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Country Snapshot Albania, Leonie Vrugtman 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot Albania, Leonie Vrugtman

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in Albania.


Country Snapshot Bosnia And Herzegovina, Lejla Hodžić 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot Bosnia And Herzegovina, Lejla Hodžić

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Country Snapshot Kosovo, Leonie Vrugtman, Diori Angjeli 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot Kosovo, Leonie Vrugtman, Diori Angjeli

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in Kosovo.


Country Snapshot North Macedonia, Mariglen Demri 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot North Macedonia, Mariglen Demri

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in North Macedonia.


Country Snapshot Serbia, Belgrade Open School 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot Serbia, Belgrade Open School

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in Serbia.


Elite Survey Reports - Introduction, 2019 George Fox University

Elite Survey Reports - Introduction

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

No abstract provided.


Survey Report Montenegro, Nenad Zekavica 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report Montenegro, Nenad Zekavica

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

During March and April 2019, a survey was conducted as part of the regional project that deals with the role of religion in Western Balkan countries. The survey was conducted as part of a research project and was conducted among members of the cultural and political elite of society. Its purpose is to give a sketch of the religious beliefs of different societies. The survey itself was developed as the result of the mutual cooperation among four partner institutions in the Balkans.


Survey Report North Macedonia, Viktorija Borovska 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report North Macedonia, Viktorija Borovska

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

One of the activities of the project ‘Role of Religion in Western Balkan Societies’ was an elite survey that enabled us to gain an insight into views and perceptions on issues related to religiosity, the role and influence of religion, threats and opportunities of religious diversity and suggestions on how religion can contribute to the different social aspects of the various countries of the region.


Survey Report Serbia, Nenad Zekavica 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report Serbia, Nenad Zekavica

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

During March and April 2019, a survey was conducted as part of a regional project which deals with the role of religion in the Western Balkan countries. The survey was conducted as the research part of the project and it was conducted among members of cultural and political elite members of society. Its purpose is to give a sketch of the religious topography of different societies in the Western Balkans.


Survey Report Bosnia And Herzegovina, Lejla Hodžić 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report Bosnia And Herzegovina, Lejla Hodžić

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

In assessing the role of religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina and analysing the multiconfessional context of the country, the report relies on the findings from an opinion survey and a range of secondary sources. The survey, administered during April 2019, aimed at gathering the opinions of influential figures in political, cultural and economic sphere in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the role of religion. It is based on a questionnaire which was distributed to over 50 influential figures, of which 30 provided quantitative and qualitative answers to questions addressing religion’s impact on society.


Survey Report Albania, Leonie Vrugtman, Dior Angjeli 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report Albania, Leonie Vrugtman, Dior Angjeli

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

In April and May 2019, more than one hundred surveys were distributed amongst influential figures in Albania. The survey aimed to gather their views on the role of religion in Albania and the Western Balkans.


Survey Report Kosovo, Romario Shehu 2019 George Fox University

Survey Report Kosovo, Romario Shehu

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

During April and May 2019, approximately 120 surveys were distributed to high-level individuals involved in political, economic and cultural spheres in Kosovo.


Signaling Illiberalism: Democratic Backsliding. A Case Study Of Germany And Hungary., Emily Schweitzberger 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Signaling Illiberalism: Democratic Backsliding. A Case Study Of Germany And Hungary., Emily Schweitzberger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the past decade, the decline, or backsliding, of democracy has reemerged as a concern in international affairs with many leaders overstepping constitutional restraints to accumulate power in their hands. While democratic backsliding occurs in various ways and in regions all over the world, Europe has struggled to control its spread as populist parties become closer and closer to taking power with each election cycle. In this paper, I examine the cases of Germany and Hungary, which share similar historical and cultural backgrounds yet differ in their democratic strengths: Germany remains a strong beacon of Western, liberal democracy, but Hungary ...


Judicial Independence And Accountability: Withstanding Political Stress, Leah Wortham 2019 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Judicial Independence And Accountability: Withstanding Political Stress, Leah Wortham

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

For democracy and the rule of law to function and flourish, important actors in the justice system need sufficient independence from politicians in power to act under rule of law rather than political pressure. The court system must offer a place where government action can be reviewed, challenged, and, when necessary, limited to protect constitutional and legal bounds, safeguard internationally-recognized human rights, and prevent departures from a fair and impartial system of law enforcement and dispute resolution. Courts also should offer a place where government officials can be held accountable. People within and outside a country need faith that court ...


What Will You Do Here? Dignified Work And The Politics Of Mobility In Serbia, Dana N. Johnson 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

What Will You Do Here? Dignified Work And The Politics Of Mobility In Serbia, Dana N. Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Serbia is said to have one of the highest rates of brain drain in the world. For the generation glossed as the “children of the 1990s,” stances toward mobility and migration have shifted along with geopolitics. Following nearly two decades of wartime entrapment, in 2009 the conditions of possibility for mobility fundamentally changed for Serbian citizens. Of both symbolic and material consequence, the country’s return to respectable geopolitical standing also marked a shift toward more nuanced stancetaking in relation to mobility and migration. Namely, by the time of my research, the expectations of youth—not only of “normal mobility ...


Hungary's New Church Law Is Worse Than The First, H. David Baer Ph.D. 2019 Theology Texas Lutheran University

Hungary's New Church Law Is Worse Than The First, H. David Baer Ph.D.

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

In early December 2018, the Hungarian parliament passed a series of sweeping laws with major constitutional implications. The parliamentary session itself was something of a circus. In order to pass the law, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán’s government was forced to disregard rules of the chamber that would have allowed the opposition to derail the legislation with parliamentary maneuvers. In protest, the opposition sounded bullhorns in Parliament while throwing confetti, before walking out. Perhaps the most significant law was one establishing a new, parallel system of courts which critics say give Orbán complete control of the judiciary. Less noted, but ...


The Hungarian Religious Leaders' Statements On The Migration From 2016 And 2017, Krisztina Barcsa, Sára Heidl, Kitti Sándor 2019 George Fox University

The Hungarian Religious Leaders' Statements On The Migration From 2016 And 2017, Krisztina Barcsa, Sára Heidl, Kitti Sándor

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

This paper is about the statements of Hungarian religious leaders concerning the issue of migration. The article is a continuation of a previous study in which we summarized articles and opinions published in the period from 2015 to the beginning of 2016. The statements that have been made since then are contained in this article. Different opinions can be found from the leaders of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches, Jewish and Islamic leaders, and the Congregation of Faith and the Evangelical Brotherhood of Hungary. In addition to migration issues, cultural, ethnic, religious and moral differences and questions arise ...


Country Snapshot Montenegro, Belgrade Open School 2019 George Fox University

Country Snapshot Montenegro, Belgrade Open School

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

A brief summary of the history and current status of religion in Montenegro.


Religions As Loci Of Conflict Prevention: Local Capacities Of Bosnia And Herzegovina’S Religious Communities, Julianne Funk 2019 George Fox University

Religions As Loci Of Conflict Prevention: Local Capacities Of Bosnia And Herzegovina’S Religious Communities, Julianne Funk

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

Conflict and coexistence remain in a tense balance in the Western Balkans. Latent conflict, in which one’s ethno-religious community denotes which side you are on, persist after the violent breakup of Yugoslavia. These frozen and potential lines of conflict were laid decades and centuries ago, when religious affiliation diversified. At the same time, these religious, ethnic and national communities have a history of suživot: everyday relations with one another, or coexistence. The close geographic proximity of communities makes functional relational systems, which determine when, where and how people tend to interact, a practical necessity.212 As a result of ...


In Pursuit Of ‘Twin Toleration’: Democracy And Church–State Relations In Serbia And Montenegro, Marko Veković 2019 University of Belgrade

In Pursuit Of ‘Twin Toleration’: Democracy And Church–State Relations In Serbia And Montenegro, Marko Veković

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

This paper explores the relationship between church and state in Serbia and Montenegro by examining the development of ‘twin toleration’. In particular, it aims to explain why there is still no ‘twin toleration’ in these states, and why it is important to impose such institutional arrangement in church–state relations. The ‘Twin toleration’ concept suggests that institutional arrangements between the state and religious communities in a democratic society should be based on mutual autonomy, in which the state should not interfere in the matters of religious communities, and vice versa. However, since the fall of communism and resurgence of religion ...


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