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From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans DSW 2019 University of Pennsylvania

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Reviewing The Literature On Staff Misconduct And Specific Responsivity, Ernest M. Oleksy 2019 Cleveland State University

Reviewing The Literature On Staff Misconduct And Specific Responsivity, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Incarceration is a trying time for inmates as they are punished for crimes they committed while free in society. Beyond the legitimate punishment of being imprisoned, inmates may face illegitimate punishment at the hands of prison staff, ranging from ridicule to physical and sexual violence. Apart from the obvious corruption and immorality involved in staff misconduct, such deviance can also result in a dampened responsivity to reentry programming efforts that strive to keep inmates out of prison. In this literature review, I investigate, summarize, and synthesize the corpus that is relevant to how staff misconduct can be a negative specific ...


Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In the case of Furman v. Georgia (1972), the Supreme Court outlawed the death penalty on the grounds that its use constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment. No majority opinion was written, but the plurality opinions all agreed that the amount of discretion in death penalty sentencing left too much room for the death penalty to be given arbitrarily. When the death penalty was reinstated in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Court approved schemes that limited the discretion of sentencing bodies by providing sentencing guidelines, automatically appealing all death penalty cases for review, or taking ...


Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper investigates the conditional demands of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence in the United States criminal justice system and argues that the dissonance between the need for heightened protections in capital sentencing and the reality of our capital-sentencing institutions ultimately renders the death penalty, as it currently exists in our society, impermissible. This claim is substantiated in three parts: first, through an analysis of foundational death penalty decisions from the Supreme Course, which condemn the arbitrary nature of capital juries while simultaneously justifying their constitutional necessity as sentencing agents; second, through an examination of the development of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence and its conceptual ...


The Effect Of Lineup Size On Eyewitness Accuracy, Alyssa Baumann 2019 Augsburg College

The Effect Of Lineup Size On Eyewitness Accuracy, Alyssa Baumann

Augsburg Honors Review

The research investigated the impact of the number of members in a police lineup on eyewitness identification. Participants attempted to identify the perpetrator from either a sequential or simultaneous lineup. The number of members in the lineup differed between 6 members and 12 members, simultaneous or sequential lineup presentation, and target-present or target-absent. In the target-present condition, the research was concerned with correct identifications. Thus, the 6 member simultaneous lineup should yield the most correct identifications. The 12 member simultaneous lineup should yield the second highest. The 6 and 12 member sequential lineup presentation should yield fewer correct identifications because ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 52: Race, Racism And The Murder Conviction Of Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson 2019 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 52: Race, Racism And The Murder Conviction Of Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Damien Carrick that originally aired in Australia on the ABC Radio National show The Law Report on May 7, 2019.


A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler 2019 Bellarmine University

A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler

Undergraduate Theses

This analysis of 21 opening statements probes at current persuasive practices employed by trial attorneys through the lens of mainstream legal advice and an expanded definition of rhetorical invention – one which includes both discovery and creation. An evaluation of such practice reveals the utility, and furthermore the duty of the advocate, to draw upon an expanded realm of available arguments.


An Extended Laplace Approximation Method For Bayesian Inference Of Self-Exciting Spatial-Temporal Models Of Count Data, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon 2019 Iowa State University

An Extended Laplace Approximation Method For Bayesian Inference Of Self-Exciting Spatial-Temporal Models Of Count Data, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon

Philip Dixon

Self-Exciting models are statistical models of count data where the probability of an event occurring is infl d by the history of the process. In particular, self-exciting spatio-temporal models allow for spatial dependence as well as temporal self-excitation. For large spatial or temporal regions, however, the model leads to an intractable likeli- hood. An increasingly common method for dealing with large spatio-temporal models is by using Laplace approximations (LA). This method is convenient as it can easily be applied and is quickly implemented. However, as we will demonstrate in this manuscript, when applied to self-exciting Poisson spatial-temporal models, Laplace Approximations ...


Modeling And Estimation For Self-Exciting Spatio-Temporal Models Of Terrorist Activity, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon 2019 Iowa State University

Modeling And Estimation For Self-Exciting Spatio-Temporal Models Of Terrorist Activity, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon

Philip Dixon

Spatio-temporal hierarchical modeling is an extremely attractive way to model the spread of crime or terrorism data over a given region, especially when the observations are counts and must be modeled discretely. The spatio-temporal diffusion is placed, as a matter of convenience, in the process model allowing for straightforward estimation of the diffusion parameters through Bayesian techniques. However, this method of modeling does not allow for the existence of self-excitation, or a temporal data model dependency, that has been shown to exist in criminal and terrorism data. In this manuscript we will use existing theories on how violence spreads to ...


Analysis Of Error Within Forensic Measurements And Photogrammetry Programs, Amy Douglas 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Analysis Of Error Within Forensic Measurements And Photogrammetry Programs, Amy Douglas

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Digital images and photography have been considered commonplace in forensic science since the late 1990’s. Photogrammetry is a tool used in forensic science to measure objects within photographs that contain a scale or programs that are able to measure items in 3D images. Items at crime scenes often need to be measured and forensic scientists may not know what the best option is for their situation. This research will be conducted to show which type of measurement technique is most accurate, calculated against NIST traceable measurements, at various sizes of objects. The measurement techniques that will be tested are ...


The Power Of Prosecutors, Jeffrey Bellin 2019 William & Mary Law School

The Power Of Prosecutors, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

One of the predominant themes in the criminal justice literature is that prosecutors dominate the justice system. Over seventy-five years ago, Attorney General Robert Jackson famously proclaimed that the “prosecutor has more control over life, liberty, and reputation than any other person in America.” In one of the most cited law review articles of all time, Bill Stuntz added that prosecutors—not legislators, judges, or police—“are the criminal justice system’s real lawmakers.” And an unchallenged modern consensus holds that prosecutors “rule the criminal justice system.”

This Article applies a critical lens to longstanding claims of prosecutorial preeminence. It ...


Imagining A Non-Violent World "The Be The Peace, Make A Change Project": A Rural Community Peacebuilding Initiative To End Gender-Based Violence, Nancy M. Ross 2019 Dalhousie University

Imagining A Non-Violent World "The Be The Peace, Make A Change Project": A Rural Community Peacebuilding Initiative To End Gender-Based Violence, Nancy M. Ross

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article will profile the innovative community engagement process initiated by the "Be the Peace, Make a Change" project to end gender-based violence in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, and conclude with lessons learned. These lessons were summarized as "headlines" to imagine a future with new narratives for interpersonal relationships. This project was a three-year grassroots initiative of Second Story Women’s Centre, funded by Status of Women Canada. It engaged the rural communities of Lunenburg County to develop a coordinated response to violence against women and girls. It focused on the engagement of all genders, youth, and adults in exploring ...


Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler 2019 Phyllis Chesler Organization

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan

Student Theses

Fatal use of force incidents involving police officers in the United States have recently seen widespread media attention, emotionally charged rhetoric, and calls for reform. The present study examines police use of force encounters with the mentally ill given the significant proportion of incidents and wanting body of literature. The objective of this study is to examine fatal police interactions to test whether those displaying signs of mental illness in encounters with law enforcement are more dangerous than those not displaying signs of mental illness. Open source data from the Washington Post were used from 2015 to 2018 (n=3942 ...


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Passed as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Law Enforcement Misconduct Statute 42 U.S.C. 14141 (§ 14141) authorizes the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate, and enter into a court-enforceable structural reform agreement with a law enforcement agency engaged in patterns or practices of systemic misconduct, violations of federal law, and unconstitutional policing.

Under § 14141 authority, 33 investigations of municipal police have been conducted since 1994 where the DOJ determined that a police agency was engaged in, or at unreasonable risk of engaging in, a pattern or practice of unconstitutional policing. Publicizing ...


Shootings, Strain, And Safety On A College Campus: An Analysis Of Perceptions Of Safety And Concealed Carry, Amanda S. Bishop 2019 East Tennessee State University

Shootings, Strain, And Safety On A College Campus: An Analysis Of Perceptions Of Safety And Concealed Carry, Amanda S. Bishop

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School and campus shootings are a contemporary problem in the United States. Because of these shootings, colleges have enacted new policies to ensure safety on their campuses, including concealed carry on campus. The State of Tennessee has a unique law in place that allows colleges to create their own policies regarding concealed carry on campus, with the stipulation that only full-time faculty and staff can carry concealed weapons. East Tennessee State University is one campus with this policy. East Tennessee State University students, faculty, and staff were questioned via email survey about their perceptions of safety on campus and opinions ...


Perceptions Of Soring In Tennessee Walking Horses, Hannah Medford 2019 East Tennessee State University

Perceptions Of Soring In Tennessee Walking Horses, Hannah Medford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of soring in the Tennessee Walking Horse industry. Although a limited amount of research has focused on the practice, this is the first known study to utilize a criminological lens to better understand the perceptions and motivations of its use. The study relies upon data collected from Tennessee Walking Horse trainers, event attendees, and Designated Qualified Persons (DQPs), which are analyzed via a mixed-methods approach. Agnew’s (1998) theory on the causes of animal abuse serves as the theoretical framework for this analysis. Results provide a moderate amount of support ...


Beliefs About Police Error Leading To Wrongful Convictions And Attitudes On Police Legitimacy, Julia Melfi 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Beliefs About Police Error Leading To Wrongful Convictions And Attitudes On Police Legitimacy, Julia Melfi

Criminal Justice

This study investigates the relations between citizens’ perceptions of how police misconduct as a factor contributing to wrongful convictions is connected to attitudes towards police legitimacy. I hypothesized that there would be a negative correlation between the two variables such that the more individuals believe police error contributes to wrongful convictions, the less legitimate they perceive the police to be. I also examined how citizens’ race affects these perceptions and attitudes, too, and hypothesized that Black citizens are more likely than White citizens to believe police error leads to wrongful conviction and mistrust the police. To test the hypotheses data ...


Explaining Juvenile Delinquency As A Product Of Personal Security, Roxanne I. Grieggs 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Explaining Juvenile Delinquency As A Product Of Personal Security, Roxanne I. Grieggs

Criminal Justice

This study seeks to understand the role that youths’ sense of personal security plays in their external engagement in deviant behavior. While there is some literature on the relationship between youth’s fear of crime or tumultuous home environments and their involvement in gangs and to some extent violence, it is scant, and studies of youths’ feelings of safety within residential facilities and their in-residence behaviors is virtually non-existent. Therefore, in this study of youth in two residential treatment centers, surveys administered to said youth are used to illustrate the potential link between youth’s perceived sense of personal security ...


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