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Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure For Home And Facility Based Delivery Among Rural Women In Zambia: A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study, Jeanette L. Kaiser, Kathleen L. McGlasson, Peter C. Rockers, Rachel M. Fong, Thandiwe Ngoma, Davidson H. Hamer, Taryn Vian, Godfrey Biemba, Jody R. Lori, Nancy A. Scott 2019 Boston University

Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure For Home And Facility Based Delivery Among Rural Women In Zambia: A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study, Jeanette L. Kaiser, Kathleen L. Mcglasson, Peter C. Rockers, Rachel M. Fong, Thandiwe Ngoma, Davidson H. Hamer, Taryn Vian, Godfrey Biemba, Jody R. Lori, Nancy A. Scott

Nursing and Health Professions Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose: Out-of-pocket expenses associated with facility-based delivery are a well-known barrier to health care access. However, there is extremely limited contemporary information on delivery-related household out-of-pocket expenditure in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the financial burden of delivery for the most remote Zambian women and compare differences between delivery locations (primary health center, hospital, or home).

Methods: We conducted household surveys and in-depth interviews among randomly selected remote Zambian women who delivered a baby within the last 13 months. Women reported expenditures for their most-recent delivery for delivery supplies, transportation, and baby clothes, among others. Expenditures were converted to US dollars ...


Preferred Pharmacy Networks: Health Care Savings On The Margins, Ashley Swanson 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Preferred Pharmacy Networks: Health Care Savings On The Margins, Ashley Swanson

Wharton Public Policy Initiative

While policymakers have talked a lot recently about finding a comprehensive fix for escalating health care costs, such as Medicare-for-all, many economists have been exploring the possibility that the answer for excessive health care spending may rest instead in series of smaller adjustments. This issue brief presents research on one such small fix: preferred pharmacy networks. This is a relatively new tool whereby health insurers aim to steer consumers to lower cost “preferred” pharmacies, where insurers are able to negotiate lower drug prices. The research concludes that preferred pharmacy contracting results in a roughly 1 percent decrease in Medicare Part ...


Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The last several decades of health law and policy have been built on a foundation of economic theory. This theory supported the proliferation of market-based policies that promised maximum efficiency and minimal bureaucracy. Neither of these promises has been realized. A mounting body of empirical research discussed in this Article makes clear that leading market-based policies are not efficient — they fail to capture what people want. Even more, this Article describes how the struggle to bolster these policies — through constant regulatory, technocratic tinkering that aims to improve the market and the decision-making of consumers in it — has produced a massive ...


The Effect Of Disability Status On Parental Input: A Study From India, Susann Skjoldhorne 2019 The University of San Francisco

The Effect Of Disability Status On Parental Input: A Study From India, Susann Skjoldhorne

Master's Theses

Human capital has for a long time been an important factor in economic growth theory. Previous literature shows a strong connection between parental input and the level of human capital attained by a child. The investment in child health and education has a positive effect on building human capital. When resources are scarce the allocation of resources will affect the opportunities that a child is given to achieve their potential. Gender preferences, birth order, and disabilities could all be factors that explain how parents chose to allocate their resources. Previous studies show that the distribution of parental input based on ...


The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid 2019 The University of San Francisco

The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid

Master's Theses

Cleft Lip/Palate, a congenital orofacial anomaly, carries an incidence rate of approximately 1 in every 1000 births. In addition to the stigma associated with the condition, the varying levels of cleft severity might result in lower life outcomes which could include lower cognitive ability, physical and psychological well-being, social and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. This paper focuses on the social integration element of life outcomes, which is composed of the social inclusion and prosocial behavior of the adolescent. Despite the affordability of restorative surgeries, patients in rural areas of Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) such as India face accessibility ...


Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar 2019 The University of San Francisco

Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar

Master's Theses

The influence of hormones and biology on behavior is a topic that is rife with controversy, especially when it comes to sexual hormones. There is even more murkiness when it comes to the topic of menstruation and knowledge about women’s menstrual cycles. Recent research on this topic have seen a link between the hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and various behavioral implications on competition, cooperation, and risk behavior. This study tries to expand existing knowledge by examining whether there is a link between hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and risk preferential behavior using economic experiments in the largely understudied ...


A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle 2019 Iowa State University

A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle

Economics Working Papers

When the running variable in a regression discontinuity (RD) design is measured with error, identification of the local average treatment effect of interest will typically fail. While the form of this measurement error varies across applications, in many cases the measurement error structure is heterogeneous across different groups of observations. We develop a novel measurement error correction procedure capable of addressing heterogeneous mismeasurement structures by leveraging auxiliary information. We also provide adjusted asymptotic variance and standard errors that take into consideration the variability introduced by the estimation of nuisance parameters, and honest confidence intervals that account for potential misspecification. Simulations ...


The Economics Of Weight Loss, Shivani Pandey 2019 Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

The Economics Of Weight Loss, Shivani Pandey

Undergraduate Economic Review

Obesity is now being considered one of the biggest health concerns globally. Ironically, while India records the largest no. of underweight population in the world along with China, it has also been placed in the top five countries in terms of obesity as per a new study by the Lancet Journal. Obesity entails various direct and indirect costs in terms of lower productivity and higher medical expenditure and has the potential to lower economic growth. This paper analyses the need for strengthening government regulations in the weight loss industry. After analyzing the causes of obesity and its negative effects on ...


Impacts Of Contraception On Women’S Decision-Making Agency In Indonesia, Michaela J. Fogarty 2019 Elon University

Impacts Of Contraception On Women’S Decision-Making Agency In Indonesia, Michaela J. Fogarty

Undergraduate Economic Review

Increasing access to contraception has the potential to empower women and improve the economic standing of families across the globe. Many researchers have explored the impacts of contraception on families and the determinants of women’s level of empowerment, but little scholarship exists on their direct relationship. This paper explores the impacts of contraceptive use on women’s empowerment, measured by a sum of women’s household decision-making agency. Panel data from three rounds of the Indonesian Family Life Survey is used to run multiple regressions with household fixed effects. Results suggest that women who use contraception have input on ...


The Impact Of Step Parenting On The Health, Behavior And Development Of School-Aged Children, Emmanuel Botwe 2019 CUNY Hunter College

The Impact Of Step Parenting On The Health, Behavior And Development Of School-Aged Children, Emmanuel Botwe

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The American family structure has changed rapidly over the years, from the traditional two-biological-parent household to a variety of other family configurations, leading to a substantial number of children growing up in step-families. This paper examines the impact of step-parenting on child health outcomes among school-aged children.


An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Leading Pedestrian Interval Signals In Nyc, Jeremy J. Sze 2019 CUNY Hunter College

An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Leading Pedestrian Interval Signals In Nyc, Jeremy J. Sze

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

I evaluated the impact of the phased introduction of Leading Pedestrian Interval Signals (LPIs) on collision and injury outcomes at 12,987 signalized traffic intersections in New York City over the course of 25 quarters from 2012 to 2018. An intersection is treated when a LPIs is installed to give pedestrians lead time to cross the street before vehicles are allowed to move. Outcomes from NYPD’s Motor Vehicle Collisions data were matched to signalized intersections. I hypothesize that LPIs would reduce collisions and reduce injuries for pedestrians at intersections. A difference in difference fixed effects panel regression was used ...


The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Breast And Cervical Cancer Screening Rates On Low-Income Childless Women, Michelle Raissa Kobou Wafo 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Breast And Cervical Cancer Screening Rates On Low-Income Childless Women, Michelle Raissa Kobou Wafo

Economics

In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) commonly known as Obamacare. However, it is in 2014 that several key parts of the ACA went into effect. Among those key parts is the Medicaid expansion program. States that chose to adopt the policy, expanded Medicaid access to everyone under 138 percent of the federal poverty line. This extension had the largest impact on childless adults who previously were not covered by the program. Moreover, ACA made it mandatory for all health plans (private and public) to include the ten essential health benefits in their ...


Differences In Tsimane Children’S Growth Outcomes And Associated Determinants As Estimated By Who Standards Vs. Within-Population References, Melanie Martin, Aaron Blackwell, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven 2019 University of California, Santa Barbara

Differences In Tsimane Children’S Growth Outcomes And Associated Determinants As Estimated By Who Standards Vs. Within-Population References, Melanie Martin, Aaron Blackwell, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Anthropometric measures are commonly converted to age stratified z-scores to examine variation in growth outcomes in mixed-age and sex samples. For many study populations, z-scores will differ if calculated from World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards or within-population references. The specific growth reference used may influence statistical estimates of growth outcomes and their determinants, with implications for biological inference. We examined factors associated with growth outcomes in a sample of 152 Tsimane children aged 0–36 months. The Tsimane are a subsistence-scale population in the Bolivian Amazon with high rates of infectious disease and growth faltering. To examine the influence ...


Financial Adjustment And Couple Resilience In The Great Recession, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Bryce L. Jorgensen, Jeremy B. Yorgason 2019 Iowa State University

Financial Adjustment And Couple Resilience In The Great Recession, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Bryce L. Jorgensen, Jeremy B. Yorgason

Clinton G. Gudmunson

This study examines economic and family implications of financial stressors and changes that couples experienced in the aftermath of the Great Recession as guided by Patterson’s (2002) Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR) model. The sample consisted of a primarily middle-income group of 277 married and cohabiting couples; the couples were surveyed between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Flourishing Families Project. Findings from our path analysis showed that financial adjustments (e.g. cutting back on social activities and entertainment) in response to recession-era negative economic events were the source of economic pressure and couple relationship problems regarding ...


Family Postponement Of Medical And Dental Care: The Influence Of Income Level And Financial Hardship, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson 2019 Iowa State University

Family Postponement Of Medical And Dental Care: The Influence Of Income Level And Financial Hardship, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson

Clinton G. Gudmunson

Medical and dental care are some of the most expensive expenditures that consumers incur, and they are also some of the most common expenses that families postpone (Gallup, 2015; Kaiser, 2012). The goal of the present is to examine family and financial factors that influence families’ likelihood of delaying healthcare in a predominantly middle and upper income sample. A large body of research framed by the Family Stress Model has used the postponement of healthcare as one of many indicators of family economic pressure that together predict deleterious relationship and developmental outcomes (Gauthier & Furstenberg, 2010). However, only a handful of ...


Ecological Determinants Of Respiratory Health: Examining Associations Between Asthma Emergency Department Visits, Diesel Particulate Matter, And Public Parks And Open Space In Los Angeles, California, Jason A. Douglas, Reginald S. Archer, Serena E. Alexander 2019 Chapman University

Ecological Determinants Of Respiratory Health: Examining Associations Between Asthma Emergency Department Visits, Diesel Particulate Matter, And Public Parks And Open Space In Los Angeles, California, Jason A. Douglas, Reginald S. Archer, Serena E. Alexander

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Los Angeles County (LAC) low-income communities of color experience uneven asthma rates, evidenced by asthma emergency department visits (AEDV). This has partly been attributed to inequitable exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM). Promisingly, public parks and open space (PPOS) contribute to DPM mitigation. However, low-income communities of color with limited access to PPOS may be deprived of associated public health benefits. Therefore, this novel study investigates the AEDV, DPM, PPOS nexus to address this public health dilemma and inform public policy in at-risk communities. Optimized Hotspot Analysis was used to examine geographic clustering of AEDVs, DPM, and PPOS at the ...


The Economic Impact Of The Health Sector On The Economy Of Appanoose County, Iowa, Daniel Otto, Georgeanne Artz 2019 Iowa State University

The Economic Impact Of The Health Sector On The Economy Of Appanoose County, Iowa, Daniel Otto, Georgeanne Artz

Economics Working Papers

The importance of medical and health facilities as community service providers is well

established, yet their role in generating significant economic impacts for the community is less often acknowledged. Health care facilities, such as hospitals and nursing homes, not only employ many people with a sizeable payroll, but also draw a large number of people from rural areas into the community for medical services. In this study, we attempt to identify and measure the economic importance of the health sector for the economy of Appanoose County, Iowa. The specific objectives of this report are to:

1. summarize the direct economic ...


Effects Of Physician-Hospital Integration On Malpractice Claims, Elizabet Shvets 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Effects Of Physician-Hospital Integration On Malpractice Claims, Elizabet Shvets

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Recent increases in physician-hospital (i.e., vertical) integration has spurred both opposition on the grounds of anti-trust concerns and support on the basis of lowering transaction costs and improving communication. This paper examines the effects of vertical integration on quality of care as measured by malpractice claims.The study employs four data sets from the state of Florida (FL AHCA Financial Data, AHA Survey Data, FL AHCA Discharge Data, and FL Malpractice Claims from the Office of Insurance Regulation) culminating in an unbalanced panel dataset for the years 1998 to 2013. I utilize a linear model with hospital and year ...


The Effect Of The Dependent Coverage Provision Of The Affordable Care Act On Opioid Use And Abuse, Christian Carrillo 2019 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of The Dependent Coverage Provision Of The Affordable Care Act On Opioid Use And Abuse, Christian Carrillo

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The non-medical use of prescription opioids has become the fastest growing drug problem in the United States. This paper examines the effect of the ACA's dependent coverage provision on the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse and abuse along with the mechanism driving the results.


The Impact Of Legalization Of Marijuana On Opioid Overdose Deaths, Radhika N. Bharadwaj 2019 CUNY Hunter College

The Impact Of Legalization Of Marijuana On Opioid Overdose Deaths, Radhika N. Bharadwaj

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This masters’ thesis aims to examine the impact of the legalization of marijuana for recreational use on the death toll from opioid misuse in the state of Colorado. This investigation was done using the Synthetic Controls Method via data collected primarily from the CDC and IPUMS databases. The results indicate that the 2012 legalization policy in Colorado appears to reduce the number of deaths due to opioid overdoses.


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