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Una Interpretación Sectorial-Estructural Del Bajo Crecimiento En México, Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez, Cuauhtémoc Calderón 2010 Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez

Una Interpretación Sectorial-Estructural Del Bajo Crecimiento En México, Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez, Cuauhtémoc Calderón

Isaac Sánchez-Juárez

Desde 1982 la economía mexicana se ha caracterizado por la presencia de bajas tasas de crecimiento económico, lo que ha deteriorado los niveles de bienestar. Siguiendo la concepción kaldoriana del desarrollo, se supone que el proceso de estancamiento que sufre el país, especialmente en los últimos años, se explica por la falta de dinamismo del sector manufacturero nacional. En este artículo se exhibe el proceso de estancamiento económico y se demuestra su correlación estadística, por medio de un test de causalidad de Granger, con la insuficiencia dinámica manufacturera. Lo que sugiere corregir la actual política económica y aplicar una nueva ...


Interlinked Factor Markets And Allocative Efficiency: A Case Study In Rural West Bengal, India, Dr. Arindam Laha, Dr.Pravat Kumar Kuri 2010 The University of Burdwan

Interlinked Factor Markets And Allocative Efficiency: A Case Study In Rural West Bengal, India, Dr. Arindam Laha, Dr.Pravat Kumar Kuri

Dr. Arindam Laha

The issue of the implication of interlinkage of factor markets on the allocative efficiency level of the farm households deserves a special attention in the light of the controversy among two distinct schools of thought: the Neoclassical and the Marxist. An attempt has been made in the paper to measure allocative and cost efficiencies of the interlinked holding vis-à-vis a comparable group of non-interlinked holding in the framework of Data Envelopment Analysis. Empirical evidence establishes the Neo-Classical proposition that interlinked factor markets can be considered as one of the “efficiency improving institutional change” in rural agrarian economy.


Spesa Innovativa, Impatto Dell’Innovazione E Profitti Nelle Imprese Italiane, Francesco Bogliacino, Matteo Lucchese, Leopoldo Nascia, Mario Pianta 2010 University of Amsterdam

Spesa Innovativa, Impatto Dell’Innovazione E Profitti Nelle Imprese Italiane, Francesco Bogliacino, Matteo Lucchese, Leopoldo Nascia, Mario Pianta

Mario Pianta

La capacità delle imprese di trasformare la spesa innovativa in innovazioni di successo; la capacità delle innovazioni di condurre a profitti “schumpeteriani”; l’impegno delle imprese a reinvestire tali profitti in nuova R&S e spese innovative sono tre relazioni chiave analizzate in questo lavoro con un modello a tre equazioni, applicato al panel di imprese italiane in cui sono integrati dati tratti dai conti delle imprese e dalle indagini sull’innovazione e R&S relativi al periodo 1998-2007. Il lavoro verifica la presenza di un “circolo virtuoso” tra spesa innovativa, fatturato dovuto all’innovazione e profitti nelle imprese manifatturiere italiane che sono “innovatrici persistenti”, che hanno cioè introdotto innovazioni nelle tre rilevazioni relative al 1998-2000, 2002-2004, 2006. La spesa innovativa per ora lavorata delle imprese risulta legata a quella del periodo precedente, confermando la cumulatività dello sforzo innovativo, ai profitti per ora lavorata, destinati a finanziarlo, e ai salari per ora lavorata, che riflettono la qualificazione e le competenze dei lavoratori necessarie per l’innovazione. Il risultato dell’impegno innovativo è documentato dal fatturato (per ora lavorata) dovuto a nuovi prodotti, sia per l’impresa che per il mercato; le determinanti di tale variabile sono la spesa innovativa, il livello dei salari – con un effetto negativo – e il rilievo delle esportazioni, che riflettono la dinamica della domanda. I profitti per ora lavorata - ma anche la variazione media annua dei profitti – sono funzione del fatturato innovativo, della produttività del lavoro e dei livelli salariali, nuovamente con un segno negativo che riflette il conflitto distributivo tra salari e ...


Un Programma Per L'Economia, Mario Pianta 2010 Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo

Un Programma Per L'Economia, Mario Pianta

Mario Pianta

No abstract provided.


Innovation And Development. The Evidence From Innovation Surveys, Francesco Bogliacino, Giulio Perani, Mario Pianta, Stefano Supino 2010 University of Amsterdam

Innovation And Development. The Evidence From Innovation Surveys, Francesco Bogliacino, Giulio Perani, Mario Pianta, Stefano Supino

Mario Pianta

In this article we investigate the existing evidence on innovation produced by innovation surveys in developing and emerging countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. We review the literature, discuss methodological issues, and analyse the results for the countries with the most comparable surveys, considering the well established findings of innovation surveys for Europe as a benchmark. From the evidence we considered, regional patterns are identified and some stylized facts on innovation and development are proposed, pointing out the specificity of innovation processes in economies engaged in industrialisation and catching-up.


Engines Of Growth. Innovation And Productivity In Industry Groups, Mario Pianta, Francesco Bogliacino 2010 Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo

Engines Of Growth. Innovation And Productivity In Industry Groups, Mario Pianta, Francesco Bogliacino

Mario Pianta

The diversity of technological activities that contribute to growth in labour productivity is examined in this article for manufacturing and services industries in eight major EU countries. We test the relevance of two “engines of growth”, i.e., the strategies of technological competitiveness (based on innovation in products and markets) and cost competitiveness (relying on innovation in processes and machinery) and their impact on economic performance. We propose models for the determinants of changes in labour productivity and we carry out empirical tests for both the whole economy and for the four Revised Pavitt classes that group manufacturing and services ...


How Does Size Matter? Investigating The Relationships Among Plant Size, Industrial Structure, And Manufacturing Productivity., Joshua Drucker 2010 University of Illinois at Chicago

How Does Size Matter? Investigating The Relationships Among Plant Size, Industrial Structure, And Manufacturing Productivity., Joshua Drucker

Joshua Drucker

Industrial concentration and market power have been studied extensively at the national scale, in fields ranging from economics and industrial organization to regional science and economic development. At the regional scale, however, industrial structure and firm size relationships have received little attention outside of non-generalizable case studies, primarily because accurate measurements require difficult-to-obtain plant- or firm-level information. Readily available secondary data sources on establishment size distributions (such as County Business Patterns or the Census of Manufactures) cannot be linked to performance information for particular establishments or firms. Yet region-specific industrial structure may be a crucial determinant of firm performance and ...


Beyond Competing Theories Of The Hidden Economy, Colin C. Williams 2010 University of Sheffield

Beyond Competing Theories Of The Hidden Economy, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Purpose – This paper aims to evaluate critically the validity of rival theorisations of the hidden economy that variously read this sphere as a leftover from a previous era, a by-product of a new emergent form of capitalism, a complement to formal employment or an alternative to the formal economy. Until now, the common tendency among economic theorists has been to either universally privilege one theorisation over others, or to represent each theory as valid in different places. Design/methodology/approach – To evaluate their validity to the city of Moscow, a survey is reported involving 313 face-to-face interviews with inhabitants conducted ...


Evaluating The Nature Of The Relationship Between Informal Entrepreneurship And The Formal Economy In Rural Communities, Colin C. Williams 2010 University of Sheffield

Evaluating The Nature Of The Relationship Between Informal Entrepreneurship And The Formal Economy In Rural Communities, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This paper evaluates critically the different theorizations of the nature of the relationship between informal entrepreneurship and the formal economy, which variously depict informal entrepreneurship as a leftover from a previous era, a survival practice for those excluded from the formal economy, and a complement or an alternative to participation in the formal economy. Reporting evidence from 350 face-to-face interviews in English rural communities, no single theorization is found to be universally applicable. Instead, all are shown to be valid in relation to different forms of informal entrepreneurship, and only by combining them is it feasible to achieve a finer-grained ...


The Illusion Of Capitalism In Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study Of The Gambia, Colin C. Williams 2010 University of Sheffield

The Illusion Of Capitalism In Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study Of The Gambia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Purpose – This paper aims to evaluate critically the meta-narrative that there is no alternative to capitalism. Building upon an emerging body of post-structuralist thought that has begun deconstructing this discourse in relation to western economies and post-Soviet societies, this paper further extends this critique to Sub-Saharan Africa by investigating the degree to which people in the Gambia rely on the capitalist market economy for their livelihood. Reporting the results of 80 household face-to-face interviews (involving over 500 people), the finding is that only a small minority of households in contemporary Gambian society rely on the formal market economy alone to ...


Rethinking The Nature Of Community Economies: Some Lessons From Post-Soviet Ukraine, Colin C. Williams 2010 University of Sheffield

Rethinking The Nature Of Community Economies: Some Lessons From Post-Soviet Ukraine, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This paper contributes to a small but growing body of thought that has questioned the hegemony of capitalism by revealing the persistence of multifarious economic practices in everyday community economies. To further advance this school of thought, first, a conceptual framework is developed to map the diverse economic practices used by communities and second, this is applied through a survey of 600 households in Ukraine. The outcome is to reveal that just as multifarious economic practices prevailed under state socialism, the same applies in societies in transition to capitalism, suggesting that there are alternative futures for community economies beyond market ...


Women Entrepreneurs In The Indian Informal Sector, Colin C. Williams 2010 University of Sheffield

Women Entrepreneurs In The Indian Informal Sector, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Purpose – Studies on women entrepreneurs either view women through a structuralist lens, as marginalised populations engaged in low-quality work, or through a neo-liberal lens, as engaged in relatively higher quality endeavour more as a rational choice. The aim of this paper is to evaluate critically these explanations in relation to women entrepreneurs in the informal sector in India. Design/methodology/approach – To evaluate the contrasting explanations of structuralist and new liberal approaches, questionnaire surveys were conducted in two phases, namely 2007 and 2010, over a period of several months. The sample design was stratified random and the sample was taken ...


Does Financial Development Reduce Corruption?, John Thornton, Yener Altunbas 2010 University of Wales, Bangor

Does Financial Development Reduce Corruption?, John Thornton, Yener Altunbas

John Thornton

We estimate the impact of bank credit to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country’s legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. We find that bank credit to the private sector reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for many different controls.


Post-Crisis Financial Reform: Where Do We Stand?, John Thornton, Alessandro Giustiniani 2010 International Monetary Fund

Post-Crisis Financial Reform: Where Do We Stand?, John Thornton, Alessandro Giustiniani

John Thornton

The financial reform agenda is broad, ranging from strengthening prudential regulation; to enhancing supervision; from mitigating pro-cyclicality to integrating micro- and macro-prudential oversight; from reducing the systemic risk associated with large and complex financial institutions to expanding resolution process and fortifying financial market structure. Reforms are proceeding slowly but important building blocks have been laid down, such as Basel III; other difficult reforms are in the making, such as the resolution framework for cross-border financial institutions or how to deal with systemically important financial institutions. This paper presents an analytical survey of recent developments.


The Intertemporal Relation Between Government Revenue And Expenditure In The United Kingdom, 1750 To 2004, John Thornton, Lusine Lusinyan 2010 International Monetary Fund

The Intertemporal Relation Between Government Revenue And Expenditure In The United Kingdom, 1750 To 2004, John Thornton, Lusine Lusinyan

John Thornton

We examine the intertemporal relation between government revenue and expenditure in the UK during 1750 to 2004. We pay particular attention to long run trends by applying a battery of unit root and cointegration techniques to the data, and we use a modified Granger causality test on data spans organized around structural breaks in the series. The results suggest that, allowing for structural breaks, UK real revenue and spending are I(1) series and cointegrated and that Granger causality runs from government spending to revenue. As such, the ‘spend-tax’ hypothesis appears to best characterize the long run intertemporal relation between ...


Domestic Violence And Women's Autonomy: Evidence From India, Mukesh Eswaran, Nisha Malhotra 2010 University of British Columbia

Domestic Violence And Women's Autonomy: Evidence From India, Mukesh Eswaran, Nisha Malhotra

Nisha Malhotra

This paper sets out a simple non-cooperative model of resource allocation within the household in developing countries that incorporates domestic violence as an instrument for enhancing bargaining power. We demonstrate that the extent of domestic violence faced by women is not necessarily declining in their reservation utilities, nor necessarily increasing in their spouses’. Using the National Family Health Survey data of India for 1998-99, we isolate the e¤ect of domestic violence on female autonomy, taking into account the possible two-way causality through the choice of appropriate instruments. We provide some evidence for the evolutionary theory of domestic violence, which ...


Strengthening Greater Manchester's Economic Base Through Science, Innovation And Research And Development: Report Of Panel, Manchester Developmental Panel 2010 Selected Works

Strengthening Greater Manchester's Economic Base Through Science, Innovation And Research And Development: Report Of Panel, Manchester Developmental Panel

Martin Wain

This report offers the findings and conclusions of the Developmental Panel, which visited Greater Manchester at the invitation of the Commission for the New Economy and the Northern Way. The Panel’s goal was to inform thinking about how Greater Manchester can strengthen its economic base through science, innovation, and research and development in a context of economic and structural change. The Panel visited Manchester on February 23rd and 24th, 2011, meeting with representatives of public, private, university, community and other organisations engaged in innovation, business, and economic development in Greater Manchester. The Panel is grateful for the time and ...


Determination Of Import Demand In Pakistan: The Role Of Expenditure Components, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Zahid Pervaiz, Amatul R. Chaudhary 2010 National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore

Determination Of Import Demand In Pakistan: The Role Of Expenditure Components, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Zahid Pervaiz, Amatul R. Chaudhary

Muhammad Irfan Chani

The paper uses imperfect substitution approach to derive the aggregate import demand function on the basis of disaggregated expenditure components. This derived import demand function is then empirically tested for Pakistan by using co-integration and error correction mechanism. The empirical results show that elasticity of import demand with respect to different macro components of final expenditure is different. The import demand in Pakistan is affected positively and significantly by all expenditure components. The relative prices have negative but insignificant relationship with import demand in Pakistan. The findings indicate that use of aggregate expenditure variable in the aggregate import demand function ...


Poverty, Inflation And Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence From Pakistan, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Zahid Pervaiz, Sajjad Ahmad Jan, Amjad Ali, Amatul R. Chaudhary 2010 National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore

Poverty, Inflation And Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence From Pakistan, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Zahid Pervaiz, Sajjad Ahmad Jan, Amjad Ali, Amatul R. Chaudhary

Muhammad Irfan Chani

This study aims to investigate the role of economic growth and inflation in explaining the prevalence of poverty in Pakistan. ARDL bound testing approach to co-integration confirms the existence of long run relationship among the variables of poverty, economic growth, inflation, investment and trade openness over the period of 1972-2008. Empirical results show that economic growth and investment have negative and inflation has positive impact on poverty. The effect of trade openness on poverty is insignificant in this study. The short run analysis reveals that economic growth has negative and inflation has positive impact on poverty whereas the role of ...


Financial Crises And Economic Growth In Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis, Rauf -I- Azam, Iram Batool, Rabia Imran, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Ahmed Imran Hunjra, Javed Mahmood Jasra 2010 National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore

Financial Crises And Economic Growth In Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis, Rauf -I- Azam, Iram Batool, Rabia Imran, Muhammad Irfan Chani, Ahmed Imran Hunjra, Javed Mahmood Jasra

Muhammad Irfan Chani

The purpose of this research is to investigate causal relationship between economic growth and major indicators of financial crisis -- inflation rate, interest rate and the volume of foreign debt-- in Pakistan. This study also highlights the stability of the relationship between indicators of financial crisis and economic growth. The annual time series data ranging from 1972 to 2010 is used for the analysis. Johansen's co-integration test is used to check the stability of long nm equilibrium relationship between the variables used in the study. The results indicate that is long nm stable equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the ...


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