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Individual Training Accounts And Nonstandard Work Arrangements, Randall W. Eberts 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Individual Training Accounts And Nonstandard Work Arrangements, Randall W. Eberts

Upjohn Institute Technical Reports

This paper was commissioned by the Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development (OECD) to describe the use of Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and under its predecessor the Workforce Investment Act (WIA). Particular interest is in the use of ITAs by WIOA participants from nonstandard work arrangements. The study provides detailed information about the use of ITAs by participants of the two adult programs under WIOA, Disadvantaged Adult Programs and Dislocated Worker Programs, and in two states, Michigan and Washington. Information for the WIOA programs is gathered and analyzed from the public-use version of ...


Computerization Of White Collar Jobs, Marcus Dillender, Eliza C. Forsythe 2019 The University of Illinois at Chicago

Computerization Of White Collar Jobs, Marcus Dillender, Eliza C. Forsythe

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We investigate the impact of computerization of white-collar jobs on wages and employment. Using online job postings from 2007 and 2010-2016 for office and administrative support (OAS) jobs, we show that when firms adopt new software at the job-title level they increase the skills required of job applicants. Furthermore, firms change the task content of such jobs, broadening them to include tasks associated with higher-skill office functions. We aggregate these patterns to the local labor-market level, instrumenting for technology adoption with national measures. We find that a 1 standard deviation increase in OAS technology usages reduces employment in OAS occupations ...


Bias And Productivity In Humans And Machines, Bo Cowgill 2019 Columbia University

Bias And Productivity In Humans And Machines, Bo Cowgill

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Where should better learning technology (such as machine learning or AI) improve decisions? I develop a model of decision-making in which better learning technology is complementary with experimentation. Noisy, inconsistent decision-making introduces quasi-experimental variation into training datasets, which complements learning. The model makes heterogeneous predictions about when machine learning algorithms can improve human biases. These algorithms can remove human biases exhibited in historical training data, but only if the human training decisions are sufficiently noisy; otherwise, the algorithms will codify or exacerbate existing biases. Algorithms need only a small amount of noise to correct biases that cause large productivity distortions ...


Should We Target Jobs At Distressed Places, And If So, How?, Timothy J. Bartik 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Should We Target Jobs At Distressed Places, And If So, How?, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Should Place-Based Jobs Policies Be Used To Help Distressed Communities?, Timothy J. Bartik 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Should Place-Based Jobs Policies Be Used To Help Distressed Communities?, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

Should policymakers seek to increase jobs in particular local labor markets? Yes, but only if these policies are well targeted and designed. Encouraging job growth in distressed places can cause persistent gains in employment-to-population ratios. But our current place-based jobs policies, under which state and local governments provide long-term tax incentives to megacorporations, are poorly targeted and designed. Such incentives are as large in nondistressed areas as in distressed areas, and they are excessively costly. What reforms are needed? First, job growth policies should target distressed areas. Second, tax incentives should be focused on high-multiplier businesses, such as high-tech firms ...


Should We Target Jobs At Distressed Places, And If So, How?, Timothy J. Bartik 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Should We Target Jobs At Distressed Places, And If So, How?, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


Should Place-Based Jobs Policies Be Used To Help Distressed Communities?, Timothy J. Bartik 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Should Place-Based Jobs Policies Be Used To Help Distressed Communities?, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Should policymakers seek to increase jobs in particular local labor markets? Yes, but only if these policies are well targeted and designed. Encouraging job growth in distressed places can cause persistent gains in employment-to-population ratios. But our current place-based jobs policies, under which state and local governments provide long-term tax incentives to megacorporations, are poorly targeted and designed. Such incentives are as large in nondistressed areas as in distressed areas, and they are excessively costly. What reforms are needed? First, job growth policies should target distressed areas. Second, tax incentives should be focused on high-multiplier businesses, such as high-tech firms ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter 2019 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: July 24, 2019, Eric Thompson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: July 24, 2019, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 fell by 0.29% during June of 2019. The decline in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, implies slowing economic growth in Nebraska towards the end of 2019. The leading indicator declined due to an increase in initial claims for unemployment insurance and a drop in both airport passenger enplanements and manufacturing hours. In addition, business expectations, which had been strong throughout the year, moderated during June. Respondents to the June Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans for only a modest increase in employment at ...


Keeping It Real: Information Literacy, Numeracy, And Economic Data, Diego Mendez-Carbajo, Charissa O. Jefferson, Katrina L. Stierholz 2019 Illinois Wesleyan University

Keeping It Real: Information Literacy, Numeracy, And Economic Data, Diego Mendez-Carbajo, Charissa O. Jefferson, Katrina L. Stierholz

Numeracy

We describe a pedagogical strategy aimed at developing both quantitative and information literacy skills through a social justice lens. This lesson plan is suitable for a variety of high school and introductory college courses. The student learning goals associated with this pedagogical strategy span three intellectual domains: social justice, through a critical exploration of either the purchasing power of minimum wages across states or the earnings gap between men and women employed full time; numeracy, through the computation of ratios between variables with different rates of growth over time; and information literacy, through a series of activities and discussion questions ...


Settling In: The Consequences Of Legal Origins And Institutional Variety For Immigrant Labor Market Integration In Oecd Countries, Jennifer Kuklenski 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Settling In: The Consequences Of Legal Origins And Institutional Variety For Immigrant Labor Market Integration In Oecd Countries, Jennifer Kuklenski

Dissertations

Drawing upon theories of institutional variety, this research seeks to determine whether or not immigrant labor market outcomes are better in countries with 1) liberal market economies and deregulated labor markets; and 2) countries with supply-driven immigration systems. Non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests are combined with parametric time series, GLS regression analysis of panel data to estimate the impact and significance of legal origins (common versus civil law systems) and merit-based immigration policy on 1) labor market participation; 2) unemployment; and 3) employment by educational attainment in 28 OECD countries between the years 2001-2016. The analysis controls for other ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: June 19, 2019, Eric Thompson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: June 19, 2019, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) rose by 0.63% during May of 2019. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, implies moderate economic growth in Nebraska through the end of 2019. Strong business expectations were the sole reason for the increase in the leading indicator. Respondents to the May Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. Other components were mixed with airport passenger enplanments, initial claims for unemployment insurance and building permits for single-family homes pointing ...


The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi

Lee Schulz

In this analysis, we use historical trade patterns, revenue linkages, and recent futures market price changes to discern the 2018 tariffs’ near-term impacts on the state of Iowa. We use two distinct modeling techniques, and in each technique we make two distinct assumptions. First, we use partial-equilibrium modeling approaches that do not directly consider linkages among the markets and industries across the state of Iowa. In these approaches, two assumptions about price changes are invoked—either the price changes are based upon supply and demand elasticities or the price changes are based upon observations in the futures market. The partial ...


The Diminishing Male Labor Force Population: What The American Time Use Survey Suggests About How Male Nonworkers Allocate Their Time, Rory Nizolek 2019 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Diminishing Male Labor Force Population: What The American Time Use Survey Suggests About How Male Nonworkers Allocate Their Time, Rory Nizolek

Honors Theses

The male labor force participation rate has been declining for decades, dropping from nearly 90% down to 69.3% as of now. Using survey respondent data from the 2003-2017 American Time Use Survey, this paper investigates how nonworking males choose to allocate their time in a day. This paper examines how the time allocation has changed over time for males ages 25-34 as well as for those who have less than a high school degree because these two samples shows significant changes in time allocation. For the other samples, ages 35-44 and 45-54 as well as all education levels higher ...


Job-Interview Referrals Help Brazilians Find Formal-Sector Jobs, Christopher J. O'Leary, Túlio Cravo, Ana Cristina Sierra, Leandro Justino Veloso 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Job-Interview Referrals Help Brazilians Find Formal-Sector Jobs, Christopher J. O'Leary, Túlio Cravo, Ana Cristina Sierra, Leandro Justino Veloso

Christopher J. O'Leary

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Job Referrals On Labor Market Outcomes In Brazil, Christopher J. O'Leary, Túlio Cravo, Ana Cristina Sierra, Leandro Justino Veloso 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

The Effect Of Job Referrals On Labor Market Outcomes In Brazil, Christopher J. O'Leary, Túlio Cravo, Ana Cristina Sierra, Leandro Justino Veloso

Christopher J. O'Leary

This paper is the first to use program administrative data from Brazil’s National Employment System (SINE) to assess the impact of SINE job interview referrals on labor market outcomes. Data for a five-year period (2012–2016) are used to evaluate the impact of SINE on employment probability, wage rates, time until reemployment, and job tenure. Difference-in-differences estimates suggest that a SINE job interview referral increases the probability of finding a job within three months of the referral and reduces the number of months to find reemployment, the average job tenure of the next job, and the reemployment wage. Subgroup ...


Longer-Run Effects Of Antipoverty Policies On Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, David Neumark, Brian J. Asquith, Brittany Bass 2019 University of California, Irvine

Longer-Run Effects Of Antipoverty Policies On Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, David Neumark, Brian J. Asquith, Brittany Bass

Brian Asquith

We estimate the longer-run effects of minimum wages, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and welfare on key economic indicators of economic self-sufficiency in disadvantaged neighborhoods. We find that the longer-run effects of the EITC are to increase employment and to reduce poverty and public assistance. We also find some evidence that higher welfare benefits had longer-run adverse effects, and quite robust evidence that tighter welfare time limits reduce poverty and public assistance in the longer run. The evidence on the long-run effects of the minimum wage on poverty and public assistance is not robust, with some evidence pointing to reductions ...


Public Authority And Private Prisons: How Private Prison Labor Contributes To National Employment Precarity, Kaitlyn Oder 2019 University of Puget Sound

Public Authority And Private Prisons: How Private Prison Labor Contributes To National Employment Precarity, Kaitlyn Oder

International Political Economy Theses

Private uses of prison labor are illegal internationally, and not without reason. A lack of public oversight and regulations of wages mean that prison labor is often exploited in exchange for increased profitability for private prisons and sometimes the private companies they contract with. This paper will explicate the ways in which private uses of prison labor contribute to wage and employment precarity and ultimately cost numerous non incarcerated low wage individuals in the United States their jobs and livelihoods. It offers potential policy solutions and paths forward for new research to better link the sociological and economic considerations of ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: May 22, 2019, Eric Thompson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: May 22, 2019, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) rose by 0.79% during April of 2019. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, implies moderate economic growth in Nebraska through the end of 2019. Strong business expectations were again the primary reason for the increase in the leading indicator. Respondents to the April Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. There also was growth in manufacturing hours-worked during the month.


Productivity In Baseball: How Babe Ruth Beats The Benchmark, Peter A. Groothuis, Kurt W. Rotthoff, Mark C. Strazicich 2019 Appalachian State University

Productivity In Baseball: How Babe Ruth Beats The Benchmark, Peter A. Groothuis, Kurt W. Rotthoff, Mark C. Strazicich

The Journal of SPORT

Many statistics are used to measure the productivity of hitters in Major League Baseball, such as the number of home runs and the number of runs batted in a season. However, comparing the talent of individual players across time is difficult as rules and technologies change. In this paper, we propose applying a practice commonly utilized in the finance literature to compare the performance of individual stocks and other assets, namely, we “benchmark” the productivity of each player’s performance to players in the same time period. Applying our benchmarking strategy to annual Major League Baseball data from 1871-2010, we ...


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