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The Persistent Labor Market Effects Of A Criminal Conviction And “Ban The Box” Reforms, Joshua M. Congdon-Hohman 2018 College of the Holy Cross

The Persistent Labor Market Effects Of A Criminal Conviction And “Ban The Box” Reforms, Joshua M. Congdon-Hohman

Economics Department Working Papers

Past literature has established that individuals who have been incarcerated face difficulties reentering the work force following their release, while finding and keeping a job can significantly reduce recidivism amongst individuals with prior criminal convictions. In attempt to improve employment outcomes, many local and state governments in the United States have initiated "Ban the Box" regulations. These initiatives delay inquiries regarding criminal history on job applications. Versions of ban the box regulations covering public sector employment have been enacted in 31 states and more than 150 local governments. Ban the box laws have included private employers in eleven states and ...


Regional Prevalence Of Health Worker Absenteeism In Tanzania, Tomoki FUJII 2018 Singapore Management University

Regional Prevalence Of Health Worker Absenteeism In Tanzania, Tomoki Fujii

Research Collection School Of Economics

Absenteeism of health workers in developing countries is common and can severely undermine the reliability of health system. Therefore, it is important to understand where the prevalence of absenteeism is high. We develop a simple imputation method that combines a Service Delivery Indicators survey and a Service Provision Assessment survey to estimate the prevalence of absenteeism of health workers at the level of regions in Tanzania. The resulting estimates allow one to identify the regions in which the prevalence of absenteeism is significantly higher or lower than the national average and help policymakers determine the priority areas for intervention.


The Economic Impact Of Apple Growing And Processing On The West Virginia Economy, Christiadi, John Deskins 2018 West Virginia University

The Economic Impact Of Apple Growing And Processing On The West Virginia Economy, Christiadi, John Deskins

Bureau of Business & Economic Research

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Decline Of U.S. Manufacturing Employment, Susan N. Houseman 2018 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Understanding The Decline Of U.S. Manufacturing Employment, Susan N. Houseman

Susan N. Houseman

U.S. manufacturing experienced a precipitous and historically unprecedented decline in employment in the 2000s. Many economists and other analysts—pointing to decades of statistics showing that manufacturing real (inflation-adjusted) output growth has largely kept pace with private sector real output growth, that productivity growth has been much higher, and that the sector’s share of aggregate employment has been declining—argue that manufacturing’s job losses are largely the result of productivity growth (assumed to reflect automation) and are part of a long-term trend. Since the 1980s, however, the apparently robust growth in manufacturing real output and productivity have ...


Moderate Growth With A Stronger Industrial Sector, Eric Thompson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Moderate Growth With A Stronger Industrial Sector, Eric Thompson

Business in Nebraska

Nebraska will record solid economic growth during the forecast period but will lag U.S. growth. While Nebraska’s large farming sector has stabilized, it will not contribute much to economic growth during the forecast period. Job growth also will be sluggish in transportation, retail trade and state and local government. Job growth, however, will be stronger in the services, finance, manufacturing and construction. Projected growth rates for 2018 to 2020 are presented in Table 1.

Employment will grow by 0.8% to 1.0% per year, below the national rate. Non-farm income will grow between 3.6% and 3 ...


How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner 2018 University of Hohenheim

How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner

Economics Working Papers

Agricultural mechanization is now high on the policy agenda of many developing countries. History has shown that successful mechanization depends on an enabling environment providing various supporting functions, for example, knowledge and skills development and quality assurance. This paper analyses how this enabling environment was created during the mechanization history of two today’s mechanized countries, the United States and Germany, thereby distilling lessons for today’s mechanizing countries. The paper highlights the different roles played by government agencies (public sector), manufacturers of agricultural machinery (private sector) and farmers’ organizations (third sector) for the creation of this enabling environment. The ...


Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila 2018 Bryant University

Romania -- Systematic Country Diagnostic: Background Note-Agriculture (English), Edinaldo Tebaldi, Anatol Gobjila

Economics Faculty Journal Articles

Agriculture plays a significant socio-economic role in Romania and its transformation to a modern, vibrant, and market-oriented sector is central to fighting poverty, promoting social inclusion, and reducing the urban/rural development divide. Most of Romania's poor live in rural areas and earn their living from agriculture or agriculture-related activities. In 2016, eight out of ten people who were at risk of poverty or social exclusion lived either in rural areas or in towns and suburbs that were predominately rural. Using microdata from the 2013 Household Budget Survey (HBS), this report finds that individuals living in rural areas are ...


Occupational Shortage And Labor Market Adjustments: A Theory Of Islands, Joanne TAN, Riccardo ZAGO 2018 Singapore Management University

Occupational Shortage And Labor Market Adjustments: A Theory Of Islands, Joanne Tan, Riccardo Zago

Research Collection School Of Economics

Human Resources officers report occupational shortage to be the main cause of unfilled vacancies. Yet, it is not clear whether these are empty complaints or actually lead to effective wage and employment adjustments over time. By crossing data from the UK Employer Skill Survey with the UK Labor Force Survey, we show that shortage only leads to wage and employment adjustments for non-routine occupations in England, while no such adjustment occurs for routine occupations. This result is robust to several empirical specifications and varying levels of aggregation. Moreover, firms facing routine occupation shortage are more likely to outsource these vacancies ...


The Heterogeneous Effects Of The Minimum Wage On Employment Across States, Wuyi WANG, Peter C. B. PHILLIPS, Liangjun SU 2018 Jinan University - China

The Heterogeneous Effects Of The Minimum Wage On Employment Across States, Wuyi Wang, Peter C. B. Phillips, Liangjun Su

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the relationship between the minimum wage and the employment rate in the US using the framework of a panel structure model. The approach allows the minimum wage, along with some other controls, to have heterogeneous effects on employment across states which are classified into a group structure. The effects on employment are the same within each group but differ across different groups. The number of groups and the group membership of each state are both unknown a priori. The approach employs the C-Lasso technique, a recently developed classification method that consistently estimates group structure and leads to ...


What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik 2018 W.E. Upjohn Institute

What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Cooperative Membership On Members' Household Economies: The Case Of Chiapas Coffee Farmers, Stephen Pitts 2018 The University of San Francisco

Impact Of Cooperative Membership On Members' Household Economies: The Case Of Chiapas Coffee Farmers, Stephen Pitts

Master's Theses

Coffee producers typically sell raw coffee beans as the first step in a global value chain. Recently, groups of producers have formed coffee cooperatives that attempt to regain market power by integrating the other steps of the value chain. This study uses matching to estimate the effect of membership in one such cooperative on the household economy of indigenous coffee producers in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. It contributes to the literature by considering new determinants of participation and outcomes of interest. First, social capital at the individual and village level is correlated with cooperative membership more than other demographic ...


Empirical Essays In Household Economics, Hao Li 2018 Southern Methodist University

Empirical Essays In Household Economics, Hao Li

Economics Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is consist of three empirical studies in economics. The first part empirically examines the effect of universal pre-k on labor force participation of fertility age women in Oklahoma. I investigate the policy effect from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. I apply the synthetic control method (SCM) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data to identify the causal relationship between universal pre-k and female labor outcomes. I find that universal pre-k increases labor supply of women aged 25 to 45 in Oklahoma. The second empirical study focuses on how the birth outcomes of US children respond to exposure to ...


India's Economic Growth: Role Of Political Performance And Gender Wage Gap, Rajeev Indira Nagaraju 2018 Portland State University

India's Economic Growth: Role Of Political Performance And Gender Wage Gap, Rajeev Indira Nagaraju

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation will explore how gender wage gap and political capacity represented by relative political extraction affect change in economic growth rate of a country. The main argument of the study is that gender wage gap is affecting the labor market by discouraging productive female labor force from entering the labor market. This in turn affects the efficiency and productivity of the labor market reflected in negative economic growth or economic growth potential being compromised. Here the case of Indian economy is examined. The important policy implication of this study is that it could account for the wage differential between ...


Transitions From Higher Education To The Labor Market: Merit Aid, Time To Degree Signals, And Major Choice, Christopher P. Erwin 2018 University of New Mexico

Transitions From Higher Education To The Labor Market: Merit Aid, Time To Degree Signals, And Major Choice, Christopher P. Erwin

Economics ETDs

Human capital production is central to economic wellbeing from a national perspective: it improves productivity, spurs technological innovation, and promotes sustainable economic growth over time. Equally important, investments in human capital are central to economic wellbeing at the individual level. College graduates tend to earn more money, are more employable, are better able to manage economic downturns, and have even been shown to have better health. Moreover, for many students, the college experience is an important lesson in living independently, developing social and professional networks, and generally taking on more responsibility in one’s life. It has been said that ...


The Impact Of Region Of Origin On Industry Of Choice, Anna Williams 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Impact Of Region Of Origin On Industry Of Choice, Anna Williams

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

America’s population is constantly growing not just in numbers, but in diversity as well. Immigration, while a controversial issue, is a topic that affects every American. While there have been a multitude of studies done about migrants, few have looked at region of origin as a primary factor in economic decisions regarding migration. How much impact does their home country have on their occupational choices? Using microdata from the American Community Survey (ACS) from 2001 to 2016, this multinomial logit regression equation calculates the impact of certain regions of origin on choosing jobs in Manufacturing, Construction, Professional Services, and ...


What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik 2018 W.E. Upjohn Institute

What Works To Help Manufacturing-Intensive Local Economies?, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of College Degree Attainment On Risky Health Behaviors: Smoking, Obesity, And Vaping., Sal R. Ansari 2018 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of College Degree Attainment On Risky Health Behaviors: Smoking, Obesity, And Vaping., Sal R. Ansari

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper tests the hypothesis that completing college results in better health outcomes through the causal pathway of risky health behaviors. The results imply that completing college reduces the likelihood an individual is a smoker or e-smoker. The results do not show any causal relationship between college education and obesity.


Interactions Between Non-Discrimination Laws And Socioeconomic Status Of Sexual Minorities, Nicholas Carrino 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Interactions Between Non-Discrimination Laws And Socioeconomic Status Of Sexual Minorities, Nicholas Carrino

Honors Theses (PPE)

At its core, this project analyzes the interactions between state non-discrimination laws and the socioeconomic status of same-sex households in the United States. There is a large body of work examining the earnings gap for sexual minorities, but there is a dearth in studies looking at the effect of such protective laws. Using annual American Community Survey (ACS) data from 2000 to 2016, we examine the personal total income, household income, and unemployment in the ten states experiencing relevant reform. This study has two main findings. First, we confirm that sexual minorities experience substantial earnings differences, finding that lesbian women ...


Individual Demographic Transitions And Financial Hardship, Martin Erik Meder 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Individual Demographic Transitions And Financial Hardship, Martin Erik Meder

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of two essays on the relationship between individual demographic transitions, major life events that alter how an individual may be categorized by demographers, and financial wellbeing. Recent literature on Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) has reported an absence of substitution behavior between SSDI and other social insurance programs, which is unexpected considering the observed countercyclicality of SSDI awards. In the first chapter, I decompose the increase in the SSDI enrollment rate over the period surrounding the Great Recession, finding that 54.9% of the increase in the enrollment rate can be attributed to individuals who did not ...


Exploitation And Social Reproduction In The Japanese Animation Industry, James Garrett 2018 California State University, Monterey Bay

Exploitation And Social Reproduction In The Japanese Animation Industry, James Garrett

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Japanese animation, or ‘Anime’ is considered a unique creative cultural product that has become a global phenomenon, but little attention is paid to its industrial production process, the poor working conditions of domestic animators, and their position within the structure of labor organization in Japan. By analyzing research concerning the current stakeholders in the industry, historical conditions that led to the creation of television broadcast animation, overseas subcontracting networks, and the development of commercial fan cultures through Maurizio Lazzarato’s concept of Immaterial Labor, Michael Hardt’s concept of Affective Labor, Laikwan Pang’s concepts of the intensification of contradictory ...


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