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The Effects Of Food Security On Socioeconomic Mobility In The United States: A Case Study In Allendale County, South Carolina, Taylor St Clarke 2018 University of South Carolina

The Effects Of Food Security On Socioeconomic Mobility In The United States: A Case Study In Allendale County, South Carolina, Taylor St Clarke

Senior Theses

This thesis examines the relationship between food security – defined as accessibility to an affordable, nutritious, and sustainable source of food – and socioeconomic mobility in the continental United States. This thesis is primarily focused on the effects of food insecurity on both individuals and communities, examining the chronic long-term effects of such insecurity on areas known as “food deserts,” which are often given status as areas of persistent poverty. This research further examines the effects of a sustained poor diet, brought about by food insecurity, on the individual and overarching community in a food desert and how such a diet impacts ...


Does The Women, Infants, And Children Program (Wic) Improve Infant Health Outcomes?, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper, Manan Roy 2018 Iowa State University

Does The Women, Infants, And Children Program (Wic) Improve Infant Health Outcomes?, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper, Manan Roy

Economics Working Papers

We evaluate causal impacts of prenatal WIC participation on healthy birth outcomes, simultaneously accounting for self-selection of expectant mothers into WIC and systematic underreporting of program participation. In doing so, we extend existing partial identification methods to reflect the institutional details of the program. In particular, we allow for a richer measurement error model and apply a modified regression discontinuity design. Combining survey data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) with administrative data from the USDA, our reduces the prevalence of unhealthy birth weight by at least 21 percent and unhealthy gestation duration by at least 9 ...


A Comparison Of The Costs Associated With The Administration Of Select High-Cost Infused Medications In Three Sites Of Care For A State Medicaid Population, Sage Bagwell, Pavel Lavitas, Thomas C. Pomfret, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Nicole M. Trask, Stephanie Tran, Nancy L. Schiff, Tasmina Hydery, Patricia Leto, Mylissa K. Price, Caroline J. Alper, Kimberly J. Lenz, Paul L. Jeffrey 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Comparison Of The Costs Associated With The Administration Of Select High-Cost Infused Medications In Three Sites Of Care For A State Medicaid Population, Sage Bagwell, Pavel Lavitas, Thomas C. Pomfret, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Nicole M. Trask, Stephanie Tran, Nancy L. Schiff, Tasmina Hydery, Patricia Leto, Mylissa K. Price, Caroline J. Alper, Kimberly J. Lenz, Paul L. Jeffrey

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

This poster evaluates the financial impact of high-cost infused medications across three site of care programs. Site of care programs help payers save money on specialty drug spend by shifting utilization on high costs infused medications to less costly sites of administration. The objective of this project was to evaluate the costs associated with the administration of select high-cost infused medications in site of care programs in Massachusetts Medicaid populations. Research was done through retrospective analysis that included pharmacy and medical claims data for select high cost infused medications between April 1, 2017 - September 20, 2017.

This presentation was given ...


The Effectiveness Of The Commercial Driver Medical Examination In Screening For Hypertension, Yutao Li 2018 University of Minnesota, Morris

The Effectiveness Of The Commercial Driver Medical Examination In Screening For Hypertension, Yutao Li

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2018

The Commercial Driver Medical Examination (CDME) is used to assess the medical fitness of a driver to safely operate a commercial motor vehicle. Hypertension is a disease that has been shown in prior research to cause reduced driving safety performance when not properly managed, and it is therefore important that medical examiners be able to consistently identify it in drivers. However, the CDME has historically been ineffective at screening drivers with safety-related diseases. For example, a report from the US Government Accountability Office showed the existence of a substantial number of drivers who were deemed eligible by the federal government ...


Passion With Purpose A Case Study Of St. Jude Children’S Research Hospital, Allyson Favuzza 2018 Bryant University

Passion With Purpose A Case Study Of St. Jude Children’S Research Hospital, Allyson Favuzza

Honors Projects in Management

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital is “leading the way the world understands, treats, and defeats childhood cancer and other life threatening diseases” (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital). Fifty-five years ago when St. Jude opened its doors, the overall childhood cancer survival rate was 20 percent; today, the overall childhood cancer survival rate exceeds 80 percent. Through research and discovery, St. Jude has played a pivotal role in increasing this survival rate. St. Jude, a non-profit organization and hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, operates primarily through donations. St. Jude-American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) is the fundraising and awareness organization ...


Labor Market And Outreach Effects Of Medicaid Expansion Under The Affordable Care Act, Erkmen Giray Aslim 2018 Lehigh University

Labor Market And Outreach Effects Of Medicaid Expansion Under The Affordable Care Act, Erkmen Giray Aslim

Theses and Dissertations

The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion is unique in terms of expanding coverage to adults without dependent children ("childless adults") and increasing community-based outreach to raise awareness about coverage options. This dissertation explores the labor market and outreach effects of the ACA's Medicaid expansion on childless adults and parents, respectively.First chapter of the dissertation investigates the pre/post labor market implications of the ACA's Medicaid expansion for a population near the income eligibility cutoff. Using an arguably exogenous variation at this cutoff, I find that Medicaid enrollment increases for childless adults. This leads to an ...


Skilled Nursing Facilities: Too Many Beds, Rebecca Laes-Kushner 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Skilled Nursing Facilities: Too Many Beds, Rebecca Laes-Kushner

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

More than 15,500 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) provide care to more than 1.35 million people in the United States who need assistance with their Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), including going to the toilet, getting out of bed, getting dressed, feeding themselves, and showering, or who have cognitive difficulties, such as from dementia. Nationally, SNF use has declined as people live longer and choose home and community-based services (HCBS) over institutional care. From 2004 to 2014, the percentage of people age 65 and older in nursing homes dropped from 3.6% to 2.5%, a decrease of 24 ...


Investigating Treatment Effects Of Participating Jointly In Snap And Wic When The Treatment Is Validated Only For Snap, Helen H. Jensen, Brent Kreider, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy 2018 Iowa State University

Investigating Treatment Effects Of Participating Jointly In Snap And Wic When The Treatment Is Validated Only For Snap, Helen H. Jensen, Brent Kreider, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy

Economics Working Papers

USDA operates several food assistance programs aimed at alleviating food insecurity. Little is known about how they interact. We focus on SNAP and WIC, two of the largest means-tested programs that provide resources to low-income households to purchase food and differ in several respects. Our question is the extent to which participation in both programs alleviates food insecurity compared with participation in SNAP alone. We bound underlying causal effects by applying nonparametric treatment effect methods that allow for endogenous selection and underreported program participation to data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS). FoodAPS contains administrative data ...


Process Improvement Ensures High-Quality Disability Benefit Evaluation, Jody Simpson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Process Improvement Ensures High-Quality Disability Benefit Evaluation, Jody Simpson

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Ongoing quality management and review of disability benefit evaluation processes and procedures is critical for state and municipal retirement system administrators. Public retirement systems may be challenged in these areas due to limited time and resources.

Working with a partner who is skilled in assisting organizations with all aspects of their medical review needs can ease the burden. UMass Medical School’s Disability Evaluation Services offers comprehensive disability evaluation solutions with a focus on quality improvement and client satisfaction. Having the clinical expertise to provide medical board review recommendations and case management is just one of our strengths.


Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle 2018 Foundation for Economic Education

Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) aims at equipping Title 1 schools with free, hands-on, engaging materials that any teacher can facilitate either individually or in a classroom setting with no background in entrepreneurship necessary. These versatile lessons, courses, and workshops teach the entrepreneurial mindset optimizing opportunities for grades 8-12 students no matter which life/career path they choose.


The Effect Of Aca Medicaid Expansion On People’S Retirement Decision, William Christopher 2018 Union College

The Effect Of Aca Medicaid Expansion On People’S Retirement Decision, William Christopher

Honors Theses

As of January 2018, thirty-three states have adopted the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion. There is an emerging literature to study the effects of ACA Medicaid expansion on various outcomes, such as insurance coverage, health status, and labor supply. For example, a study from the Congressional Box Office projects that the U.S. labor supply will decrease 1.5-2% from 2017 to 2024 because of this expansion. In a recent paper, Ayyagari (2017) argues that because employer sponsored retiree benefits are declining and Medicaid coverage is expanding, retirement age will decrease by 3.6 to 7.2 months. In ...


Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions And Deaths Related To Pain Killers?, David Powell, Rosalie Pacula, Mireille Jacobson 2018 Rand Corporation

Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions And Deaths Related To Pain Killers?, David Powell, Rosalie Pacula, Mireille Jacobson

David Powell

Recent work finds that medical marijuana laws reduce the daily doses filled for opioid analgesics among Medicare Part-D and Medicaid enrollees, as well as population-wide opioid overdose deaths. We replicate the result for opioid overdose deaths and explore the potential mechanism. The key feature of a medical marijuana law that facilitates a reduction in overdose death rates is a relatively liberal allowance for dispensaries.  As states have become more stringent in their regulation of dispensaries, the protective value generally has fallen. These findings suggest that broader access to medical marijuana facilitates substitution of marijuana for powerful and addictive opioids. 


Ltss Clinical Guidelines Help Health Plans Navigate The Challenges Of Increased Demand, Jessica Carpenter 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ltss Clinical Guidelines Help Health Plans Navigate The Challenges Of Increased Demand, Jessica Carpenter

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Long term services and supports (LTSS) clinical guidelines are the foundation of a successful LTSS utilization management program. Strong guidelines help health plans drive LTSS programs toward positive outcomes such as consistency in decision making, clinically appropriate services, contained costs and program integrity. The goal is ensuring individuals receive the right service, in the right setting, and at the right time.

As the independent living movement continues to advance, more individuals with disabilities are seeking to live in their own homes or within a community setting. As such, there has been an increased demand for LTSS. Increased demand combined with ...


Clinical And Economic Burden Of Procedural Sedation-Related Adverse Events And Their Outcomes: Analysis From Five Countries, Rhodri Saunders, Jason A. Davis, Peter Kranke, Rachel Weissbrod, David K. Whitaker, Jenifer R. Lightdale 2018 Coreva Scientific GmbH & Co KG, Germany

Clinical And Economic Burden Of Procedural Sedation-Related Adverse Events And Their Outcomes: Analysis From Five Countries, Rhodri Saunders, Jason A. Davis, Peter Kranke, Rachel Weissbrod, David K. Whitaker, Jenifer R. Lightdale

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Background: Studies have reported on the incidence of sedation-related adverse events (AEs), but little is known about their impact on health care costs and resource use.

Methods: Health care providers and payers in five countries were recruited for an online survey by independent administrators to ensure that investigators and respondents were blinded to each other. Surveys were conducted in the local language and began with a "screener" to ensure that respondents had relevant expertise and experience. Responses were analyzed using Excel and R, with the Dixon's Q statistic used to identify and remove outliers. Global and country-specific average treatment ...


Impact Of A Pilot Outreach Program Upon Provider Awareness And Prescribing Of A Concerning Opioid Combination Regimen, Briana Santaniello, Thomas C. Pomfret, Mark A. Tesell, Nicole M. Trask, Caroline J. Alper, Karen M. Clements, Vincent Palumbo, Kimberly Lenz, Paul L. Jeffrey 2018 Magellan Rx Management

Impact Of A Pilot Outreach Program Upon Provider Awareness And Prescribing Of A Concerning Opioid Combination Regimen, Briana Santaniello, Thomas C. Pomfret, Mark A. Tesell, Nicole M. Trask, Caroline J. Alper, Karen M. Clements, Vincent Palumbo, Kimberly Lenz, Paul L. Jeffrey

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

This pilot program was developed in response to a drug utilization review within a large Medicaid population that revealed some hazardous practices. Co-prescribing of opioids with benzodiazepines, gabapentin, and other stimulants occurred in more than 500 members, putting them at risk for additive central nervous system depression, misuse, abuse, and death from overdose.

The poster presentation outlines the objectives, methods, and results of a telephonic outreach program that addressed these safety concerns. It captures prescriber awareness of the presence and risks of potentially deadly medication combinations among members in their care, with some intriguing results.

Our experts provide health plans ...


A Budget Impact Model For Two Investigational Agents For The Treatment Of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, Nicole M. Trask, Pavel Lavitas, Vincent Palumbo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Budget Impact Model For Two Investigational Agents For The Treatment Of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, Nicole M. Trask, Pavel Lavitas, Vincent Palumbo

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Statistics show approximately 15 million Americans suffer from NASH, a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is projected to become the most common reason for liver transplantation. There are no FDA approved therapies for NASH, so doctors are forced to treat patients with off-label medications while keeping an eye out for breakthroughs in medication development.

Two novel therapies, obeticholic acid and elafibranor, are currently in Phase III trials. If they receive FDA approval, interest will be high as they will be the first treatments specifically labeled for NASH. We detail a budget impact model for a sample state Medicaid plan in ...


Supporting Medicaid In Virginia, Scott Burns 2018 Tidewater Community College

Supporting Medicaid In Virginia, Scott Burns

Exigence

This report analyzes Medicaid in Virginia, the needs-based social health insurance program providing health coverage to children, pregnant women, working parents, the disabled, and elderly who cannot afford health costs on their own. It supports the value of the Medicaid program to these beneficiaries’ long term health, the healthcare sector, cost control and Virginia’s economy. Additionally, it analyzes healthcare policy looking at what effects the Affordable Care Act has had in improving healthcare access and what effects healthcare reform under president-elect Donald Trump’s administration and the Republican controlled 115th United States Congress might have targeting healthcare cost ...


Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir 2018 University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Measuring Health Outcomes Of Uncovered Employment: A Study Of Income, Social Mobility, Equality, And Health Indicators In An Under-Looked Segment Of The Labor Force, Zakariya Kmir

Undergraduate Economic Review

Economists have strongly supported the idea that unemployment causes many undesirable health outcomes. However, how does belonging to a different sector of employment tied closely to changes in minimum wage and inflation relate to overall health? To properly understand the numerical significance of health disparities in the uncovered sector of employment, this research is targeted at quantifying the relationship between the insured and non-insured within the uncovered sector. By substantiating the existence of severe health disparities as a function of the labor force dynamic, this research subsequently estimates the amount of inefficiency and negative health outcomes in the US economy ...


A Medicaid Compromise Expanded Coverage For Hoosiers, But Important Questions Linger, Robert W. Seifert 2018 University of Massachusett Medical School

A Medicaid Compromise Expanded Coverage For Hoosiers, But Important Questions Linger, Robert W. Seifert

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

In today’s polarized political environment, it is easy to forget that most policy decisions are not black or white, but rather some indeterminate shade of gray. A case in point is Indiana’s Medicaid waiver, which the federal government just approved for a three-year extension.


Impact Of Electrification On Children's Nutritional Status In Rural Bangladesh, Tomoki FUJII, Abu S. SHONCHOY, Sijia XU 2018 Singapore Management University

Impact Of Electrification On Children's Nutritional Status In Rural Bangladesh, Tomoki Fujii, Abu S. Shonchoy, Sijia Xu

Research Collection School Of Economics

Access to electricity has the potential to improve the nutritional status of children by a variety of pathways such as increased wealth, reduced fertility through the change in time use, spread of information through technology such as TV, and improved health care services. Yet, the relationship between electrification and children’s nutritional status is rarely explored in the literature. We attempt to fill this lacuna by offering microeconometric evidence from rural Bangladesh, where a rapid expansion of electrification and significant improvement in children’s nutritional status were observed in the past two decades. We find that access to electricity has ...


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