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Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes 2019 Harvard University

Belgium’S 2008 Recentralization Of Wage-Setting Mechanisms And The Decentralization-Unit Labor Costs-Net Exports Link: Chronicle Of A Death Foretold?, Ines Pedro Fernandes

Undergraduate Economic Review

Anchored on scholarly literature on international competitiveness and the classical definition of competitiveness as net exports, policy making institutions support decentralized wage-setting mechanisms. The rationale is that decentralized wage-setting systems lower wages and unit labor costs (ULC) and, therefore, increase net exports. This paper contains a literature review on the wage-setting–ULC–net exports link and challenges conventional rationales by examining the co-evolution of Belgium’s real wages and net exports across wage percentiles and sectors. Belgium is a case in point, since the country experienced both increasing real wages and increasing net exports after recentralizing wage-setting mechanisms in 2008.


Increasing Beneficiary Retention In Food Assistance Programs, Colin Gray, Christopher J. O'Leary 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Increasing Beneficiary Retention In Food Assistance Programs, Colin Gray, Christopher J. O'Leary

Christopher J. O'Leary

No abstract provided.


Sleep, Salary, And Successful Occupational Negotiation: Evidence From A Labor Market Survey, Jerrick Tram, Philip Wesley Routon 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

Sleep, Salary, And Successful Occupational Negotiation: Evidence From A Labor Market Survey, Jerrick Tram, Philip Wesley Routon

Undergraduate Economic Review

We examine the relationship between sleep and wages and then ask a follow-up question: might occupational negotiation be one intermediate factor? That is, are workers of a certain sleep pattern more likely to successfully (re)negotiate the terms of their employment? Popular press, non-economic research articles, self-help guides, and websites often purport relationships between sleep patterns and one's ability to successfully negotiate. Results point to sleeping hours having a statistically significant, positive, and strong relationship with both salary and successful negotiation, though the latter relationship is only apparent for workers in about their 4th or 5th year on the ...


European Welfare Regimes: Political Orientations Versus Poverty, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall Professor, Novica Supic, Olgica Ivancev 2019 University of Novi Sad

European Welfare Regimes: Political Orientations Versus Poverty, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall Professor, Novica Supic, Olgica Ivancev

John B. Hall

This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register ...


Eastern Migrations Vs Western Welfare States - (Un)Biased Fears, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall, Valérie Berenger 2019 University of Novi Sad

Eastern Migrations Vs Western Welfare States - (Un)Biased Fears, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall, Valérie Berenger

John B. Hall

This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect ...


Producer Services: A Hub For Stem And An Engine For Job Growth, Eric Thompson, Uyen Tran 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Producer Services: A Hub For Stem And An Engine For Job Growth, Eric Thompson, Uyen Tran

Business in Nebraska

The producer services sector, which includes professional and technical services such as accounting, engineering, computer programming, advertising and consulting, is the fastest growing, high-wage segment of the U.S. economy. Producer services employment grew by 15 percent nationwide from 2008 through 2017 but only by 5 percent in Nebraska. Nebraska growth lagged the nation in part because the state has smaller metropolitan areas. Producer service businesses tend to congregate in larger cities. To grasp more opportunities in this growing, high wage sector, Nebraska needs to train more workers in STEM occupations, encourage the development of small businesses in the sector ...


Motherhood, Migration, And Self-Employment Of College Graduates, Zhengyu Cai, Heather M. Stephens, John V. Winters 2019 Southwestern University of Finance and Economics

Motherhood, Migration, And Self-Employment Of College Graduates, Zhengyu Cai, Heather M. Stephens, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

Women face unique challenges in starting and running their own businesses and may have differing motives to men for pursuing self-employment. Previous research suggests that married women with families value the flexibility that self-employment can offer, allowing them to balance their family responsibilities with their career aspirations. This may be especially true for college graduates, who tend to have more successful businesses. Access to childcare may also affect their labor force decisions. Using American Community Survey microdata, we examine how birth-place residence, a proxy for access to extended family and child care, relates to self-employment and hours worked for college-graduate ...


Trends And Tariffs: Nebraska In An Aging Recovery, Eric Thompson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Trends And Tariffs: Nebraska In An Aging Recovery, Eric Thompson

Business in Nebraska

Nebraska will record solid economic growth during the forecast period but will lag U.S. growth. Nebraska’s large farming sector is struggling and will not contribute much to economic growth during the forecast period. Job growth also will be sluggish in transportation and retail trade. Job growth, however, will be stronger in the services, finance, manufacturing and construction. Projected growth rates for 2019 to 2021 are presented in Table 1.

Employment will grow by 0.7% to 0.9% per year, below the national rate. Nonfarm income will grow between 4.4% and 4.5% each year. This growth ...


Regional Prevalence Of Health Worker Absenteeism In Tanzania, Tomoki FUJII 2019 Singapore Management University

Regional Prevalence Of Health Worker Absenteeism In Tanzania, Tomoki Fujii

Research Collection School Of Economics

Absenteeism of health workers in developing countries is common and can severely undermine the reliability of the health system. Therefore, it is important to understand where the prevalence of absenteeism is high. We develop a simple imputation method that combines a Service Delivery Indicators survey and a Service Provision Assessment survey to estimate the prevalence of absenteeism of health workers at the level of regions in Tanzania. The resulting estimates allow one to identify the regions in which the prevalence of absenteeism is significantly higher or lower than the national average and help policymakers determine priority areas for intervention.


Rethinking Retirement For The 21st Century, Stephen C. Russo 2019 University of Windsor

Rethinking Retirement For The 21st Century, Stephen C. Russo

Major Papers

Canada’s labour force has been gradually growing older in recent decades. An aging labour force creates significant problems for the country and the future growth of our economy. With an aging labour force, comes the need to start rethinking how Canadians look at retirement in the 21st century and how both the government and private sector can contribute solutions to adapting to an older workforce. This problem is not unique to Canada, most of the industrialized west has been or will begin to experience the same demographic shift as we are in Canada. The main challenge this paper ...


Forced Labor In Hong Kong, Kylan Rutherford 2019 Brigham Young University

Forced Labor In Hong Kong, Kylan Rutherford

Marriott Student Review

Domestic workers are among the most exploited groups, composing 24% of the estimated 45.8 million forced laborers worldwide. The market for domestic workers has expanded especially rapidly in the Asia-Pacific region; in Hong Kong alone, there are currently 360,000 domestic workers—about 10% of Hong Kong’s workforce—mostly originating from the Philippines and Indonesia (Hincks, 2017). 94% of these workers show signs of exploitation or forced labor (Kang, 2017). The nature of their work in a foreign country limits their access to government protection, forces them to comply with illegally high recruitment fees, and can push them ...


Employment Disparity Grows For Rural Americans With Disability, RTC: Rural, University of Montana Rural Institute 2019 University of Montana

Employment Disparity Grows For Rural Americans With Disability, Rtc: Rural, University Of Montana Rural Institute

Employment

Employment rates have increased since the recession, but these gains haven’t reached all communities across the country, nor has everyone benefited from these gains. While overall employment rates have improved, employment for people with disabilities in rural areas has decreased. This fact sheet uses the recently released (December 2018) American Community Survey 5-year estimates to explore changes in employment rates for people with and without disabilities across the nine divisions of the United States, and for metropolitan, micropolitan, and non-core counties. This marks the first time longitudinal trends in ACS data can be explored across the rural-urban continuum using ...


Measuring The Economic Costs Of Workplace Sexual Harassment On Women, Maureen R. Cowhey 2019 Claremont Colleges

Measuring The Economic Costs Of Workplace Sexual Harassment On Women, Maureen R. Cowhey

Scripps Senior Theses

Workplace sexual harassment costs the government and companies millions of dollars a year. Women who experience sexual harassment in the workplace suffer from negative mental and physical health problems, lower career attainment, decreased productivity, and a higher rate of job turnover. Sexual harassment is both costly and unjust, however the exact cost to women who experience sexual harassment is unknown. This thesis will measure the impact of workplace sexual harassment on wages in different industries. Using data on claims filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, I calculate and analyze the impact of sexual harassment on wages, age, sex, and ...


Brain Drain And Emigration: How Do They Affect Source Countries?, Nicholas Chura 2019 The University of Akron

Brain Drain And Emigration: How Do They Affect Source Countries?, Nicholas Chura

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper examines the effect of different skill levels of emigration on a country’s labor market, from high skill brain drain to low skill emigration. By utilizing an IADB Brain Drain data set to measure emigration rates among those with low, medium, and high educational attainment in a country, the effect of brain drain vs. low skill emigration on productivity and unemployment is examined. These data span from 1980 to 2010 with measurements every five years for 195 World Bank countries. By utilizing two two-way fixed effects models with GDP per capita and unemployment rate as the dependent variables ...


The Impact Of Regional Return On Education On The Self-Selection Of Mexican Immigrants, Warren Chen 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Impact Of Regional Return On Education On The Self-Selection Of Mexican Immigrants, Warren Chen

CMC Senior Theses

This paper uses the 2010 Mexican Population and Housing Survey to examine the role of regional return to education on migrant selection. The study uses a standard linear regression model to predict the educational attainment of migrants and compares it to the educational attainment of non-migrants in each Mexican State. It finds evidence of negative selection, that less educated Mexican citizens are more likely to migrate to the United States. It also finds little evidence of the impact of regional return to education on migrant selection. The study offers potential explanations for the lack of impact and suggests avenues for ...


Preparing U.S. Workers And Employers For An Autonomous Vehicle Future, Erica L. Groshen, Susan Helper, John Paul MacDuffie, Charles Carson 2019 Cornell University ILR School and Upjohn Institute

Preparing U.S. Workers And Employers For An Autonomous Vehicle Future, Erica L. Groshen, Susan Helper, John Paul Macduffie, Charles Carson

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Institutions, Trade, And Economic Prosperity: An Examination Of The U.S. And Mexican States, Dean Stansel, Meg Patrick Tuszynski 2019 Southern Methodist University

Institutions, Trade, And Economic Prosperity: An Examination Of The U.S. And Mexican States, Dean Stansel, Meg Patrick Tuszynski

Mission Foods Texas-Mexico Center Research

We provide the first subnational-level examination of the relationship between the presence of policies and institutions that are consistent with economic freedom and trade volume. To do so, we create a new comprehensive dataset detailing export activity between each U.S. state (that is, for the volume of trade between Texas and Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, etc.) and between each U.S. state and each Mexican state (Texas and Chihuahua, Texas and Coahuila, etc.). Our empirical strategy allows us to explore what effect institutions have on both interstate trade and cross-border trade, and also what impact the national border ...


An Apple A Day? Adult Food Stamp Eligibility And Health Care Utilization Among Immigrants, Chloe N. East, Andrew Friedson 2019 University of Colorado, Denver

An Apple A Day? Adult Food Stamp Eligibility And Health Care Utilization Among Immigrants, Chloe N. East, Andrew Friedson

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

In this study, we document the effect of food stamp access on adult health care utilization. While the Food Stamp Program provides one of the largest safety nets in the United States today, the universal nature of the program across geographic areas and over time limits the potential for quasi-experimental analysis. To circumvent this, we use variation in documented immigrants’ eligibility for food stamps across states and over time due to welfare reform in 1996. Our estimates indicate that access to food stamps reduced physician visits. Additionally, we find that for single women, food stamps increased the affordability of specialty ...


Do Snap Work Requirements Work?, Timothy F. Harris 2019 Illinois State University

Do Snap Work Requirements Work?, Timothy F. Harris

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act waived Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) work requirements nationally in 2010 and broadened the eligibility for receiving waivers in subsequent years for Able-Bodied Adults without Dependents (ABAWD). From 2011 to 2016, many states voluntarily imposed work requirements, while other areas became ineligible for waivers because of improved economic conditions. Did the work requirements increase employment as intended, or did the policy merely remove food assistance for ABAWD who—despite an improving economy—still could not find employment? Using data from the American Community Survey from 2010 to 2016, I analyze the influence of work ...


Increasing Beneficiary Retention In Food Assistance Programs, Colin Gray, Christopher J. O'Leary 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Increasing Beneficiary Retention In Food Assistance Programs, Colin Gray, Christopher J. O'Leary

Upjohn Institute Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


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