions and the collective attributional style when explaining the causes of lethal violence; others have failed to assume the non-independence of observation among contextual predictors. Recognizing these shortcomings, this study integrates the social components of situational action theory to examine their mediating effects on the relationship between socioeconomic context and lethal violence. At the same time, this study uses spatial analysis techniques to capture the spatial effect among the contextual predictors. These findings from the spatial analyses reveal that the geographical distribution of lethal violence in the U.S. counties is far from random; the spatial process needs to be considered in the aggregated analyses. This ...


The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh 2019 CUNY John Jay College

The Role Of Eyewitness Confidence And Prosecution/Defense Presentation In How Facial Composites Shape Juror Decision-Making, Rebecca E. Singh

Student Theses

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be an unreliable form of evidence (Loftus, Miller & Burns, 1978; Oswald & Coleman, 2007; Wells & Hasel, 2007; Loftus & Greenspan, 2017; Jaross, 2018; Wade, Nash, & Lindsay, 2018; Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher, 2018). Yet, this evidence is still used in the courts today, and, in fact, is perceived by jurors as important and compelling in comparison to other case factors (e.g., character evidence, physical evidence; Topp-Manriquez, McQuiston, & Malpass, 2014; Kabzińska, 2015). Additionally, eyewitnesses are sometimes requested to help create a facial composite of the suspect and, critically, these composites are then used as evidence during the trial. In addition to the confidence of the eyewitness and the presentation of the evidence (i.e., defense or prosecution), the present research examines how facial composites influence the decision-making process on the part of jurors. Overall, the present results suggest that there is a significant difference in ...


An Assessment Of The Impact Of Intimate Victim-Offender Relationship On Sentencing In Serious Assault Cases, Laura J. Hickman 2019 Portland State University

An Assessment Of The Impact Of Intimate Victim-Offender Relationship On Sentencing In Serious Assault Cases, Laura J. Hickman

Laura J. Hickman

It is generally agreed that a criminal justice system reflects the values of the society within which it exists. The presence of patriarchal social values will likely affect the response of the criminal justice system to intimate violence. While the perpetration of violence against another is a violation of an important social norm, patriarchal values may function to discount the seriousness of such an act, if the violence is perpetrated by a man against his girlfriend or wife. This discount of seriousness may lead to less severe punishment for men who assault their intimates than to men who assault nonintimates ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


Mental Health Jail Diversion: A Therapeutic Approach To Offending In Twenty-First Century America, Ryan J. Parent 2019 Merrimack College

Mental Health Jail Diversion: A Therapeutic Approach To Offending In Twenty-First Century America, Ryan J. Parent

Criminology Student Work

This analysis is concerned with understanding the facets of criminal justice diversion programs that successfully improve the mental wellbeing of participants and, as a subsequent effect, reduce offending amongst the mentally ill populous in the United States. An inquiry of pre-program and post-program data from both adult and juvenile mental health specific programs reveals that participation amongst both groups shows a meaningful reduction in new/repeat offending in comparison to non-participants. The data shows that the expansion of law enforcement Crisis Intervention Team’s (CIT’s) has a compounding effect to the positive results. A review of these programs in ...


After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

While an offender’s conduct before and during the crime is the traditional focus of criminal law and sentencing rules, an examination of post-offense conduct can also be important in promoting criminal justice goals. After the crime, different offenders make different choices and have different experiences, and those differences can suggest appropriately different treatment by judges, correctional officials, probation and parole supervisors, and other decision-makers in the criminal justice system.

Positive post-offense conduct ought to be acknowledged and rewarded, not only to encourage it but also as a matter of fair and just treatment. This essay describes four kinds of ...


Police Integrity Lost: Preliminary Findings Of A National Study Of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested, Philip M. Stinson 2019 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost: Preliminary Findings Of A National Study Of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This presentation presents preliminary research findings of a study on the nature and extent of police crime in the United States. It provides information on the factors that influence how a law enforcement agency responds to arrests of its officers. The data indicate that civil rights litigation is a correlate of police misconduct.


High Stakes Require More Than Just Talk: What To Do About Corruption In Health Systems, Taryn Vian 2019 University of San Francisco

High Stakes Require More Than Just Talk: What To Do About Corruption In Health Systems, Taryn Vian

Nursing and Health Professions Faculty Research and Publications

Reluctance to talk about corruption is an important barrier to action. Yet the stakes of not addressing corruption in the health sector are higher than ever. Corruption includes wrongdoing by individuals, but it is also a problem of weak institutions captured by political interests, and underfunded, unreliable administrative systems and healthcare delivery models. We urgently need to focus on corruption as a health systems problem. In addition to supporting research to better understand the context and implications of corruption in health systems, this article suggests actions that public health professionals can do now to fight corruption.


Does The Decriminalization Of Prostitution Reduce Rape And Sexually Transmitted Disease? A Review Of Cunningham And Shah Findings, Lily Lachapelle, Clare Schneider, Melanie Shapiro, Donna M. Hughes 2019 University of Rhode Island

Does The Decriminalization Of Prostitution Reduce Rape And Sexually Transmitted Disease? A Review Of Cunningham And Shah Findings, Lily Lachapelle, Clare Schneider, Melanie Shapiro, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

In 2013, research findings by Cunningham and Shah claimed that rape and sexually transmitted diseases were reduced by decriminalized prostitution in Rhode Island. The original unpublished claims have received wide media coverage which have gone unexamined. This review finds errors in their analyses. One error is the date when prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island. Cunningham and Shah claim that prostitution was decriminalized in 2003. Our analysis finds the date of decriminalization of prostitution was 1980. The change in the start date of decriminalization significantly alters the analysis and the findings. Another error results from Cunningham and Shah using an ...


Ethical Implications Of Codis, Lucy Grogan 2019 Grand Valley State University

Ethical Implications Of Codis, Lucy Grogan

Masters Theses

CODIS stores and maintains numerous DNA profiles, and is used as a tool by the criminal justice system in order to help solve crime. Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA for short, is the genetic material that an individual inherits from one’s parents (NIH, 2019). Certain portions of this genetic material are selected for use within the CODIS database due to their lack of medically relevant information. There is an immense amount of power associated with DNA and the CODIS database that it is held within, which allows for many ethical issues to arise. In order to create a usable and ...


Multivariate Temporal Modeling Of Crime With Dynamic Linear Models, Nathaniel Garton, Jarad Niemi 2019 Iowa State University

Multivariate Temporal Modeling Of Crime With Dynamic Linear Models, Nathaniel Garton, Jarad Niemi

Jarad Niemi

Interest in modeling contemporary crime trends, a task that has historically been considered valuable to the public, researchers, and policymakers, is resurging. Advancements in criminology have made it clear that understanding crime trends necessarily involves understanding trends in how likely individuals are to report crimes to the police, as well as how likely the police are to accurately record those crimes. In this paper, we use dynamic linear models to simultaneously model the time series for several crime types in order to gain insight into trends in crime and crime reporting. We analyze crime data from Chicago spanning 2007 through ...


Multivariate Temporal Modeling Of Crime With Dynamic Linear Models, Nathaniel Garton, Jarad Niemi 2019 Iowa State University

Multivariate Temporal Modeling Of Crime With Dynamic Linear Models, Nathaniel Garton, Jarad Niemi

Statistics Publications

Interest in modeling contemporary crime trends, a task that has historically been considered valuable to the public, researchers, and policymakers, is resurging. Advancements in criminology have made it clear that understanding crime trends necessarily involves understanding trends in how likely individuals are to report crimes to the police, as well as how likely the police are to accurately record those crimes. In this paper, we use dynamic linear models to simultaneously model the time series for several crime types in order to gain insight into trends in crime and crime reporting. We analyze crime data from Chicago spanning 2007 through ...


Against The Received Wisdom: Why Should The Criminal Justice System Give Kids A Break?, Stephen J. Morse 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Against The Received Wisdom: Why Should The Criminal Justice System Give Kids A Break?, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Professor Gideon Yaffe’s recent, intricately argued book, The Age of Culpability: Children and the Nature of Criminal Responsibility, argues against the nearly uniform position in both law and scholarship that the criminal justice system should give juveniles a break not because on average they have different capacities relevant to responsibility than adults, but because juveniles have little say about the criminal law, primarily because they do not have a vote. For Professor Yaffe, age has political rather than behavioral significance. The book has many excellent general analyses about responsibility, but all are in aid of the central thesis about ...


Research Brief One-Sheet – No. 9: On-Duty Shootings: Police Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter, 2005-2019, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe Wentzlof 2019 Bowling Green State University

Research Brief One-Sheet – No. 9: On-Duty Shootings: Police Officers Charged With Murder Or Manslaughter, 2005-2019, Philip M. Stinson, Chloe Wentzlof

Philip M Stinson

This research is part of a larger study of police crime—that is, crime committed by nonfederal sworn law enforcement officers with general powers of arrest—across the United States. In 2014, after several fatal on-duty police shootings garnered national media attention, our principal investigator, Philip Stinson, conducted a joint research project with The Washington Post to count the number of police officers charged with murder or manslaughter resulting from an on-duty shooting where the officer shot and killed someone. The results of the joint research project were published in The Washington Post on April 12, 2015, and The Washington ...


What's Cookin'?: An Analysis Of Food As A Method Of Control In The Penal System, Zoe Livengood 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

What's Cookin'?: An Analysis Of Food As A Method Of Control In The Penal System, Zoe Livengood

Master's Theses

According to Garland (2001), the U.S. correctional system is a reflection of the culture of control that exists in American society. One way the correctional system exerts control is through food. This concept partnered with Foucault’s ideas about the evolution of punishment and the criminal justice system as an institution creates the theoretical foundation for food as a method of control in the correctional system.

Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, this study examined food as a method of control in three southern Mississippi jails in order to understand how food is a contested space for control between jail ...


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