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How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner 2018 University of Hohenheim

How To Create Conducive Institutions To Enable Agricultural Mechanization: A Comparative Historical Study From The United States And Germany, Thomas Daum, Wallace E. Huffman, Regina Birner

Economics Working Papers

Agricultural mechanization is now high on the policy agenda of many developing countries. History has shown that successful mechanization depends on an enabling environment providing various supporting functions, for example, knowledge and skills development and quality assurance. This paper analyses how this enabling environment was created during the mechanization history of two today’s mechanized countries, the United States and Germany, thereby distilling lessons for today’s mechanizing countries. The paper highlights the different roles played by government agencies (public sector), manufacturers of agricultural machinery (private sector) and farmers’ organizations (third sector) for the creation of this enabling environment. The ...


Extraordinary Episodes Of Ancient Money, Francis Louis Kailey 2018 Union College

Extraordinary Episodes Of Ancient Money, Francis Louis Kailey

Honors Theses

The spread of coins, which occurred throughout the archaic and classical periods of Greece, was a foundational advancement toward forms of the modern economy. Modern theory has sought to explain the invention of coins with a variety of narratives. Generally, these narratives fall into two broad categories: market-driven monetization or state-driven monetization. On the one hand, some theory argues that coins developed from reducing private transaction costs. On the other hand, some theorists argue that the state benefitted from reductions in administrative costs from the use of coins and therefore undertook the cost of minting them. This thesis problematizes these ...


Fair Division With Uncertain Needs, Jingyi XUE 2018 Singapore Management University

Fair Division With Uncertain Needs, Jingyi Xue

Research Collection School Of Economics

Imagine agents having uncertain needs for a resource when the resource has to be divided before uncertainty resolves. In this situation, waste occurs when an agent's assignment turns out to exceed his realized need. How should the resource be divided in the face of possible waste? This is a question out of the scope of the existing rationing literature. Our main axiom to address the issue is no domination. It requires that no agent receive more of the resource than another while producing a larger expected waste, unless the other agent has been fully compensated. Together with conditional strict ...


The Economic Impacts Of A U.S. Withdrawal From Nafta: A Cge Analysis, Jonathan Liu 2018 University of Toronto Schools

The Economic Impacts Of A U.S. Withdrawal From Nafta: A Cge Analysis, Jonathan Liu

Undergraduate Economic Review

The aim of this study is to examine the economic impacts of a U.S. withdrawal from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Canada, Mexico and the United States. The shocks simulate scenarios in which the U.S instates penalizing tariff rates on NAFTA countries, a trade war between NAFTA members and a tariff reset to the WTO MFN rates. The effects of these tariff structures are analyzed under the framework of a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with a focus on macroeconomic variables and welfare. The findings show that, in all iterations, Mexico’s economy takes a ...


Patriarchal Norms, Bargaining, And Gendered Attitudes On Intimate Partner Violence, Anna Eckenrode 2018 The University of San Francisco

Patriarchal Norms, Bargaining, And Gendered Attitudes On Intimate Partner Violence, Anna Eckenrode

Master's Theses

How do the underlying mechanisms of social norms and bargaining power relate to the acceptance of intimate partner violence within households? How do short run and long run determinants of gender norms affect attitudes toward IPV? This study begins to decompose the dynamics of the acceptance of IPV within couples using data from the Demographic Health Survey, as well as examine the relationship in the context of patriarchal societies using data from the Ethnographic Atlas. I find that females are more accepting than males of intimate partner violence, and females becoming more educated is associated with her being less accepting ...


Preemption Through Non-Disclosure, Jing Li, Tingjung Liu, Ran Zhao 2018 University of Hong Kong

Preemption Through Non-Disclosure, Jing Li, Tingjung Liu, Ran Zhao

Accounting Faculty Articles and Research

An informed bidder can voluntarily disclose his private information on the value of an auctioned asset to rival bidders and the seller. We examine the informed bidder's optimal disclosure policy and the resulting consequences on the seller's payoff. We show that the informed bidder strategically withholds information to create a winner's curse for rival bidders, which has a preemptive effect on the rival's participation. Taking into account this strategic response, we show that increased competition among bidders may reduce the seller's payoff, a surprising result that is contrary to the common belief that bidder competition ...


Essays On Economic Growth, Minhyeon Jeong 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Essays On Economic Growth, Minhyeon Jeong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation investigates how economic growth is determined in the long run. To do this, I focus mainly on culture and institutions as fundamental growth factors and develop a general theoretical framework in which culture, institutions and growth are all endogenously determined. Using the framework, I highlight the crucial role of interaction between culture and institutions in the long-term growth.

Chapter 1. Endogenous Financial Friction and Growth

The first chapter investigates the role financial frictions play in economic growth. Most existing studies consider an exogenous form of borrowing constraint, the tightness of which is arbitrarily fixed at a certain value ...


Behaviors And Perceptions Of Environmental Decision Making: The Role Of Information Dissemination Through Public Disclosures And Labels, Jordan R. Anthony 2018 University of Maine

Behaviors And Perceptions Of Environmental Decision Making: The Role Of Information Dissemination Through Public Disclosures And Labels, Jordan R. Anthony

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Environmental decision making may be influenced by information and how this information has been disseminated. By recognizing that information needs to be salient to the individual (Cash et al., 2003, 2006), tailored and framed to the individual (Pelletier & Sharp, 2008), and recognizing that the information must be presented in a way that the individual is ready and able to accept the information (Teisl, Rubin, & Noblet, 2008) all serve as a means to improve the effect information has on environmental decision making. Through this work, two studies of contextual examples of how information dissemination affects environmental decision making are presented.

The first study seeks to learn about how safety information disclosures affect the perception of risk. Coastal water quality may be threatened by natural and human process; it is important to understand how coastal water users perceive the risk to human health associated with these threats (Hlavsa et al., 2011; Lewis & Miller, 2016). I use data collected by the New England Sustainability Consortium’s Safe Beaches & Shellfish Project 2015 mail survey conducted in Maine and New Hampshire on coastal residents (Fox et al., 2017). I investigate how information through public disclosures at either beaches or shellfish harvesting areas influence risk perceptions associated with entering the water (or eating shellfish) under an advisory or closure. Further, we test to see if the frames of marine environment or public health may be more appropriate to communicate information to the public and how it influences risk perception. The findings suggest that disclosures of poor coastal water quality at these areas do not influence risk perception nor do specific messages appear to alter risk perceptions.

The second study seeks to better understand consumer information seeking behavior and use of product labels for aquaculture products and how these behaviors change when the heterogeneity in preferences is considered. Despite aquaculture’s stance as a rapidly growing sustainable food technology, public opinion about aquaculture is still relatively unformed (Murray et al., 2017). Labeling of aquaculture products is an opportunity to provide information that is salient and messages that bridge the gap between the individual and the information presented on labels at the time of purchase (Cash et al., 2003, 2006; Pelletier & Sharp, 2008; Teisl et al., 2008). We use data from a 2017 national survey collected by the Sustainable Ecological Aquaculture Network Human Dimensions Team to capture behaviors and perceptions of aquaculture. To approach our unique problem, audience segmentation methods ...


Karl Marx And Liberation Theology: Dialectical Materialism And Christian Spirituality In, Against, And Beyond Contemporary Capitalism, Peter McLaren, Petar Jandrić 2018 Chapman University

Karl Marx And Liberation Theology: Dialectical Materialism And Christian Spirituality In, Against, And Beyond Contemporary Capitalism, Peter Mclaren, Petar Jandrić

Education Faculty Articles and Research

This paper explores convergences and discrepancies between liberation theology and the works of Karl Marx through the dialogue between one of the key contemporary proponents of liberation theology, Peter McLaren, and the agnostic scholar in critical pedagogy, Petar Jandrić. The paper briefly outlines liberation theology and its main convergences with the works of Karl Marx. Exposing striking similarities between the two traditions in denouncing the false God of money, it explores differences in their views towards individualism and collectivism. It rejects shallow rhetorical homologies between Marx and the Bible often found in liberation theology, and suggests a change of focus ...


Of China, India And A Tempered Global Economic Outlook, Simon Baptist, Alvin LEE 2018 Singapore Management University

Of China, India And A Tempered Global Economic Outlook, Simon Baptist, Alvin Lee

Asian Management Insights

Global Chief Economist of The Economist Intelligence Unit, Simon Baptist, discusses trends that are likely to shape the future global economic outlook, in this interview with Alvin Lee.


A Martin Luther King Jr. Amendment To The U.S. Constitution: Toward The Abolition Of Poverty, Theodore Walker 2018 Southern Methodist University

A Martin Luther King Jr. Amendment To The U.S. Constitution: Toward The Abolition Of Poverty, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. prescribed that we add an economic bill of rights to the U.S. Constitution. A King-Inspired bill of rights should include a constitutional amendment that enumerates a natural human right to be free from economic poverty, and appropriate enforcement legislation.

For the sake of abolishing slavery, the Thirteenth Amendment says:

(Section 1) Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

(Section 2) Congress shall have power to enforce this article ...


Are Prize-Linked Savings Accounts The Solution To Arkansas' Savings Problem?, McKenzie Wages 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Are Prize-Linked Savings Accounts The Solution To Arkansas' Savings Problem?, Mckenzie Wages

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research finds that access to prize-linked savings could improve the financial security of Arkansans. Prize-linked savings (PLS) accounts are nontraditional savings products that offer depositors the chance to win cash prizes instead of a typical interest rate return. Given the low median incomes, high liquid asset poverty rates, and high levels of underbanked and undereducated individuals in Arkansas, there is a need for an innovative savings solution like PLS in the state. PLS accounts capitalize on individuals’ propensity for lottery-like risk-taking to inspire the productive behavior of personal saving. A wide range of individuals, especially those who could stand ...


Maskin Meets Abreu And Matsushima, Yi-Chun CHEN, Takashi KUNIMOTO, Yifei SUN, Siyang XIONG 2018 Singapore Management University

Maskin Meets Abreu And Matsushima, Yi-Chun Chen, Takashi Kunimoto, Yifei Sun, Siyang Xiong

Research Collection School Of Economics

We study the classical Nash implementation problem due to Maskin (1999), but allow for the use of lottery and monetary transfer as in Abreu and Matsushima (1992, 1994). We therefore unify two well-established but somewhat orthogonal approaches of implementation theory. We first show that Maskin monotonicity is a necessary and sufficient condition for pure-strategy Nash implementation by a direct mechanism. Second, taking mixed strategies into consideration, we show that Maskin monotonicity is a necessary and sufficient condition for mixed-strategy Nash implementation by a finite (albeit indirect) mechanism. Third, we extend our analysis to implementation in rationalizable strategies. In contrast to ...


Does Debt Matter?, Luhan Li 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Does Debt Matter?, Luhan Li

Applied Economics Theses

National debt is a popular topic, since people have a lot of different views on national debt. For example, many people think that there is a positive relationship between national debt and GDP per capita. In other words, the national debt has also increased with the growth of GDP per capita. However, some people feel that there is an inverse relationship between them, so much so that the topic has been discussed. Based on my interest in this topic, I decided to discuss this question. This paper will discuss their influence and importance by analyzing national debt, GDP per capita ...


Cryptocurrencies As An Alternative To Fiat Monetary Systems, David A. Georgeson 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Cryptocurrencies As An Alternative To Fiat Monetary Systems, David A. Georgeson

Applied Economics Theses

The recent popularity of cryptocurrencies is largely associated with a particular application referred to as Bitcoin. Cryptocurrency has a mix of properties that make it difficult to examine. These properties consist of being infinitely divisible, durable, transferable, fungible and can be controlled to be artificially scarce. Further, cryptocurrencies can act as a means of payment, a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a unit of account. This thesis will analyze the technical features underlying cryptocurrencies and find out whether or not they can function as an alternative to fiat money. Since Bitcoin is the most commonly understood application ...


Imitation In Heterogeneous Populations, Jonas Hedlund, Carlos Oyarzun 2018 University of Queensland

Imitation In Heterogeneous Populations, Jonas Hedlund, Carlos Oyarzun

Carlos Oyarzun

Abstract We study a boundedly rational model of imitation when payoff distributions of actions differ across types of individuals. Individuals observe others' actions and payoffs, and a comparison signal. Two possible inefficiencies may arise: (i) uniform adoption, i.e., all individuals choose the action that is optimal for one type but sub-optimal for the other, or (ii) dual incomplete learning, i.e., only a fraction of each type chooses its optimal action. Which one occurs depends on the composition of the population and how critical the choice is for different types of individuals. In an application, we show that a ...


Public Principles And Economic Legacy, Stanley Schwartz 2018 Cedarville University

Public Principles And Economic Legacy, Stanley Schwartz

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

2018 will mark the 60th anniversary of the publication of Public Principles of Public Debt. The Nobel-prize winning economist’s first book conflicted with the Keynesian orthodoxy of the day, and added fresh ideas to an ongoing debate over the fundamentals of public debt theory. This paper seeks to outline the dialogue among leading economists surrounding public debt since the publication of Public Principles of Public Debt, examining the major schools of thought and their development. The ideas of John Maynard Keynes, James Buchanan, and Richard Barro will receive attention, without neglecting other significant contributions. The paper will conclude ...


Effect Of Government Quality Grade Labels On Consumer Demand For Pork Chops In The Short And Long Run, Jayson L. Lusk, Glynn T. Tonsor, Ted C. Schroeder, Dermot J. Hayes 2018 Purdue Univeristy

Effect Of Government Quality Grade Labels On Consumer Demand For Pork Chops In The Short And Long Run, Jayson L. Lusk, Glynn T. Tonsor, Ted C. Schroeder, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Publications

Despite ample evidence of pork quality variability, at present there are few signals that would incentivize growers to produce higher quality pork. Using split-sample, choice experiment data from a nationwide online survey of U.S. pork chop eaters, this research determines changes in pork chop demand in response to a potential change in U.S. government policy that would introduce a new pork quality grading system based on color scores. Our simulations include novel short-run projections in which the conditional and latent class logit models are inverted to yield inverse demand curves. The inverse demand curves are used to calculate ...


The Rise And Fall Of The Stock Market: A Look At Financial Professionals Suicide Ideation, Jefferson McClain 2018 Brigham Young University

The Rise And Fall Of The Stock Market: A Look At Financial Professionals Suicide Ideation, Jefferson Mcclain

Undergraduate Honors Theses

On October 24, 1929, the United States stock market crashed. Will Rogers, a local newspaper writer, said of that experience, “When Wall Street took that tail spin, you had to stand in line to get a window to jump out of, and spectators were selling space for bodies in the East River” (Lowenthal 1987). Tales of ruined stockbrokers jumping from the windows of tall buildings ran across the country. These stories have prompted interest in the interaction between workplace environment and mental health. In this study, we looked at the relationship between stock market performance and suicide ideation for working ...


Impulsive Behavior In Competition: Testing Theories Of Overbidding In Rent-Seeking Contests, Roman M. Sheremeta 2018 Chapman University

Impulsive Behavior In Competition: Testing Theories Of Overbidding In Rent-Seeking Contests, Roman M. Sheremeta

ESI Working Papers

Contests are commonly used in the workplace to motivate workers, determine promotion, and assign bonuses. Although contests can be very effective at eliciting high effort, they can also lead to inefficient effort expenditure (overbidding). Researchers have proposed various theories to explain overbidding in contents, including mistakes, systematic biases, the utility of winning, and relative payoff maximization. Using an eight-part experiment, we test and find significant support for the existing theories. Also, we discover some new explanations based on cognitive ability and impulsive behavior. Out of all explanations examined, we find that impulsivity is the most important factor explaining overbidding in ...


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