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Near and Middle Eastern Studies Commons

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Power And Authority Of Royal Queen Mothers: Juxtaposing The French Queen Regent And The Ottoman Validé Sultan During The Early Modern Period, Reneé N. Langlois 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Power And Authority Of Royal Queen Mothers: Juxtaposing The French Queen Regent And The Ottoman Validé Sultan During The Early Modern Period, Reneé N. Langlois

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Women and their relationship to sovereignty, during the early modern era has become a rapidly growing topic, given that during this period an unprecedented number of women rose to high positions of power. This paper aims to compare the lives of the queen regents in France with their counterparts, the validé sultans in the Ottoman Empire, over the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when both groups of royal women acquired substantial power. Although these women were prohibited from ruling in their own right, the paper explores the ways in which queen regents and validé sultans used both official ...


The Whole World In His Hands: What A Qibla Indicator Illuminates About Islamic Community In Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Turkey, Meghan Doyle 2018 Pepperdine University

The Whole World In His Hands: What A Qibla Indicator Illuminates About Islamic Community In Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Turkey, Meghan Doyle

Global Tides

In the sixteenth century, at a time of Ottoman rule and production in modern-day Turkey, qibla indicators were ubiquitous objects, used to assist faithful Muslims in finding the direction to Mecca. A particularly well-preserved qibla indicator in the British Museum allows for an inquiry into how these objects were used, bridging the gap between folk astronomy and scientific geography. Applying contemporary theories of belongingness to the composition and function of the qibla indicator reveals the psychological effect this object may have had on members of the Islamic community. Ultimately, what the qibla indicator may lack in geographical accuracy it more ...


Islamophobia In The United Kingdom: A Critical Global Perspective, Jeffrey Driggs 2018 California State University, Monterey Bay

Islamophobia In The United Kingdom: A Critical Global Perspective, Jeffrey Driggs

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

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Colonial Legacies In Morocco’S Urban Spaces: Policies Of Modernization And Preservation, Christina Gnedash 2018 California State University, Monterey Bay

Colonial Legacies In Morocco’S Urban Spaces: Policies Of Modernization And Preservation, Christina Gnedash

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Globalization has touched Morocco through the historical process of colonization. Though the colonizer has left, a relationship remains and Morocco like many other countries is far too entangled in the global system of economics and politics to withdrawal. The restructuring of urban spaces and the preservation of cultural and historical sites have contributed to the country’s economic dependence on and the expansion of the tourist industry at the expense of local communities and certain industries. Culture has become a commodity that is profitable and thus countries besides Morocco continue to present an inauthentic and static experience for visitors that ...


Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles 2018 William & Mary

Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recent literature has argued that nonviolent political resistance campaigns are more effective at achieving their political goals than violent resistance campaigns. This paper examines the structural relationship between campaign goals, campaign setting (urban or rural), campaign type (violent or nonviolent), and campaign success. I argue that because nonviolent and violent campaigns often have different goals, nonviolent movements tend to form in urban areas critical to the regime, while violent movements tend to arise in non-threatening rural hinterlands. I support this theory with quantitative evidence by linking observations from two event-level datasets on conflict to a dataset on maximalist resistance campaigns ...


Building Brand Kurdistan: Helly Luv, The Gender Of Nationhood, And The War On Terror, Nicholas S. Glastonbury 2018 CUNY Graduate Center

Building Brand Kurdistan: Helly Luv, The Gender Of Nationhood, And The War On Terror, Nicholas S. Glastonbury

Publications and Research

In the early 2000s, the Kurdistan Regional Government hired a US-based firm to begin a public relations campaign called “The Other Iraq.” Since that time, it has worked with a number of PR and lobbying firms to build a cultural, political, and financial apparatus that I refer to as Brand Kurdistan. This apparatus aims to prove to Western audiencesthat the Kurds are a liberal exception in an illiberal Middle East, and to build prospects of KRG’s eventual national independence. This article explores the connections between Brand Kurdistan and the gendering of Kurdish nationalism, focusing particularly on Kurdish pop diva ...


The Case For Management In The Turkish-Kurdish Conflict., Devin P. Brown 2018 University of Louisville

The Case For Management In The Turkish-Kurdish Conflict., Devin P. Brown

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The Turkish-Kurdish conflict has ravaged Turkey for nearly 34 years. It is one of the world’s longest enduring rivalries, garnering significant international attention. Since 1984, experts estimate that at least 30,000 people have died in this conflict. In just the past two years, the fighting has killed 3,362 peopleand displaced another half million people. Although the parties have attempted to resolve this dispute multiple times, a comprehensive peace deal has remained elusive. So what should be done about this conflict? Is there a way to compel these parties to forge a lasting peace deal? Or, should the ...


Kissingerism And Iranian-American Relations: Prospects For Reconciliation And The Establishment Of A New Order, Kaleb D. Mazurek 2018 Student

Kissingerism And Iranian-American Relations: Prospects For Reconciliation And The Establishment Of A New Order, Kaleb D. Mazurek

International Studies Honors Projects

This thesis is an attempt to resurrect the strategic and philosophical thinking of Henry Kissinger in order to unlock the Iranian-American impasse. Encounters between the two countries have been in a state of deadlock since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, though its genesis dates back, at least, to the American-sponsored coup d’état of 1953. Within the American foreign policy establishment, no one looms larger than Dr. Kissinger: his contributions intersect the two worlds of academic diplomatic history and statecraft at the highest levels of international relations. He was the chief diplomat at a momentous period. Kissinger―through his writings and ...


The Path To Terrorism: The Islamic State And Its Recruitment Strategies, Laura Turner 2018 University of Connecticut

The Path To Terrorism: The Islamic State And Its Recruitment Strategies, Laura Turner

Honors Scholar Theses

The Islamic State, commonly known as ISIS, a terrorist organization that commits acts of such brutality that even Al Qaeda has denounced it, has recruited approximately 21,000 foreign fighters from countries all over the world. Why is this group so appealing? What has made it so effective at recruitment? What methods does it employ to recruit so many individuals? This paper seeks to answer these questions by examining the recruitment strategies of ISIS. Case studies of individual foreign fighters are analyzed to assess the strength of three explanations of ISIS’ recruitment methods that dominate the current literature: strategic targeting ...


Social Organization And Environmental Patterning At Tel Abu Shusha: An Integrated Spatial Approach To Survey Archaeology, Seth Price 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Social Organization And Environmental Patterning At Tel Abu Shusha: An Integrated Spatial Approach To Survey Archaeology, Seth Price

Theses and Dissertations

Tel Abu Shusha, located in the Jezreel Valley of Palestine, is a large-scale archaeological site possibly identified as the cities of Biblical Gaba or Roman Gaba Hippaeon/Gaba Philippi. Surface archaeological survey of the surrounding area, conducted by the Jezreel Valley Regional Project during 2017, revealed extensive assemblages of visible settlement features dating primarily to middle and late Islamic periods. This research seeks to answer questions of settlement decision-making and societal organization, by integrating archaeological, textual, environmental, and geospatial data sources. In addition to visual interpretation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric tests are used to gain insight on environmental settlement preferences; Ripley’s ...


Geography Of The Middle East Through The Western Lens: A Survey Of Films Set In The Middle East And Filmed In The American Southwest, Jake Bryan Rowlett 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Geography Of The Middle East Through The Western Lens: A Survey Of Films Set In The Middle East And Filmed In The American Southwest, Jake Bryan Rowlett

Theses and Dissertations

Representation of cinematic geography is a struggle in the world of film: a power balance between the work of the filmmakers and the place itself. Often, the filmmakers tip the scales in their favor and the true nature of the place is lost in translation. Throughout the history of cinema, the geography of the Middle East has been manipulated into a vision designed for Western audiences that is strikingly disjointed from reality.

The foundation of modern Orientalist interpretations of the Middle East in film can be seen in the early decades of the film industry, through the “Biblical Epic,” and ...


Middle Eastern Themes In Contemporary American Fantasy: The Political And Socio-Religious Implications, Sait Ibisi 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Middle Eastern Themes In Contemporary American Fantasy: The Political And Socio-Religious Implications, Sait Ibisi

Theses and Dissertations

What follows is a Master’s Thesis in which an insight is given into four Middle East-inspired contemporary American fantasy novels: The Desert of Souls (2011) by Howard Andrew Jones, Throne of the Crescent Moon (2012) by Saladin Ahmed, The City of Brass (2017) by S. A. Chakraborty, and Alif the Unseen (2012) by G. Willow Wilson. In the first part of the thesis I disclose the political implications which the mentioned novels carry. These are inspired by the past and contemporary political developments in the Middle East, and are meant to both criticize the said, but more importantly, to ...


Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi 2018 University of Manitoba

Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article explores the similarities and differences between Zionism and archetypical European modes of settler colonialism to demonstrate the incongruence between the two phenomena. This analysis is contextualized around the recent discourse surrounding the competing claims of indigeneity to historic Israel/Palestine. The claims of both the Jewish and Palestinian Arab communities are explored to demonstrate that both communities can rightfully claim degrees of Indigenous connection to the territory, but that Palestinian Arab claims of being the sole Indigenous inheritors of the land are dubious. The analysis utilizes Burton's unmet human needs theory, and Kriesberg's theories on identity ...


The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Arab Spring revolts of late 2010 and 2011 were a profound moment in the history of a region troubled by decades of authoritarianism. Years of economic mismanagement and security force repression trammeled on the rights and aspirations of people striving for a better life. When social movements and anti-government protests erupted throughout the region, each country responded to the uprisings with different methodologies. This research closely examines why autocratic regimes of the region chose such divergent responses, with some opting to use violent repression, others attempting to make concessions and most combined repression with concessions. I will make the ...


Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed DrPH, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri MD, Naomi Modeste 2018 Loma Linda University

Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: The diagnosis and reported rates of persons with developmental disabilities (PWDDs) in Jordan is steadily increasing. Although initiatives have been implemented to improve the lives of PWDDs, attitudes towards PWDDs hinder successful inclusion in the Jordanian society.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between Jordanians socio-economic status and attitudes towards persons with developmental disabilities: autism, blindness, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Jordanians (N=259), ages 18-65 were recruited for this convergent parallel, mixed-methods study. Participants completed the modified 40-item Community Living Attitude Scale-developmental disability (CLAS-DD) and the modified Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale consisting of five vignettes, representing ...


The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas 2018 William & Mary

The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The literature on civil-military relations universally asserts that air forces play little to no role in the prevention or conduct of the coup d’etat. This thesis contests this claim. Air forces have an extensive history of involvement in planned and attempted coup d’etats. In addition, air forces throughout the developing world are heavily coup-proofed at extreme cost in both military effectiveness and financial resources. The second section of this work establishes a theoretical framework that suggests a plausible explanation for this oversight in the theoretical literature. This gap in the literature is due to the field’s heavy ...


An Examination Of Perception Gaps In Educational Access For Syrian Refugees In Amman, Ramya Prabhakar 2018 SIT Study Abroad

An Examination Of Perception Gaps In Educational Access For Syrian Refugees In Amman, Ramya Prabhakar

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research aims to explore the underlying reasons of educational access gaps of Syrian students in host communities in Amman, Jordan and the effectiveness of the Government of Jordan and international organizations in addressing these gaps. Through interviews, surveys, and a literature review, the researcher explores current perceptions of educational access, gender-based access gaps, and barriers to education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. This research draws on the concepts of supply and demand and cost/benefit analysis to analyze why so many Syrian students do not attend school. The researcher hypothesizes that perceptions of access and barriers diverge ...


The Next Recruits: 16–18-Year-Olds And The United States' War On Terror, Mary E. Moyer 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

The Next Recruits: 16–18-Year-Olds And The United States' War On Terror, Mary E. Moyer

Capstone Collection

For many who experienced it directly or indirectly, 9/11 marked a dramatic shift as the United States processed the attacks and went from a country at peace to a country at war. Though the attacks themselves were geographically targeted, 9/11 was a nationally traumatic event and resulted in the formation of a collective memory and national narrative across the country. With the War on Terror, the military became synonymous with patriotism, as leaders and the media invoked the trauma of Pearl Harbor and the glories of World War II. Military records from the time describe patriotism as the ...


Mental Maps, Occupation... Liberation? The Impact Of The Israel-Palestine Conflict On The Security And Legitimacy Of The State Of Israel And The Struggle Of Palestine, Malea Martin 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Mental Maps, Occupation... Liberation? The Impact Of The Israel-Palestine Conflict On The Security And Legitimacy Of The State Of Israel And The Struggle Of Palestine, Malea Martin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Israel-Palestine issue has been present for decades, making it one of the world’s most prominent unresolved conflicts. Conflict for Israel-Palestine over the years has meant war, border insecurity, questions of legitimacy and sovereignty, and today, the role of the international community in the issue. One of the most paradoxical aspects of the Israel-Palestine issue is that Israel’s unequal treatment of Palestinians in the occupied territories could be against Israel’s own interests in the long run. Given this conflict, the purpose of this paper, while contextualizing the long and divided historical nature of this issue, was to ...


The Un’S Political Engagement In The Occupied Palestinian Territories: Reconceptualized Strategies In Humanitarianism And Diplomacy In The Middle East Peace Process, Alara Hanci 2018 SIT Study Abroad

The Un’S Political Engagement In The Occupied Palestinian Territories: Reconceptualized Strategies In Humanitarianism And Diplomacy In The Middle East Peace Process, Alara Hanci

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper studies the humanitarian crisis in the occupied Palestinian territories, focusing on the Palestinians’ short-term needs in emergency relief as well as their long-term needs regarding sustainable development, good governance, legal and physical protection. Against the backdrop of a cost/benefit analysis of the current UN humanitarian operational model, the paper then introduces new models of engagement, such the UN’s positioning itself as a mediator between the PA and the civic society throughout the implementation of a decentralized development model. Within this framework, the UN is advised to complement its engagement by facilitating negotiations towards a unified Palestinian ...


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