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Colonial Legacies In Morocco’S Urban Spaces: Policies Of Modernization And Preservation, Christina Gnedash 2018 California State University, Monterey Bay

Colonial Legacies In Morocco’S Urban Spaces: Policies Of Modernization And Preservation, Christina Gnedash

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Globalization has touched Morocco through the historical process of colonization. Though the colonizer has left, a relationship remains and Morocco like many other countries is far too entangled in the global system of economics and politics to withdrawal. The restructuring of urban spaces and the preservation of cultural and historical sites have contributed to the country’s economic dependence on and the expansion of the tourist industry at the expense of local communities and certain industries. Culture has become a commodity that is profitable and thus countries besides Morocco continue to present an inauthentic and static experience for visitors that ...


Building Brand Kurdistan: Helly Luv, The Gender Of Nationhood, And The War On Terror, Nicholas S. Glastonbury 2018 CUNY Graduate Center

Building Brand Kurdistan: Helly Luv, The Gender Of Nationhood, And The War On Terror, Nicholas S. Glastonbury

Publications and Research

In the early 2000s, the Kurdistan Regional Government hired a US-based firm to begin a public relations campaign called “The Other Iraq.” Since that time, it has worked with a number of PR and lobbying firms to build a cultural, political, and financial apparatus that I refer to as Brand Kurdistan. This apparatus aims to prove to Western audiencesthat the Kurds are a liberal exception in an illiberal Middle East, and to build prospects of KRG’s eventual national independence. This article explores the connections between Brand Kurdistan and the gendering of Kurdish nationalism, focusing particularly on Kurdish pop diva ...


Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles 2018 College of William and Mary

Setting And Success In Resistance Campaigns, Eric Gelles

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recent literature has argued that nonviolent political resistance campaigns are more effective at achieving their political goals than violent resistance campaigns. This paper examines the structural relationship between campaign goals, campaign setting (urban or rural), campaign type (violent or nonviolent), and campaign success. I argue that because nonviolent and violent campaigns often have different goals, nonviolent movements tend to form in urban areas critical to the regime, while violent movements tend to arise in non-threatening rural hinterlands. I support this theory with quantitative evidence by linking observations from two event-level datasets on conflict to a dataset on maximalist resistance campaigns ...


The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Arab Spring revolts of late 2010 and 2011 were a profound moment in the history of a region troubled by decades of authoritarianism. Years of economic mismanagement and security force repression trammeled on the rights and aspirations of people striving for a better life. When social movements and anti-government protests erupted throughout the region, each country responded to the uprisings with different methodologies. This research closely examines why autocratic regimes of the region chose such divergent responses, with some opting to use violent repression, others attempting to make concessions and most combined repression with concessions. I will make the ...


Social Organization And Environmental Patterning At Tel Abu Shusha: An Integrated Spatial Approach To Survey Archaeology, Seth Price 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Social Organization And Environmental Patterning At Tel Abu Shusha: An Integrated Spatial Approach To Survey Archaeology, Seth Price

Theses and Dissertations

Tel Abu Shusha, located in the Jezreel Valley of Palestine, is a large-scale archaeological site possibly identified as the cities of Biblical Gaba or Roman Gaba Hippaeon/Gaba Philippi. Surface archaeological survey of the surrounding area, conducted by the Jezreel Valley Regional Project during 2017, revealed extensive assemblages of visible settlement features dating primarily to middle and late Islamic periods. This research seeks to answer questions of settlement decision-making and societal organization, by integrating archaeological, textual, environmental, and geospatial data sources. In addition to visual interpretation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric tests are used to gain insight on environmental settlement preferences; Ripley’s ...


Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed DrPH, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri MD, Naomi Modeste 2018 Loma Linda University

Examining Jordanians' Attitudes Towards Five Types Of Developmental Disabilities, Najah Zaaeed Drph, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Peter Gleason, Khaled A. Bahjri Md, Naomi Modeste

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: The diagnosis and reported rates of persons with developmental disabilities (PWDDs) in Jordan is steadily increasing. Although initiatives have been implemented to improve the lives of PWDDs, attitudes towards PWDDs hinder successful inclusion in the Jordanian society.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between Jordanians socio-economic status and attitudes towards persons with developmental disabilities: autism, blindness, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Jordanians (N=259), ages 18-65 were recruited for this convergent parallel, mixed-methods study. Participants completed the modified 40-item Community Living Attitude Scale-developmental disability (CLAS-DD) and the modified Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale consisting of five vignettes, representing ...


Perceptions As A Barrier To Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Elizabeth Shan Wang 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Perceptions As A Barrier To Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Elizabeth Shan Wang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study is to evaluate perceptions of emergency medical services (EMS) among Syrian refugees living in urban host communities in Jordan. The research questions are as follows: To what extent do public perceptions of emergency medical services affect the utilization of ambulances? How does awareness about available emergency medical services shape refugees’ attitudes towards it? Because this topic is qualitative and exploratory in the case of Jordan, there was no clear hypothesis. The assumption, however, is that positive perceptions and awareness about EMS can encourage refugees to call an ambulance for transportation to the hospital during a ...


Causes And Consequences Of Child Marriage Among Syrian Refugee Populations In Jordan: An Investigation Of Perceptions., Alex Buckman 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Causes And Consequences Of Child Marriage Among Syrian Refugee Populations In Jordan: An Investigation Of Perceptions., Alex Buckman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examined the perceived causes of child marriage among Syrian refugee populations in Jordan and investigated its perceived consequences. Further, perceptions of mothers with school-aged children were compared to the opinions of children themselves. Through interviews with both target populations, along with an analysis of the responses of humanitarian activists and organizations to Jordan’s marriage law, the reality of child marriage within the country was ascertained. In conducting interviews, the data showed that many believed child marriage to be a normal occurrence in Syria, at least since the beginning of the war, with only two interviewees believing child ...


Education: Developing Self Reliance For Female Syrian Refugees In Host Communities, Mathilde Geannopulos 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Education: Developing Self Reliance For Female Syrian Refugees In Host Communities, Mathilde Geannopulos

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Syrian refugee crisis has displaced millions of Syrians, leaving them without homes, resources, or any means of re-establishing self reliance. Given the immediate need for survival, education has become a luxury for many families. Issues of accessibility, quality, and societal resentment from Jordanians avert Syrians from seeking an education. This inhibits female children from productively developing their intellectuality and culminates in being susceptible to detrimental practices, like child marriage.

This study looks at the reason for low enrollment rates of Syrian female refugee children into the Jordanian education system. The research specifically interviews daughters and their guardians about their ...


Mental Maps, Occupation... Liberation? The Impact Of The Israel-Palestine Conflict On The Security And Legitimacy Of The State Of Israel And The Struggle Of Palestine, Malea Martin 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Mental Maps, Occupation... Liberation? The Impact Of The Israel-Palestine Conflict On The Security And Legitimacy Of The State Of Israel And The Struggle Of Palestine, Malea Martin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Israel-Palestine issue has been present for decades, making it one of the world’s most prominent unresolved conflicts. Conflict for Israel-Palestine over the years has meant war, border insecurity, questions of legitimacy and sovereignty, and today, the role of the international community in the issue. One of the most paradoxical aspects of the Israel-Palestine issue is that Israel’s unequal treatment of Palestinians in the occupied territories could be against Israel’s own interests in the long run. Given this conflict, the purpose of this paper, while contextualizing the long and divided historical nature of this issue, was to ...


The Un’S Political Engagement In The Occupied Palestinian Territories: Reconceptualized Strategies In Humanitarianism And Diplomacy In The Middle East Peace Process, Alara Hanci 2018 SIT Study Abroad

The Un’S Political Engagement In The Occupied Palestinian Territories: Reconceptualized Strategies In Humanitarianism And Diplomacy In The Middle East Peace Process, Alara Hanci

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper studies the humanitarian crisis in the occupied Palestinian territories, focusing on the Palestinians’ short-term needs in emergency relief as well as their long-term needs regarding sustainable development, good governance, legal and physical protection. Against the backdrop of a cost/benefit analysis of the current UN humanitarian operational model, the paper then introduces new models of engagement, such the UN’s positioning itself as a mediator between the PA and the civic society throughout the implementation of a decentralized development model. Within this framework, the UN is advised to complement its engagement by facilitating negotiations towards a unified Palestinian ...


The Art Of Peer Pressure: Social Desires As Incentives To Join Students Protests In Jordan, Jordan Hughes 2018 SIT Study Abroad

The Art Of Peer Pressure: Social Desires As Incentives To Join Students Protests In Jordan, Jordan Hughes

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Collective action and rational choice theory suggest that social movements suffer from a tragedy of the commons that incentivizes individuals against participation. The last several decades of increased youth-driven protests and demonstrations in the Middle East, however, suggest that these collective action barriers are being consistently overcome. I propose an addition to the rational choice basis of Olson’s collective action theory which incorporates social desires, and specifically peer pressure, as an observable individual incentive. Using a combination of interviews and vignette-style factorial surveys, I test this hypothesis to measure the effect of perceived peer pressure on the intention of ...


Tribal Law At The Crossroads Of Modernity: A Study On Jordanian Attitudes Towards Jalwa, Danielle Sutton 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Tribal Law At The Crossroads Of Modernity: A Study On Jordanian Attitudes Towards Jalwa, Danielle Sutton

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research aims to examine Jordanian attitudes towards the tribal law practice of Jalwa and its recent reform. The study specifically focuses on the role of modernization in shaping these attitudes. Historical literature and social constructivist theories are used to inform and contextualize this approach. To measure modernization’s impact, a two-dimensional framework was developed that compares opinions across generations (isolating change over time) and across region of upbringing (change over space). Subsequently, there are two hypotheses guiding this research. The first argues that youth see jalwa less favorably than the older generation and thus lend greater support to the ...


“We Are The Gap: Understanding The Inclusion Of Immigrants In Moroccan Left-Wing Politics”, Sam Brown 2018 SIT Study Abroad

“We Are The Gap: Understanding The Inclusion Of Immigrants In Moroccan Left-Wing Politics”, Sam Brown

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project seeks to understand to what extent immigrants are included in left-wing politics in Morocco. In 2011, King Mohammed VI named Morocco an executive constitutional monarchy. One can argue that this means Morocco is moving in the direction of democracy, but is democracy what left-wing political parties are truly advocating for? And if they are, does the left include marginalized people it advocates for? Particularly, how are immigrants fighting for their own rights in Morocco, and to what extent are Moroccan left-wing political parties centering and uplifting the voices of immigrants, if at all?


An Examination Of Perception Gaps In Educational Access For Syrian Refugees In Amman, Ramya Prabhakar 2018 SIT Study Abroad

An Examination Of Perception Gaps In Educational Access For Syrian Refugees In Amman, Ramya Prabhakar

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research aims to explore the underlying reasons of educational access gaps of Syrian students in host communities in Amman, Jordan and the effectiveness of the Government of Jordan and international organizations in addressing these gaps. Through interviews, surveys, and a literature review, the researcher explores current perceptions of educational access, gender-based access gaps, and barriers to education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. This research draws on the concepts of supply and demand and cost/benefit analysis to analyze why so many Syrian students do not attend school. The researcher hypothesizes that perceptions of access and barriers diverge ...


The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas 2018 College of William and Mary

The Role Of The Air Force In The Conduct Of The Coup D’Etat, Graeme Cranston-Cuebas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The literature on civil-military relations universally asserts that air forces play little to no role in the prevention or conduct of the coup d’etat. This thesis contests this claim. Air forces have an extensive history of involvement in planned and attempted coup d’etats. In addition, air forces throughout the developing world are heavily coup-proofed at extreme cost in both military effectiveness and financial resources. The second section of this work establishes a theoretical framework that suggests a plausible explanation for this oversight in the theoretical literature. This gap in the literature is due to the field’s heavy ...


The Next Recruits: 16–18-Year-Olds And The United States' War On Terror, Mary E. Moyer 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

The Next Recruits: 16–18-Year-Olds And The United States' War On Terror, Mary E. Moyer

Capstone Collection

For many who experienced it directly or indirectly, 9/11 marked a dramatic shift as the United States processed the attacks and went from a country at peace to a country at war. Though the attacks themselves were geographically targeted, 9/11 was a nationally traumatic event and resulted in the formation of a collective memory and national narrative across the country. With the War on Terror, the military became synonymous with patriotism, as leaders and the media invoked the trauma of Pearl Harbor and the glories of World War II. Military records from the time describe patriotism as the ...


Cross-Cultural Virtual Exchange: Innovative Learning For Social Change, Jo Anne Hart 2018 Lesley University

Cross-Cultural Virtual Exchange: Innovative Learning For Social Change, Jo Anne Hart

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

I want to demo for my Lesley colleagues the cross-cultural virtual exchange that my undergrad students are taking part in for 8-weeks this semester. Each Lesley student in my Modern Middle East History course is matched into a weekly two-hour live video discussion group of about 12-15 other undergraduate students living in the Middle East, Europe, and around the US. This is a structured, moderated, synchronous international forum with a trained facilitator run by an international non-profit called Soliya.

Intended as a deep-dive into diversity and difference, this innovative approach allows students to “explore how their identity impacts the way ...


Destined To Authoritarian Rule?: A Comparative Analysis Of The Processes Of State Creation And Regime Formation Of Jordan, Saudi Arabia, And Iran, Caroline Glass 2018 Connecticut College

Destined To Authoritarian Rule?: A Comparative Analysis Of The Processes Of State Creation And Regime Formation Of Jordan, Saudi Arabia, And Iran, Caroline Glass

Government and International Relations Honors Papers

Democracy is complex regime type, one that has been analyzed extensively. Yet the intricate nature of a democratic regime, and the challenges associated with keeping it running effectively, make it a continued object of scholarly research. Some countries with regimes that can be considered democratic maintain their democracies more effectively than others. This study attempts to analyze factors that have obstructed democratization in three non-Western countries: Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.

My first goal is to outline processes of state creation and regime building in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. A democratic regime cannot evolve without a state structure in ...


Energy Transition In Saudi Arabia: Oil, Solar And Vision, Zak William Rawle 2018 Bard College

Energy Transition In Saudi Arabia: Oil, Solar And Vision, Zak William Rawle

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


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