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Near and Middle Eastern Studies Commons

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The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner 2019 William & Mary

The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Imprecise measurement tools impede the study of protest mobilization. Mobilization proxies, such as counting protesters and protest events, result in significant outliers and variance while ignoring sociocultural, cybernetic, economic, legal, and other features that relevant academic literature considers essential to understanding mobilization dynamics. Without accurate empirical models, researchers’ and policymakers’ investigations of autocratic repression have little explanatory power. This thesis proposes a methodological addition to the mobilization literature: Two three-level scales distinguish an event’s potential to attract an audience from the protest’s actual output relative to similar episodes. I employ the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED ...


Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day 2019 University of Mississippi

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

Over the past seven years of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian refugees have been painted in a negative light by news media outlets around the world. History of media coverage regarding global humanitarian crises shows that with various tools and processes, media can shape public opinion and policy in whichever direction it desires, and oftentimes policymakers and the public are quick, as well as emotional, to react. In this paper, my objectives are to analyze specific examples of this CNN Effect phenomena within news coverage of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as generally explain the negatively correlating relationship between ...


Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley A. Gerard 2019 University of Mississippi

Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley A. Gerard

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

This article focuses on physical, socioeconomic, and political changes in the community of Azraq, Jordan. Azraq, a small town in northeastern Jordan, sits atop a large aquifer that has been heavily pumped by the government for several decades in response to an increasing nationwide demand for water. This has led to large-scale transformations in not only the physical landscape surrounding the aquifer, but also in the daily lives, economic statuses, and political opinions of the people living there. My research thus fits the case of Azraq into larger academic discourse on groundwater governance, resource access, and environmentalism. I use a ...


Constructing And Destructing The Peace: Models Of International Engagement In Post-Conflict States, Colin Churchill 2019 Macalester College

Constructing And Destructing The Peace: Models Of International Engagement In Post-Conflict States, Colin Churchill

Political Science Honors Projects

Variance in the stability of post-conflict states presents an interesting predicament. What causes this variance in states two or three decades removed from civil conflict? In this paper, I argue that the type of engagement that international actors take towards post-conflict states explains differences in stability. I draw out four distinct models of international engagement from three case studies of Lebanon, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Northern Ireland that present the different ways that international actors have constructively and destructively engaged in these states. Furthering this analysis is an examination of the transition or possible transition between models in the cases.


Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation advocates for reading the literatures of two Middle Eastern women writers through a Maternal Critical lens that recognizes the demands of universal vulnerability in characters who resist violence, and responds in Maternal communities of Readers that connect readers to characters, readers to writers, and readers to other readers, carrying the struggle for equity forward. My unfolding argument, centered on Maternal Critical activity in the novels of Palestinian writer Sahar Khalifeh and Israeli writer Ronit Matalon, demonstrates how literature by these Middle Eastern women is part of a narrative context of women’s peacemaking and resistance to violence, a ...


Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Counter to French social historian Philippe Aries’ argument, the concept of an Egyptian childhood has its own traceable history, separate from the modern Western European concept of childhood. As shown, with the presence of language on childhood, in a number of pre-modern Arabic/Islamic literature, notions of childhood had a rich history outside of modern Western Europe. But, depictions of an Egyptian childhood in modern Egyptian literature, specifically two childhood autobiographies/memoirs, Taha Hussein’s An Egyptian Childhood and Sayyid Qutb’s A Child from the Village, do not emerge seamlessly from these early pre-modern depictions of childhood. Both Hussein ...


Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924 generated vigorous debates throughout the Muslim world regarding the political future of the Ummah. While several prominent Muslim thinkers contributed to this “Caliphate debate,” none left as contested a legacy as the Egyptian intellectual, ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq(1888-1966). In his scholarly publication, Islam and Foundations of Governance,Abd al-Raziq argued against the revival and resurrection of the Caliphate by redefining it as coercive, monarchal, and as the antithesis of the community first established by Prophet Muhammad. While Abd al-Raziq’s book attracted tremendous criticisms in 1925, numerous scholars today have commended and ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers 2019 St. John Fisher College

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, McCabe Webb 2019 Carroll College

Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This presentation argues that the United States Government’s dissolving of the Iranian Nuclear Deal (JCPOA) will lead to a shift in the balance of powers in the Middle East, in particular a rise in the power and influence of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The United Arab E and Israel. The research predominantly comes from the Iranian Nuclear Deal and an evaluation of information regarding the possible consequences that will be seen in the post-JCPOA Middle East. Conclusions will be drawn from comparing and contrasting the power dynamics that were present before and during the implementation of the deal ...


Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings 2019 Pepperdine University

Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Syrian Refugee Camps in Jordan: An Assessment explores how and why the Government of Jordan created camps to house its 670,000 Syrian refugees. Examining Jordan’s four Syrian refugee camps, Jennings considers to what extent their different operating models are effective and why. Metrics of camp effectiveness include degree and type of support from non-Government of Jordan humanitarian actors, the availability of education and medical care in the camps, and the degree to which camp residents themselves engage in the camp communities. She posits that using the camp model affords Jordan greater internal security, and influence over refugee matters ...


Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um 2019 Binghamton University--SUNY

Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um

Nancy Um

This article brings together trade records left by Dutch and English East India Company merchants, chronicles in Arabic, and a published French travel narrative to shed light on an overlooked phenomenon, that of early modern medical diplomacy to Qasimi Yemen during the early eighteenth century. In this era, foreign merchants flocked to the southern Arabian Peninsula, many with the interest of procuring coffee, a commodity that was then still difficult to purchase elsewhere. Along with them came doctors and ships’ surgeons, who were called upon to treat Yemen’s imam al-Mahdi Muhammad (d. 1718), who suffered from many ailments in ...


Palestinian Liberation, Jennifer Thomson 2019 Bucknell University

Palestinian Liberation, Jennifer Thomson

Bucknell: Occupied

Jennifer Thomson, assistant professor of History at Bucknell University, interviews Miko Peled, Israeli-American activist and author. Peled contextualizes the Israeli occupation of Palestine, describes discriminatory treatment of Palestinians, and discusses his own experience as a Jewish peace activist in support of Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) against Israel. Michael Drexler, professor of English at Bucknell University, discusses contemporary conversation on university campuses and interrogates the uncritical support of Zionism.


The Post-9/11 Lgbtq Human Rights Struggle In Egypt, Donna K. Huaman 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Post-9/11 Lgbtq Human Rights Struggle In Egypt, Donna K. Huaman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the struggle for LGBTQ human rights has become a leading standard that depicts whether or not a state can be considered modern and progressive. Yet, while this new criterion seems to be supported by Global North states, other nations in other regions, like Egypt from the Middle East, North Africa (MENA) has criticized the international pressure to implement this standard as neo-imperialist and inauthentic to its Muslim-Arab culture. Egypt claims to be the universal Arab-Muslim voice for the MENA region and has become one of the greatest challengers to the international campaign for ...


The Jihadist Marketplace: Understanding Competition Between Al Qaeda And Isis, Hristo Voynov 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Jihadist Marketplace: Understanding Competition Between Al Qaeda And Isis, Hristo Voynov

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

ISIS and al Qaeda are the world’s preeminent transnational jihadist organizations. Following a public schism, the two started competing, even though they previous cooperated to accomplish their shared goals. This split divided the movement, which was previously united under the leadership of al Qaeda. Now the two must compete with one another for the limited resources of the global jihadist movement as the loser of the competition risks losing their standing within the movement, which may lead to irrelevancy, or even organizational demise, for the loser. This competition requires study because it is necessary to explain why the two ...


The Difficulties Of Filming Syrian Refugee Populations Living In Jordan: Obstacles To Objectivity And Accuracy In Reporting, Thaddeus E. DeCaprio 2019 City University of New York (CUNY)

The Difficulties Of Filming Syrian Refugee Populations Living In Jordan: Obstacles To Objectivity And Accuracy In Reporting, Thaddeus E. Decaprio

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project seeks to explain and address the challenges inherent in filming and documenting Syrian refugee populations in Jordan. This project will take the form of a narrative research paper in conjunction with a video component comprised of the first-hand accounts of several refugees who consented to sharing their stories on camera. I went, along with my brother Louis (a filmmaker), to Jordan to document firsthand the stories of Syrian refugees in their own words. We were invited to film for the Women ASPIRE project of an organization called ASPIRE (Advancing Solutions in Policy, Implementation, Research, and Engagement for Refugees ...


Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty 2019 Yale University

Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox 2019 Gettysburg College

Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study examines shifts in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities in Muslim-Majority states after the Arab Uprisings by using the Religion and State round 3 (RAS3) dataset for the years 2009-2014 and by focusing on 49 Muslim-majority countries and territories. We build on threads of literature on religious pluralism in transitional societies to explain the changes in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities after the Arab Uprisings. This literature predicts a rise in all forms of discrimination in Arab Uprising states as compared to other Muslim-majority states, and an even more significant rise ...


Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak 2019 Bucknell University

Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I examine the content of and mechanisms of disseminating propaganda originating from Saddam Hussein’s regime during the Iran-Iraq War. This research specifically looks at how and why the regime targeted Iraqi Shi’as during the war, and how that contributed to the ways in which the regime engaged with rhetoric. Moreover, this thesis attempts to make sense of the diverse, and sometimes seemingly opposing, amalgam of the rhetoric’s subject matter and methods of circulation. More broadly, it speaks to the difficulty of fostering an environment that can produce patriotism and lead to the construction of ...


La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner 2019 Claremont Colleges

La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis explains recent accounts of discrimination and cutbacks in reproductive health spaces in Tunisia. Complicating dominant analyses, which attribute these events to the post-revolution political atmosphere which has allowed the proliferation of islamic extremism, I interpret these instances as a manifestation of a deeply rooted stigma against sexually active single women. I trace this stigma’s inception to the contradictory way that Habib Bourguiba conceptualized modernity after independence, and the responsibility he assigned to Tunisian women to embody that modernity. This responsibility remains salient today, and is putting Tunisian women in an increasingly untenable and vulnerable position.

After independence ...


Evaluating The Relationship Between Conditionality And Foreign Aid Reliance, Rory Ann O'Neil 2019 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Evaluating The Relationship Between Conditionality And Foreign Aid Reliance, Rory Ann O'Neil

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


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