Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Near and Middle Eastern Studies Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

777 Full-Text Articles 558 Authors 206,352 Downloads 113 Institutions

All Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Faceted Search

777 full-text articles. Page 6 of 27.

The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current ...


The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad) regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif). In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya) use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.


The Mysterious Case Of The Islamic State Organization (Iso) Smiling Martyr--Solved, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

The Mysterious Case Of The Islamic State Organization (Iso) Smiling Martyr--Solved, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: For a mere Muslim mortal, Allah’s granting of martyrdom (Shahada) is the pinnacle of spiritual achievement. The martyr (Shahid) is granted unique privileges among which are the right to bypass the moral interrogation meted out to determine after death whether one is spiritually fit; the complete freedom from all anguish, pain, and suffering caused by one’s wounds as one immediately traverses into the highest of seven heavens; the right to intercede and request divine favors on behalf of seventy of one’s loved one’s; the enjoyment of exclusive sexual privileges with seventy-two virgins; and finally, the ...


On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S May 2015 Message To Muslims: Key Problems Of Motivation, Marginalization, Illogic, And Empirical Delusion In The Caliphate Project, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S May 2015 Message To Muslims: Key Problems Of Motivation, Marginalization, Illogic, And Empirical Delusion In The Caliphate Project, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On May 14, 2015 a 34-minute audio message was released by the self-proclaimed Islamic State’s media arm al-Furqan.


On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S December 2015 Speech: Further Evidence For Critical Vulnerabilities In The Crumbling Caliphate, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

On Self-Declared Caliph Ibrahim’S December 2015 Speech: Further Evidence For Critical Vulnerabilities In The Crumbling Caliphate, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On December 26, 2015 a 24-minute audio message was released by the Islamic State Organization’s (ISO) official media arm al-Furqan.


Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Despite his importance as a senior Al-Qaeda spokesman, no detailed examination exists of Adam Yahiye Gadahn’s employment of fiqh al-jihad—that branch of Islamic jurisprudence regulating the lawful waging of jihad—to condemn or condone violence committed in the name of Al-Qaeda. This article first provides a detailed exposition of Gadahn’s sharia-based critique of affiliates’ conduct deemed by him in violation of Islamic law and involving the commission of major sins. Second, Gadahn’s conception of fiqh al-jihad is contextualized and contrasted with the comprehensive fiqh al-jihad-based critiques produced by respected militant Islamist scholars. A key finding here ...


Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: On May 21, 2016 a 31-minute audio file by Islamic State Organization (ISO) chief spokesman Abu Muhammad al-Adnani (real name: Taha Sobhi Falaha) was uploaded by the ISO’s Al Furqan Media outlet onto the internet.


Baghdadi’S Bunker: Five Essential Tasks For Which The World Should Now Prepare, Paul Kamolnick 2017 East Tennessee State University

Baghdadi’S Bunker: Five Essential Tasks For Which The World Should Now Prepare, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

Excerpt: The Islamic State Organization (ISO) will be defeated. That defeat will occur sooner rather than later. The nature of this terrorist organization suggests that preparations should now be made to minimize the carnage, loss of irreplaceable life, and cultural treasures that may without sufficient preparation accompany the final days and aftermath of ISO.


Interpretations Of Jesus And The Virgin Mary In The Quran And The Bible: A Possible Contribution To Muslim-Christian Cooperation?, Jon Armajani 2017 College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University

Interpretations Of Jesus And The Virgin Mary In The Quran And The Bible: A Possible Contribution To Muslim-Christian Cooperation?, Jon Armajani

The Journal of Social Encounters

This essay explores Muslim and Christian understandings of Jesus and his mother Mary, which may provide a basis for possible cooperation between the two religious communities. The similarities and differences in views are discussed, with an understanding that there are differences in views not only between but also within the two religious communities. The essay concludes with a discussion of seven types of interreligious dialogue as articulated by Sallie B. King, and how they apply to Muslim-Christian dialogue related to Jesus and Mary.


The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: The Effect Of Future Awards On International Terrorism, Casey J. College 2017 Penn State Law

The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: The Effect Of Future Awards On International Terrorism, Casey J. College

Arbitration Law Review

No abstract provided.


Attitudes Of Students With And Without Disabilities Toward Physical Education And Their Sports And Activities Preferences In Saudi Arabia, Zuhair Abdaladeem Al Salim 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Attitudes Of Students With And Without Disabilities Toward Physical Education And Their Sports And Activities Preferences In Saudi Arabia, Zuhair Abdaladeem Al Salim

Theses and Dissertations

Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest countries in the Middle East, and it has paid particular attention to public education to prepare students to become good citizens. Physical education (PE) can have a vital influence on all children and adolescents’ lifestyles, including those with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes of Saudi Arabian students with and without disabilities toward PE as well as their sport and activities preferences. A second purpose was to investigate the effect of school levels and student participation in physical activity after school on students’ attitudes in PE. A final purpose ...


Rivalry In The Middle East: The History Of Saudi-Iranian Relations And Its Implications On American Foreign Policy, Derika Weddington 2017 Missouri State University

Rivalry In The Middle East: The History Of Saudi-Iranian Relations And Its Implications On American Foreign Policy, Derika Weddington

MSU Graduate Theses

The history of Saudi-Iranian relations has been fraught. This relationship has impacted the United States’ role in the Persian Gulf. Prior to the formation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran could be characterized in terms of mutual understanding which allowed them to become integral parts of the American foreign policy in the1970s. This policy was intended to safeguard Western interests in the Persian Gulf after the British left. Saudi-Iranian cooperation during this time was in stark contrast to the hostile relationship that developed between them following the Iranian Revolution in 1979 ...


Contested Moral Issues In Contemporary African Catholicism: Theological Proposals For A Hermeneutics Of Multiplicity And Inclusion, Stan Chu Ilo 2017 DePaul University

Contested Moral Issues In Contemporary African Catholicism: Theological Proposals For A Hermeneutics Of Multiplicity And Inclusion, Stan Chu Ilo

Journal of Global Catholicism

Drawing upon the broad work of Vatican II and Pope Francis’ Evangelicum Gaudium the article proposes how a hermeneutic of multiplicity and inclusion could help hold in balance the tension between tradition and innovation, universal principles and specific contextual application for Catholicism in Africa. Among the issues addressed are cultural relativism, natural law theory, and polygamy.


The Enemy As Animal: Symmetric Dehumanization During Asymmetric Warfare, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Enemy As Animal: Symmetric Dehumanization During Asymmetric Warfare, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to ‘morally disengage’ from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top ‘looking down’, or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N ...


Eastern Dreams: Alternative Pathways For Chinese Students Pursuing Baccalaureate Degrees In The United States, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Jiayi Hu 2017 Iowa State University

Eastern Dreams: Alternative Pathways For Chinese Students Pursuing Baccalaureate Degrees In The United States, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Jiayi Hu

Linda Serra Hagedorn

The number of international students pursuing postsecondary degrees in the United States has increased consistently over the past several years (Institute of International Education 2012, 2013). In fact, the most recent report— for academic year 2012–13—indicates that compared to the previous academic year, the number of international students at U.S. colleges and universities increased by 7.2 percent, to more than 800,000. Students from China lead this global trend, accounting for 28.7 percent of all international postsecondary students in the United States. Moreover, the number of Chinese students studying in the United States continues to ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas 2017 Chapman University

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


Modern Palestinian Filmmaking In A Global World, Sarah Frances Hudson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Modern Palestinian Filmmaking In A Global World, Sarah Frances Hudson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation employs a comprehensive approach to analyze the cinematic accent of feature length, fictional Palestinian cinema and offers concrete criteria to define the genre of Palestinian fictional film that go beyond traditional, nation-centered approaches to defining films. Employing Arjun Appardurai’s concepts of financescapes, technoscapes, mediascapes, ethnoscapes, and ideoscapes, I analyze the filmic accent of six Palestinian filmmakers: Michel Khleifi, Rashid Masharawi, Ali Nassar, Elia Suleiman, Hany Abu Assad, and Annemarie Jacir. After a detailed examination of each filmmaker’s body of work, I examine the trends that occur across the genre that have the greatest impact on the ...


How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. MacMillan 2017 College of William and Mary

How Some Islamic Monarchies Use Religious Ideology To Maintain Domestic Control And Exert Regional Influence: A Comparative Study Of Morocco And Saudi Arabia, Abigail M. Macmillan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper will attempt to explore the ways in which, and the purposes with which, some authoritarian states seek to use religious ideologies to maintain domestic control and exert regional influence. The two case studies explored here are Morocco and Saudi Arabia, two Arabo-Islamic monarchies in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. This paper will touch on historical contexts in which modern religious educational apparatuses were developed and the contemporary contexts in which they now exist, as well as the intents and desires behind such apparatuses. In addition, this paper will explore the benefits of ideological control in a ...


Examining The Intersection Of Refugee Policies And Contemporary Protracted Displacement, Christopher M. Owens 2017 Clark University

Examining The Intersection Of Refugee Policies And Contemporary Protracted Displacement, Christopher M. Owens

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Article 33 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees states that host nations shall not expel or return a refugee to their home nation ‘where his life or freedom would be threatened.’ However, as demonstrated in three contemporary case studies in protracted displacement the interests of the sovereign state drive nations to craft strategies to limit cross-border refugee mobility. The refoulement of refugees escaping drug cartel violence throughout the Americas, internally displaced Haitians, and Syrian refugees in Jordan are all ‘managed’ by one of two methods. First, some destination nations either strategically blur refugees into other mobility ...


Factors Influencing Distribution Of Prosthetic Devices In Iran: An Economic Analysis, Sarah Tensen 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Factors Influencing Distribution Of Prosthetic Devices In Iran: An Economic Analysis, Sarah Tensen

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

An estimated 177,622 Iranians have suffered an injury resulting in amputation. Prosthetic devices in Iran are scarce due to wealth disparity, wars, and lack of vital resources. Without prosthetic devices, amputees face unemployment, homelessness, a lowered self-esteem and cannot fully participate in society. I examined economic factors influencing the distribution of prosthetic devices and reviewed articles that focus on healthcare costs, distributions and services, relationships between Iran and other countries, etiology of amputation to find a solution for the prosthetic distribution issues. I concluded issues resulted from high costs, unequal distributions of wealth and resources, unsafe conditions, and a ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress