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1,403 full-text articles. Page 48 of 49.

Can Markets Save Lives? An Experimental Investigation Of A Market For Organ Donations, Cary Deck, Erik O. Kimbrough 2010 Chapman University

Can Markets Save Lives? An Experimental Investigation Of A Market For Organ Donations, Cary Deck, Erik O. Kimbrough

ESI Working Papers

Many people die while waiting for organ transplants even though the number of usable organs is far larger than the number needed for transplant. Governments have devised many policies aimed at increasing available transplant organs with variable success. However, with few exceptions, policy makers are reluctant to establish markets for organs despite the potential for mutually beneficial exchanges. We ask whether organ markets could save lives. Controlled laboratory methods are ideal for this inquiry because human lives would be involved when implementing field trials. Our results suggest that markets can increase the supply of organs available for transplant, but that ...


Price Increasing Competition? Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jingping Gu 2010 Chapman University

Price Increasing Competition? Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jingping Gu

ESI Working Papers

Economic intuition suggests that increased competition generates lower prices. However, recent theoretical work shows that a monopolist may charge a lower price than a firm facing a competitor selling a differentiated product. The direction of the price change when competition is introduced is dependent upon the joint distribution of buyer values for the two products. We explore this relationship using controlled laboratory experiments. Our results indicate that the distribution of buyer values does affect prices in a manner consistent with the theoretical predictions, although price increasing competition is rare due in part to overly intense competition regardless of the distribution ...


Fight Or Flight? Defending Against Sequential Attacks In The Game Of Siege, Cary Deck, Roman M. Sheremeta 2010 Chapman University

Fight Or Flight? Defending Against Sequential Attacks In The Game Of Siege, Cary Deck, Roman M. Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

This paper examines theory and behavior in a two-player game of siege, sequential attack and defense. The attacker’s objective is to successfully win at least one battle while the defender’s objective is to win every battle. Theoretically, the defender either folds immediately or, if his valuation is sufficiently high and the number of battles is sufficiently small, then he has a constant incentive to fight in each battle. Attackers respond to defense with diminishing assaults over time. Consistent with theoretical predictions, our experimental results indicate that the probability of successful defense increases in the defenders valuation and it ...


Durability, Re-Trading And Market Performance, John Dickhaut, Shengle Lin, David Porter, Vernon Smith 2010 Chapman University

Durability, Re-Trading And Market Performance, John Dickhaut, Shengle Lin, David Porter, Vernon Smith

ESI Working Papers

Key differential structural characteristics of environments studied in previous market experiments have documented large divergences in their observed performance, particularly discrepancies in their convergence to expected equilibrium outcomes. We investigate why this should be so.


Personality And The Consistency Of Risk Taking Behavior: Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jungmin Lee, Javier Reyes 2010 Chapman University

Personality And The Consistency Of Risk Taking Behavior: Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jungmin Lee, Javier Reyes

ESI Working Papers

Researchers have found that an individual’s risk attitude is not stable across elicitation methods. Results reported by Deck et al. (2009) suggest that personality may help explain the apparent inconsistency, offering support to Borghans et al.’s (2008) argument that economists should consider a multi‐domain approach to measuring risk attitudes. This paper uses laboratory methods to compare risk attitudes as measured by the Holt and Laury (2002) procedure under two different frames. We find that, as in Deck et al. (2009), one’s willingness to take financial risks (as measured by Weber et al. 2002) significantly affects behavior ...


Perfect And Imperfect Real-Time Monitoring In A Minimum-Effort Game, Cary Deck, Nikos Nikiforakis 2010 Chapman University

Perfect And Imperfect Real-Time Monitoring In A Minimum-Effort Game, Cary Deck, Nikos Nikiforakis

ESI Working Papers

This paper presents the results from a minimum-effort game in which individuals can observe the choices of others in real time. We find that under perfect monitoring almost all groups coordinate at the payoff-dominant equilibrium. However, when individuals can only observe the actions of their immediate neighbors in a circle network, monitoring improves neither coordination nor efficiency relative to a baseline treatment without real-time monitoring. We argue that the inefficiency of imperfect monitoring is due to information uncertainty, that is, uncertainty about the interpretation of the information available regarding the actions of others.


Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan, Jingbo Cui, Joseph Cooper 2010 Iowa State University

Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan, Jingbo Cui, Joseph Cooper

Economics Publications

This article assesses the main welfare implications of US policies to support biofuels, with an emphasis on corn-based ethanol. The analysis relies on an open economy, multimarket equilibrium model that links world and domestic energy and agricultural markets and explicitly accounts for the externalities of carbon emissions. The first-best policy in our context entails a carbon tax (implemented with a tax on fuel and a subsidy for ethanol), an import tariff on oil, and an export tax on corn. Although this policy is likely not feasible, we show that a second- best policy with an optimally chosen fuel tax and ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Impact Of Technical Barriers To Trade, Yuan Li, John Beghin 2010 Iowa State University

A Meta-Analysis Of The Impact Of Technical Barriers To Trade, Yuan Li, John Beghin

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

A meta-analysis explains the variation in estimated trade effects of technical barriers to trade broadly defined, using available estimates from the empirical international trade literature, and accounting for data sampling and methodology differences. Agriculture and food industries tend to be more impeded by these barriers than other sectors. SPS regulations on agricultural trade flows from developing exporters to high-income importers tend to impede trade. Controlling for “multilateral resistance” lowers the propensity to find that these policies impede trade. Estimations correcting endogeneity by using panel data and time fixed effect yield more negative (or less positive) trade effects of technical measures.


Dc Optimal Power Flow Formulation And Solution Using Quadprogj, Junjie Sun, Leigh Tesfatsion 2010 Iowa State University

Dc Optimal Power Flow Formulation And Solution Using Quadprogj, Junjie Sun, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Nonlinear AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problems are commonly approximated by linearized DC OPF problems to obtain real power solutions for restructured wholesale power markets. We first present a standard DC OPF problem, which has the numerically desirable form of a strictly convex quadratic programming (SCQP) problem when voltage angles are eliminated by substitution. We next augment this standard DC OPF problem in a physically meaningful way, still retaining an SCQP form, so that solution values for voltage angles and locational marginal prices are directly obtained along with real power injections and branch flows. We then show how this augmented ...


Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock 2010 University of Illinois

Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock

Economics Publications

The production literature has shown that inputs such as fertilizer can be defined as riskincreasing. However, farmers also consistently overapply nitrogen. A model of optimal input use under uncertainty is used to address this paradox. Using experimental data, a stochastic production relationship between yield and soil nitrate is estimated. Numerical results show that input uncertainty may cause farmers to overapply nitrogen. Survey data suggest that farmers are risk averse, but prefer small chances of high yields compared to small chances of crop failures when expected yields are equivalent. Furthermore, yield risk and yield variability are not equivalent.


Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill McCluskey, Jean Kinsey 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill Mccluskey, Jean Kinsey

Economics Publications

Agricultural economists first carried out demand studies in order to understand determinants of farm prices and incomes. The shift to a focus on consumer welfare began with studies of the role of food and food assistance in standards of living. Now the profession is more concerned with how information and quality attributes influence consumer behavior. Agricultural economists’ empirical work in this field has informed the development of household production theory, hedonic price theory, definitions of poverty thresholds, complete demand systems, and survey and experimental techniques to elicit preferences.


Testing For Adverse Selection In Insurance Markets, Alma Cohen, Peter Siegelman 2009 university of connecticut law school

Testing For Adverse Selection In Insurance Markets, Alma Cohen, Peter Siegelman

Peter Siegelman

This paper reviews and evaluates the empirical literature on adverse selection in insurance markets. We focus on empirical work that seeks to test the basic coverage–risk prediction of adverse selection theory—that is, that policyholders who purchase more insurance coverage tend to be riskier. The analysis of this body of work, we argue, indicates that whether such a correlation exists varies across insurance markets and pools of insurance policies. We discuss various reasons why a coverage–risk correlation may not be found in some pools of insurance policies. The presence of a coverage-risk correlation can be explained either by ...


Buyer Market Power And Vertically Differentiated Retailers, Shinn-Shyr Wang, Christian Rojas, Nathalie Lavoie 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Buyer Market Power And Vertically Differentiated Retailers, Shinn-Shyr Wang, Christian Rojas, Nathalie Lavoie

Nathalie Lavoie

We consider a model of vertical competition where downstream firms (retailers) purchase an upstream input from a monopolist and are able to differentiate from each other in terms of quality. Our primary focus is to study the effects of introducing a large retailer, such as a Wal-Mart Supercenter, that is able to lower wholesale prices (i.e. buyer market power). We obtain two main results. First, the store with no buyer market power responds to the presence of the large retailer by increasing its quality, a finding that is consistent with recent efforts by traditional retailers to enhance shoppers’ buying ...


Ceo Compensation At Tarp Institutions, Karl T. Muth 2009 University of Chicago

Ceo Compensation At Tarp Institutions, Karl T. Muth

Karl T Muth

This is a PowerPoint presentation given at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business on March 10, 2010. It requires the newest version of Microsoft PowerPoint.


Juridische Kaders In De Sociale Economie: Een Rechtseconomische Doorlichting, Astrid Coates, Wim Van Opstal 2009 Universiteit Antwerpen

Juridische Kaders In De Sociale Economie: Een Rechtseconomische Doorlichting, Astrid Coates, Wim Van Opstal

Wim Van Opstal

De sociale economie hanteert in ons land hoofdzakelijk het vzw-statuut en bestaat traditioneel ook uit (erkende) coöperatieve vennootschappen. In 1995 werd hier ook de vennootschap met sociaal oogmerk aan toegevoegd. In dit artikel bespreken we enkele randvoorwaarden voor een geslaagd ontwerp en een succesvolle implementatie van juridische kaders voor de sociale economie. Vervolgens bespreken we bondig de essentiële kenmerken van deze drie juridische kaders. We besluiten met een vergelijkende analyse en belichten daarbij de belangrijkste relatieve troeven en zwaktes ten opzichte van elkaar.


Measuring Poverty And Human Capital Development In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed 2009 Department of Economics. Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

Measuring Poverty And Human Capital Development In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Catastrophes in Sudan are of many dimensions. Food security is a chronic and intrinsic problem in Sub Saharan Africa which is a fact recognized by the international society. Political instability, civil wars and finally recent secession of its Southern part is another fact which may be taken as a vivid example for other regions of that previously largest African country to be followed. The present paper introduces an analysis and assessment of measurements for human development indices in Sudan. It is empirically concluded that human welfare is invisible. The parameters are very low. Strategies are needed to provide for basic ...


Principal-Agent Problems In Fisheries, Niels Vestergaard 2009 University of Southern Denmark

Principal-Agent Problems In Fisheries, Niels Vestergaard

Niels Vestergaard

No abstract provided.


Industria Manufacturera Y Crecimiento Económico En La Frontera Norte De México, Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez, Edgar Campos 2009 Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez

Industria Manufacturera Y Crecimiento Económico En La Frontera Norte De México, Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez, Edgar Campos

Isaac Sánchez-Juárez

La frontera norte de México es una región que desde hace varias décadas se caracteriza por su dinamismo, en especial con el cambio de modelo económico orientado a los mercados externos. El desempeño económico de las entidades que la componen ha sido, en términos relativos, mejor que en el resto del país. Con los datos de 1993 a 2008, es posible afirmar que es una zona ganadora en función del comportamiento de la tasa de crecimiento del producto per cápita. En este documento, mediante un marco teórico alternativo al neoclásico de crecimiento, se demuestra que el incremento en las industrias ...


The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez 2009 Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University

The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez

Gianfranco Piras

No abstract provided.


Buyer Market Power And Vertically Differentiated Retailers, Shinn-Shyr Wang, Christian Rojas, Nathalie Lavoie 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Buyer Market Power And Vertically Differentiated Retailers, Shinn-Shyr Wang, Christian Rojas, Nathalie Lavoie

Christian Rojas

We consider a model of vertical competition where downstream firms (retailers) purchase an upstream input from a monopolist and are able to differentiate from each other in terms of quality. Our primary focus is to study the effects of introducing a large retailer, such as a Wal-Mart Supercenter, that is able to lower wholesale prices (i.e. buyer market power). We obtain two main results. First, the store with no buyer market power responds to the presence of the large retailer by increasing its quality, a finding that is consistent with recent efforts by traditional retailers to enhance shoppers’ buying ...


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