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Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha 2019 Iowa State University

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

John Crespi

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha 2019 Iowa State University

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

Lee Schulz

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


Human Rights And Economic Democracy: Reinvigorating The Human Rights Movement, Curtis T. Kline 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Human Rights And Economic Democracy: Reinvigorating The Human Rights Movement, Curtis T. Kline

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

A 2018 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that in order to avoid a seemingly inevitable ecological collapse that would bring intense suffering especially on the most marginalized and excluded sectors; the world needs to develop “rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society”. There are many local experiences which demonstrate the possibilities of achieving these needed changes. There are a number of community organizations and associations, social movements, and municipal efforts, among others, with creative visions on this front. In Jackson, Mississippi, for example, Cooperation Jackson strives to be a means to help ...


Trust In Humans And Robots: Economically Similar But Emotionally Different., Eric Schniter, Timothy W. Shields, Daniel Sznycer 2019 Chapman University

Trust In Humans And Robots: Economically Similar But Emotionally Different., Eric Schniter, Timothy W. Shields, Daniel Sznycer

ESI Working Papers

Trust-based interactions with robots are increasingly common in the marketplace, workplace, on the road, and in the home. However, a looming concern is that people may not trust robots as they do humans. While trust in fellow humans has been studied extensively, little is known about how people extend trust to robots. Here we compare trust-based investments and emotions from across three nearly identical economic games: human-human trust games, human-robot trust games, and human-robot trust games where the robot decision impacts another human. Robots in our experiment mimic humans: they are programmed to make reciprocity decisions based on previously observed ...


Dynamic Reserves In Matching Markets, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan 2019 Boğaziçi University,

Dynamic Reserves In Matching Markets, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan

Economics Working Papers

We study a school choice problem under affirmative action policies where authorities reserve a certain fraction of the slots at each school for specific student groups, and where students have preferences not only over the schools they are matched to but also the type of slots they receive. Such reservation policies might cause waste in instances of low student demand from some student groups. To propose a solution to this issue, we construct a family of choice functions, dynamic reserves choice functions, for schools that respect within-group fairness and allow the transfer of otherwise vacant slots from low-demand groups to ...


Give Me A Challenge Or Give Me A Raise, Aleksandr Alekseev 2019 Chapman University

Give Me A Challenge Or Give Me A Raise, Aleksandr Alekseev

ESI Working Papers

I study the effect of task difficulty on workers' effort and compare it to the effect of monetary rewards in an incentivized lab experiment. I find that task difficulty has an inverse-U effect on effort, and that this effect is quantitatively large when compared to the effect of conditional monetary rewards. Difficulty acts as a mediator of monetary rewards: conditional rewards are most effective at the intermediate or high levels of difficulty. I show that the inverse-U pattern of effort response to difficulty is not consistent with the Expected Utility model but is consistent with the Rank-Dependent Utility model that ...


Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha 2019 Iowa State University

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

CARD Working Papers

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


Deciding To Delegate: On Distributional Consequences Of Endogenous Delegation, Lara Ezquerra, Praveen Kujal 2019 Universitat de les Illes Balears

Deciding To Delegate: On Distributional Consequences Of Endogenous Delegation, Lara Ezquerra, Praveen Kujal

ESI Working Papers

We allow for principals to self-select into delegating (or not) the allocation decision to an agent in a modified dictator game. The standard dictator game is obtained when they choose not to delegate. Nearly half the subjects choose to be a dictator and make the allocation themselves. Dictators thus obtained transfer lower amounts to receivers, relative to when the decision making is passed to an agent (or the standard dictator game). Subjects self-selecting into the role of a dictator give less relative to those that pass the allocation decision to an agent. Finally, the distributional consequences of delegating, or not ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Income, Insurance, And Investments In Health Over The Life Course, J. Dustin Tracy, Hillard Kaplan, Kevin A. James, Stephen Rassenti 2019 Chapman University

An Experimental Investigation Of Income, Insurance, And Investments In Health Over The Life Course, J. Dustin Tracy, Hillard Kaplan, Kevin A. James, Stephen Rassenti

ESI Working Papers

We examine the impacts of age, income and insurance plan on behavior in a virtual environment with cash-motivated subjects, who live multi-period lives in which they earn income and spend on enjoyment, insurance, and investments in health. Health shocks increase simulating aging. The 2x2 experimental has high and low income subjects, and offers employer-based or actuarial insurance. We find: 1) subject behavior approximated optimal responses; 2) in all treatments, subjects under-invested in health early in life and over-invested in health late in life; 3) subjects in the employer-based plan purchased insurance at higher rates; 4) the employer-based plan reduced differences ...


Lying And Shirking Under Oath, Nicolas Jacquemet, Alexander James, Stéphane Luchini, James J. Murphy, Jason F. Shogren 2019 Université de Lorraine

Lying And Shirking Under Oath, Nicolas Jacquemet, Alexander James, Stéphane Luchini, James J. Murphy, Jason F. Shogren

ESI Working Papers

This study explores whether an oath to honesty can reduce both shirking and lying among crowd-sourced internet workers. Using a classic coin-flip experiment, we first show that a substantial majority of Mechanical Turk workers both shirk and lie when reporting the number of heads flipped. We then demonstrate lying can be reduced by first asking each worker to swear voluntarily on his or her honor to tell the truth in subsequent economic decisions. The oath, however, did not reduce shirking as measured by time- at-coin-flip-task, although it did increase the time they spent answering a demographic survey. Conditional on response ...


Adding Tournament To Tournament: Combining Between-Team And Within-Team Incentives, Michael Majerczyk, Roman Sheremeta, Yu Tian 2019 Georgia State University

Adding Tournament To Tournament: Combining Between-Team And Within-Team Incentives, Michael Majerczyk, Roman Sheremeta, Yu Tian

ESI Working Papers

We examine theoretically and experimentally how combining between-team and within-team incentives affects behavior in team tournaments. Theory predicts that free-riding will occur when there are only between-team incentives, and offering within-team incentives may solve this problem. However, if individuals collude, then within-team incentives may not be as effective at reducing free-riding. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, the results of our experiment indicate that although between-team incentives are effective at increasing individual effort, there is substantial free-riding and declining effort over time. Importantly, a combination of between-team and within-team incentives is effective not only at generating effort but also at sustaining ...


Co-Enforcement Of Common Pool Resources: Experimental Evidence From Turfs In Chile, Carlos A. Chávez, James J. Murphy, John K. Stranlund 2019 Universidad de Talca

Co-Enforcement Of Common Pool Resources: Experimental Evidence From Turfs In Chile, Carlos A. Chávez, James J. Murphy, John K. Stranlund

ESI Working Papers

This work presents the results of framed field experiments designed to study the co-enforcement of access to common pool resources. The experiments were conducted in the field with participants in the territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs) management scheme that regulates access to nearshore fisheries along the coast of Chile. In the experiments, TURF members not only decided on harvest but also invested in monitoring to deter poaching by outsiders. Treatments varied whether the monitoring investment was an individual decision or determined by a group vote. Per-unit sanctions for poaching were exogenous as if provided by a government authority, and ...


Essays On Human Capital Formation In Developing Countries, Alexander Sergeevich Ugarov 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Essays On Human Capital Formation In Developing Countries, Alexander Sergeevich Ugarov

Theses and Dissertations

Differences in human capital explain approximately one-half of the productivity variation across countries. Therefore, we need to understand drivers of human capital accumulation in order to design successful development policies. My dissertation studies formation and use of human capital with emphasis on its less tangible forms, including skills, abilities and know-how.

The first chapter of my dissertation explores the effects of occupational and educational barriers on human capital stock and aggregate productivity. I find that students' academic skills have very small impact on occupational choice in most developing countries. This finding suggests a higher incidence of occupational barriers in developing ...


Information Order In Monotone Decision Problems Under Uncertainty, Jian Li, Junjie Zhou 2019 Iowa State University

Information Order In Monotone Decision Problems Under Uncertainty, Jian Li, Junjie Zhou

Economics Working Papers

This paper examines the robustness of Lehmann’s ranking of experiments (Lehmann, 1988) for decisionmakers who are uncertainty-averse à la Cerreia- Vioglio et al. (2011). We show that, assuming commitment, for all uncertaintyaverse indices satisfying some mild assumptions, Lehmann’s informativeness ranking is equivalent to the induced uncertainty-averse value ranking of experiments for all agents with single-crossing vNM utility indices (Theorem 1). Moreover, Lehmann ranking can also be detected by varying the uncertainty-averse indices for a fixed finite collection of vNM utility indices (Theorem 2). Our findings suggest that Lehmann’s ranking can be a useful enrichment of Blackwell’s ...


The Effect Of Social Information In The Dictator Game With A Taking Option, Tanya O'Garra, Valerio Capraro, Praveen Kujal 2019 Middlesex University

The Effect Of Social Information In The Dictator Game With A Taking Option, Tanya O'Garra, Valerio Capraro, Praveen Kujal

ESI Working Papers

We experimentally study how redistribution choices are affected by positive and negative information regarding the behaviour of a previous participant in a dictator game with a taking option. We use the strategy method to identify behavioural ‘types’, and thus distinguish ‘conformists’ from ‘counter-conformists’, and unconditional choosers. Unconditional choosers make up the greatest proportion of types (about 80%) while only about 20% of subjects condition their responses to social information. We find that both conformity and counter-conformity are driven by a desire to be seen as moral (the ‘symbolization’ dimension of moral identity). The main difference is that, conformity is also ...


Classical Economics: Lost And Found, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon Smith 2019 Chapman University

Classical Economics: Lost And Found, Sabiou M. Inoua, Vernon Smith

ESI Working Papers

"We argue that neoclassical value theory suffers from a more basic and serious logical indeterminacy, which is inherent in the axiom of price-taking behavior, and which renders price dynamics indeterminate before inquiring as to its stability. If everyone in the economy takes price as given, whence come these prices? Who is giving these prices? Jevons avoided the indeterminacy by assuming that people must have complete information on supply and demand, and the consequent equilibrium prices—‘perfect competition.’ Walras in effect imported an external agent who found the prices by trial-and-error-correction (the Walrasian Auctioneer). Paradoxically, both approaches had the potential better ...


Matching With Generalized Lexicographic Choice Rules, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan 2019 Bogaziçi University

Matching With Generalized Lexicographic Choice Rules, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan

Economics Working Papers

Motivated by the need for real-world matching problems, this paper formulates a large class of practical choice rules, Generalized Lexicographic Choice Rules (GLCR), for institutions that consist of multiple divisions. Institutions fill their divisions sequentially, and each division is endowed with a sub-choice rule that satisfies classical substitutability and size monotonicity in conjunction with a new property that we introduce, quota monotonicity. We allow rich interactions between divisions in the form of capacity transfers. The overall choice rule of an institution is defined as the union of the sub-choices of its divisions. The cumulative offer mechanism (COM) with respect to ...


Cournot Marked The Turn From Classical To Neoclassical Thinking, Vernon L. Smith, Sabiou M. Inoua 2019 Chapman University

Cournot Marked The Turn From Classical To Neoclassical Thinking, Vernon L. Smith, Sabiou M. Inoua

ESI Working Papers

For classical economists, markets served the highest value buyers without anyone in the market needing to know that it was possible to write aggregate buyer reservation prices in the form, D = F (p). Cournot, thereby launched neoclassical economics as modelling and thinking of economic action in terms of their outcome effects, rather than their roots in human experience.


On The Optimality Of One-Size-Fits-All Contracts: The Limited Liability Case, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof. 2019 Diego Portales University

On The Optimality Of One-Size-Fits-All Contracts: The Limited Liability Case, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof.

Felipe Balmaceda

This paper studies a principal-agent relationship when both are risk-neutral and in the presence of
adverse selection and moral hazard. Contracts must satisfy the limited-liability and monotonicity conditions. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimal contract is simple, in the sense that each type is offered the same contract. These are: the action and the agent's type are complements, and the output's cumulative distribution function is such that the marginal rate of substitution between the action and the agent's type is the same for each possible output realization. Furthermore, under the average monotone likelihood ratio property ...


Investing In Education: Impact Of Student Financial Stress On Self-Reported Health, Stephen Poplaski, Randy Kemnitz, Cliff A. Robb 2019 Kansas State University

Investing In Education: Impact Of Student Financial Stress On Self-Reported Health, Stephen Poplaski, Randy Kemnitz, Cliff A. Robb

Journal of Student Financial Aid

Through the lens of Human Capital theory, the role of financial aid (both amount and type) is explored in the context of student financial stress, and ultimately general student health. Data are taken from a sample of 232 students from a major Midwestern university who were surveyed about their financial attitudes, behavior and knowledge. The presence and amount of federal loans was associated with self-reported financial stress, and the validated stress measure was further associated with students’ self-reported health. A number of personal life events (i.e. job loss) were also associated with higher stress levels. Implications are discussed.


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