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Body Mass Index And Earnings: A Fixed Effects Approach, James Freeman 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Body Mass Index And Earnings: A Fixed Effects Approach, James Freeman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper examines the effect of body mass index (BMI) on annual earnings using an individual fixed effects approach to control for time-invariant endogeneity. Heterogeneous effects of BMI on earnings are also explored for different races and education levels. This research also conducts a preliminary investigation into relationship between BMI and job mobility as a potential mechanism mediating the effect of BMI on earnings. My findings show that white women incur a 4% annual earnings penalty per one-point increase in BMI. Overall, black and Hispanic women are insulated from this penalty. Both of these findings are relatively consistent with previous ...


The Medicaid Expansion And Cost-Sharing Requirements, Trevor Heinrichs 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Medicaid Expansion And Cost-Sharing Requirements, Trevor Heinrichs

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study examines how the Medicaid expansion has affected health coverage, medical care utilization, financial well-being, and self-reported health. This study distinguishes itself from prior literature in that it also examines how the effect of the Medicaid expansion depends upon state cost-sharing requirements. Further, the study leverages a natural experimental design based on the introduction of a policy intervention (i.e. the Medicaid expansion in 2014). A difference-in-difference regression model is first used to compare states that did and did not expand Medicaid. A second difference-in-difference regression model is then used to compare states that did not expand Medicaid, states ...


The Effect Of Water And Sanitation Privatization On Child Mortality Rates In Guayaquil, Ecuador, Brian Lambert 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Effect Of Water And Sanitation Privatization On Child Mortality Rates In Guayaquil, Ecuador, Brian Lambert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A strong debate continues in economics over whether privatization of water and sanitation resources is beneficial in developing countries. This paper analyzes mortality and census data in the years 1990- 2010 from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Censuses to determine how the privatization of water and sanitation in Guayaquil, Ecuador has affected water-related mortality rates in the city. In this analysis, I conduct a difference-in-difference regression analysis with the under-three, under-five, and under-ten water-related mortality rate as my dependent variable, and the event of water privatization as my independent variable. In this investigation, I find that water privatization ...


The Relationship Between Commuting Habits And Mortality Rates In The United States, Samuel Earl Supplee-Niederman 2019 University of Montana

The Relationship Between Commuting Habits And Mortality Rates In The United States, Samuel Earl Supplee-Niederman

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In recent years, policy makers have invested in public transportation and infrastructure to promote walking and cycling to work. There is also a large body of economic research that has found mortality rates increase during economic expansions. While there has been a number of epidemiological studies that investigate the impact of commuting mode choice on individual health outcomes, there is a lack of research on the aggregate health effects of alternative transportation methods, such as biking, walking, or using public transportation. This paper uses a fixed-effect model to investigate the impact of an increase in total employment on mortality rates ...


Climate Change And Occupational Health: Are There Limits To Our Ability To Adapt?, Marcus Dillender 2019 W.E. Upjohn Institute

Climate Change And Occupational Health: Are There Limits To Our Ability To Adapt?, Marcus Dillender

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This study considers the relationship between temperature and occupational health. The results indicate that both high and low temperatures increase injury rates and that high temperatures have more severe adverse effects in warmer climates, which suggests that avoiding the adverse effects of high temperatures may be easier for workers when hot days are rarer. While research on the effect of temperature on mortality finds substantial capacity for adaption with current technology, the results presented here suggest that outdoor workers face challenges in adapting to high temperatures.


Monthly Spending Dynamics Of The Elderly Following A Health Shock: Evidence From Singapore, Terence CHENG, Li JING, Rhema VAITHIANATHAN 2019 University of Adelaide

Monthly Spending Dynamics Of The Elderly Following A Health Shock: Evidence From Singapore, Terence Cheng, Li Jing, Rhema Vaithianathan

Research Collection School Of Economics

We use novel longitudinal datafrom 19 monthly waves of the Singapore Life Panel to examine the short-termdynamics of the effects health shocks have on household health and non-healthspending and income by the elderly. The health shocks we study are theoccurrence of new major conditions such as cancer, heart problems, and minorconditions (e.g. diabetes, and hypertension). Our empirical strategy exploits unanticipated changesin health status through the diagnosis of new health conditions, combined withan individual fixed effect framework. We find that major shocks have large and persistent effects while minorshocks have small and mainly contemporaneous effects. We find that householdincome reduces ...


Sunshine, Fertility And Racial Disparities, Karen Smith Conway, Jennifer Trudeau 2019 University of New Hampshire

Sunshine, Fertility And Racial Disparities, Karen Smith Conway, Jennifer Trudeau

WCBT Faculty Publications

This research investigates the effect of sun exposure on fertility, with a special focus on how its effects and consequences for birth outcomes may differ by race. Sun exposure is a key mechanism for obtaining Vitamin D, but this process is inhibited by skin pigmentation. Vitamin D has been linked to male and female fertility and risk of miscarriage, and Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among blacks than whites. Using 1989–2004 individual live births data from the Natality Detail Files, county-level, monthly conceptions are estimated as a function of monthly solar insolation, temperature and humidity, as well as ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Certificate Of Need Law On Inpatient Occupancy Rates, Jomon Aliyas Paul, Huan Ni, Aniruddha Bagchi 2018 Selected Works

A Study Of The Effects Of Certificate Of Need Law On Inpatient Occupancy Rates, Jomon Aliyas Paul, Huan Ni, Aniruddha Bagchi

Aniruddha Bagchi

Increasing healthcare costs and the deterioration of healthcare quality have always been major concerns to policy makers in the United States, and Certificate of Need (CON) Law has been implemented as one way to curb wasteful healthcare resource use. Theoretically, CON can lead to a reduction in the number of beds as well as in the number of inpatient days (possibly by shortening the length of patient stay). However, these two effects impact inpatient occupancy rate in opposite directions. We test empirically to find out which of these two effects dominate. In this study, we investigate the impact of CON ...


Will Removing Rebates Really Lower Drug List Prices?, Stephanie Tran 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Will Removing Rebates Really Lower Drug List Prices?, Stephanie Tran

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

The Trump Administration Blueprint to Lower Drug Prices and Reduce Out-of-Pocket Costs calls for incentives to lower drug list prices, including removing rebates. Our clinical consultant Stephanie Tran continues our pharmacy blog series with an assessment of this potential change & its impacts.


New Aca Waiver Directives Signal Changes For State Health Insurance Marketplaces, Rachel Gershon, Catherine Torri 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

New Aca Waiver Directives Signal Changes For State Health Insurance Marketplaces, Rachel Gershon, Catherine Torri

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

New Trump Administrations Section 1332 waiver guidance increases state ACA flexibility. Rachel Gershon & Catie Torri discuss what this could mean for health care policy.


"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter 2018 Western University

"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter

Community Engaged Learning Final Projects

There are significant benefits that manifest when an individual chooses to ride a bicycle as their primary mode of transportation. To investigate these benefits, the environmental, health, economic, and social impacts of biking were evaluated through research and data analyses. This revealed that numerous advantages can be obtained at an individual and local scale through citizens choosing to adopt a biking lifestyle. However, it was found that many Londoners are deterred from biking due to poor biking infrastructure. This paper calls into question the current cycling framework in London and it’s limitations on achieving the numerous benefits that biking ...


Designing For Older Adults: Overcoming Barriers To A Supportive, Safe, And Healthy Retirement, Cosmin Munteanu, Benett Axtell, Hiba Rafih, Amna Liaqat, Yomna Aly 2018 University of Toronto Technologies for Ageing Gracefully Lab

Designing For Older Adults: Overcoming Barriers To A Supportive, Safe, And Healthy Retirement, Cosmin Munteanu, Benett Axtell, Hiba Rafih, Amna Liaqat, Yomna Aly

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Older adults (65+) are at increasing risk of being ‘digitally marginalized’ due to lower tech savviness, social isolation, and few peers who can provide the needed input. As a consequence, some seniors have difficulties and are exposed to security risks when accessing essential services which are increasingly moving online. These include making critical life decisions, understanding health information, accessing health services, staying connected to families, or simply doing online shopping. This chapter investigates how online technologies can be designed to be inclusive of older adults' needs, abilities, and contexts. Several barriers barring technology adoption include mental models; attitudes related to ...


Sources Of Health Financing And Health Outcomes: A Panel Data Analysis, Tomoki FUJII 2018 Singapore Management University

Sources Of Health Financing And Health Outcomes: A Panel Data Analysis, Tomoki Fujii

Research Collection School Of Economics

We study the differential impacts of public and private sources of health spending on health outcomes using a triple difference approach. We find that private health spending has on average a higher health-promoting effect than public health spending. This result is robust with respect to the choice of outcome measure and covariates in the regression and driven primarily by the countries with ineffective governments. Once we restrict our sample to countries with effective governments, private health spending is no better than public health spending for improving the health outcome.


The Aging Of A Young Nation: Population Aging In Singapore, Rahul MALHOTRA, Andre M. MULLER, Gerald Choon Huat KOH, Stephen James HOSKINS, Chunyan MIAO 2018 Singapore Management University

The Aging Of A Young Nation: Population Aging In Singapore, Rahul Malhotra, Andre M. Muller, Gerald Choon Huat Koh, Stephen James Hoskins, Chunyan Miao

Research Collection School Of Economics

The juxtaposition of a young city-state showing relative maturity as a rapidly aging society suffuses the population aging narrative in Singapore and places the “little red dot” on the spotlight of international aging. We first describe population aging in Singapore, including the characteristic events that shaped this demographic transition. We then detail the health care and socioeconomic ramifications of the rapid and significant shift to an aging society, followed by an overview of the main aging research areas in Singapore, including selected population-based data sets and the main thrust of leading aging research centers/institutes. After presenting established aging policies ...


Burning Waters To Crystal Springs? U.S. Water Pollution Regulation Over The Last Half Century, David A. Keiser, Joseph S. Shapiro 2018 Iowa State University

Burning Waters To Crystal Springs? U.S. Water Pollution Regulation Over The Last Half Century, David A. Keiser, Joseph S. Shapiro

Economics Working Papers

In the half century since the founding of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. has spent nearly $5 trillion ($2017) to provide cleaner rivers, lakes, and drinking water, or annual spending of 0.8 percent of U.S. GDP in most years. Yet over half of rivers and substantial shares of drinking water systems violate standards, and polls for decades have listed water pollution as Americans’ number one environmental concern. We assess the history, effectiveness, and efficiency of the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act, and obtain four main conclusions. First, water pollution has fallen ...


Better Negotiations Between Payers And Manufacturers In An Effort To Reduce Drug Prices, Mckenzie Taylor 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Better Negotiations Between Payers And Manufacturers In An Effort To Reduce Drug Prices, Mckenzie Taylor

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Mckenzie Taylor continues our monthly conversation on the strategies presented in The Trump Administration Blueprint to Low Drug Prices and Reduce Out-of-Pocket Costs, discussing the ways new negotiations between payers and manufacturers are helping to reduce drug prices.


Why Retirement Systems Should Consider Vocational Review, Jody Simpson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Why Retirement Systems Should Consider Vocational Review, Jody Simpson

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Whether the task is determining if a disability retirement applicant is prevented from performing their past public employment or whether they are able to adjust to other substantial work, administering disability benefit claims is a complex process that requires a sophisticated skill-set to ensure accurate and objective determinations. A critical component of that process is a comprehensive vocational assessment that determines a disability applicants vocational skills and abilities before a final recommendation is rendered.

Discover the value of vocational review and why it can be a critical part of the decision-making process.


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy 2018 University of New Mexico

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Accessibility And Health: An International Analysis Of Government Expenditure, Socioeconomic Development And Infant Mortality, Isaac Zvi Christiansen, Robert Mazur 2018 Midwestern State University

Accessibility And Health: An International Analysis Of Government Expenditure, Socioeconomic Development And Infant Mortality, Isaac Zvi Christiansen, Robert Mazur

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

This research examines the relationship between government’s share of health expenditures and infant mortality (IMR). Public healthcare funding is a critical component of ensuring access to care for the poor. Financial barriers may lead to postponement of care, thereby exacerbating health outcomes. We find a moderate association between the government’s share of health expenditures and IMR and strong support for a multifaceted approach to accessibility that includes doctor density, vaccination coverage, improved water and sanitation, and female literacy in reducing IMR. Findings suggest that the effect of government’s share of health spending on IMR is stronger in ...


Obesity: The Elephant In The Room We Can No Longer Afford To Ignore, Joanie Sompayrac, Katharine Linehart Trundle 2018 University of Tennessee - Chattanooga

Obesity: The Elephant In The Room We Can No Longer Afford To Ignore, Joanie Sompayrac, Katharine Linehart Trundle

Online Journal of Health Ethics

Everyone pays the price for the obesity-related illnesses of our fellow citizens – through increased premiums on our group health insurance policies, through reduced productivity of our co-workers, through taxpayer support of hospitals that provide indigent care and through soaring Medicare costs, to name a few. The fact that our entire society often ends up paying many of the costs for the obesity-related illnesses of not only ourselves but also our family members, our friends, our co-workers and even strangers raises questions: Why doesn’t insurance pay to help overweight and obese people to make lifestyle changes that could save us ...


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