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Usa, Sebastian Braun 2019 Iowa State University

Usa, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Approximately 5.1 million people in the U.S., or 1.7% of the total population, identify as Native American or Alaska Native alone or in combination with another ethnic identity. Around 2.5 million, or 0.8% of the population, identify as American Indian or Alaska Native only.1 Five hundred and sixty-six tribal entities were federally-recognized at the beginning of 2015,2 and most of these have recognized national homelands. Twenty-three per cent of the Native population live in American Indian areas or Alaska Native villages. The state with the largest Native population is California; the place with ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter 2019 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


The Historical And Materialist Subtext Of The Battle Of The Sheep, Chad M. Gasta 2019 Iowa State University

The Historical And Materialist Subtext Of The Battle Of The Sheep, Chad M. Gasta

Chad M. Gasta

In his perceptive work on the interrelationship between history and literature, Louis Montrose advocates a resituation of texts within their contexts which leads to "a reciprocal concern with the historicity of texts and the textuality of history" (20). For Montrose, aesthetic works can historicize the past and provide an understanding and explanation of times past, even though they cannot provide an objective portrayal of history (20). It is in this spirit that i would like to approach the Battle of the Sheep in Don Quijote. To resituate this well-known episode within its socio-historical context is to make possible a more ...


Working Paper No. 05, Proudhon, Bakunin And Anarcho-Socialism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 05, Proudhon, Bakunin And Anarcho-Socialism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin advanced ideas supporting what can be identified as anarcho-socialism, and the distinctness in their approaches can also be associated with splits that emerged with the First International Workingmen’s Association. For Proudhon, the institution of property entrenches inequality. In Proudhon’s judgement, society must orient towards advancing independence, proportionality, equality, and individual autonomy without limitations from legal structures. In Bakunin’s anarcho-socialist view, society must reject all forms of authority. In Bakunin’s conception of society, economic and political structures must be constructed from base to summit, founded upon ...


Working Paper No. 17, William Petty And Political Economy, Clarissa Allen 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 17, William Petty And Political Economy, Clarissa Allen

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that during the first part of the 1600s, William Petty generated original contributions to political economy. Subsequent to the Irish rebellion and in the wake of the English occupation of Ireland, Petty led a team of surveyors for measuring out areas of Ireland. The survey that he led mapped selected territories and detailed numerous characteristics, thus employing an early, rudimentary, but highly insightful census method. Petty sought to describe his world objectively and quantitatively through the use of numbers, weights, and measures – rather than subjectively. Petty developed a method of calculation still famously known as ...


Working Paper No. 04, Marx And Religion, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 04, Marx And Religion, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that, in his writings, Karl Marx offers his perspectives on religion. The origins of Marx’s conception of religion can be traced to his family history, adolescence, and time at the University of Berlin. Marx’s criticism of contemporary philosophy offers a penetrating account of his views on religion, proving critical of the individualism and idealism implemented by his contemporaries. In Marx’s judgement, religion offers a false sense of solace in a world marked by abuse. Religion rationalizes domination, sows societal divisions, and preserves oppressive institutions. Marx’s materialist approach focuses on the real-life ...


Working Paper No. 15, Jevons’ Selective Interpretation Of Bentham, Devin Bales 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 15, Jevons’ Selective Interpretation Of Bentham, Devin Bales

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that in The Theory of Political Economy, W. Stanley Jevons offers a selective interpretation of Jeremy Bentham’s notion of utility. Moreover, Jevons does so in a manner that generates enduring implications for Economics as a science. Special emphasis is placed upon Jevons’ use of Bentham’s understanding of the circumstances that direct pursuits of pleasure and avoidance of pain. Emphasized is that Jevons’ omission of ‘fecundity, purity, and extent’ as quantifiers of utility, creates enduring implications that emerged years after his book’s publication in 1871. What is finally considered are some of the ...


Working Paper No. 16, Had We Paid Attention To Keynes?, Saidhbhe Quigley 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 16, Had We Paid Attention To Keynes?, Saidhbhe Quigley

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that a host of problems could have been averted had we paid attention to Keynes. In the view of Keynes (2013, pp. 23-28), the Versailles Treaty was unnecessarily punitive towards Germany. He explains that the terms negotiated during the Paris Peace Conference were at odds with the agreement that took place during the Armistice when both sides decided to lay down their weapons and end fruitless battling. Consequently, following the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Germany registered as one of the most nations most tragically affected by the Great Depression. This is partially because of ...


Working Paper No. 20, Veblen And The Question Of Sexual Selection, Jenica M. Kramer 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 20, Veblen And The Question Of Sexual Selection, Jenica M. Kramer

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to counter a hypothesis recently advanced by Jon D. Wisman; which states that Thorstein Veblen “missed” the opportunity to incorporate sexual selection into his evolutionary economics. To the contrary, I shall argue that Veblen’s vision is not at all lacking and that he intentionally failed to integrate into his evolutionary thinking the animal drive of sexual selection. First-off, I offer an account of Wisman’s thesis and this is followed by a refutation of his argument while making use of Veblen’s key concepts. Tracing the evolution of “conspicuous consumption” to its social inception, I endeavor ...


Working Paper No. 21, The Union Of Democracy And Socialism: Towards An Intellectual Biography Of Karl Kautsky, Leo Solovyov 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 21, The Union Of Democracy And Socialism: Towards An Intellectual Biography Of Karl Kautsky, Leo Solovyov

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Karl Kautsky’s vision of social democracy considered and incorporated the best of his day’s socialist theory, leading to the creation of a powerful formula that has also proved enduring, leading towards the achievement of socialist goals. Karl Kautsky was influenced by his work with Karl Marx, Eduard Bernstein and Friedrich Engels. During his time with these noted thinkers he created a unique form of socialism that today is termed ‘social democracy’. Kautsky advanced the view that socialism could better survive when it integrated democracy. Socialism cannot have a period of dictatorship for ...


Working Paper No. 23, Hyman Minsky And Financial Instability, Gabriel Caballero 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 23, Hyman Minsky And Financial Instability, Gabriel Caballero

Working Papers in Economics

Hyman Minsky can readily be categorized as a post-Keynesian economist, for he advances a purist’s interpretation of John Maynard Keynes’ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Through employing a rigorous Keynesian framework, Minsky developed an enduring contribution to the literature bearing the title: “The Financial Instability Hypothesis” (1992), that appears as Working Paper No. 74 at the Jerome Levi Institute. In this document Minsky considered forces and variables that induce financial instability—that are also specific to advanced capitalist economies. He challenges the classical economists and the notion that a general equilibrium will prevail. Instead, Minsky goes ...


Working Paper No. 24, Economic Thought During Japan’S Meiji Era, Karson M. Pence 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 24, Economic Thought During Japan’S Meiji Era, Karson M. Pence

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that it was Fukuzawa Yukichi who played a key roled in developing ideas that assisted the modernization of Japan, leading up to and especially after the Meiji Reformation of 1868. In An Outline of a Theory of Civilization [1875], Fukuzawa advances a clear understanding that Japan should make the shift from a producer nation to a manufacturer nation, and without having to bear the costs of importing vast sums of foreign capital. Under suspicion that the 250 year rule of the Bakufu left the Japanese economy stagnant and weak, Fukuzawa asserted that the only means ...


Working Paper No. 25, On The Importance Of Contributions By Robert Torrens, Mitchell Veele 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 25, On The Importance Of Contributions By Robert Torrens, Mitchell Veele

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that although hardly recognized, Robert Torrens’ contributions prove significant and also provided bases for advances later credited to David Ricardo. In his first published work, An Essay on the External Corn Trade [1815], Torrens discusses at length the negative consequences of Britain’s Corn Laws, based upon the practice of restricting foreign corn imports. Through this prescient work, Torrens should be considered as the first to advance several concepts and principles that prove foundational for classical economic thought. Though attributed to David Ricardo, the principle of comparative advantage was actually first described by Torrens and ...


Working Paper No. 26, Basic Tenets Of The Austrian School Of Economics, Vladislav Yurlov 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 26, Basic Tenets Of The Austrian School Of Economics, Vladislav Yurlov

Working Papers in Economics

The Austrian school of economic thought has offered many ideas throughout its more than century old history. Beginning with Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics, the focus of this school dealt with individuals acting in a society for the benefit of everyone. With liberalism at their core, thinkers such as Friedrich von Wieser, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek saw economics as a practical approach to living. This inquiry seeks to establish that the Austrian school of economics advanced basic tenets. Building off of, and often creating their own ideas, Austrian economists gave rise to the principles of marginalism, significance ...


Working Paper No. 13, Friedrich List And National Development, Mitch Priestley 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 13, Friedrich List And National Development, Mitch Priestley

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Friedrich List offers an approach to national economic development based upon implementing policies. List conceptualizes and describes a situation wherein the United States, along with Germany and some other Continental European countries, face challenges dissimilar to Britain. List emphasizes an alternate approach towards national development that flies in the face of Adam Smith’s laissez-faire, free-trade prescription, focusing instead upon the powers of production, that he suggests, offer a proper measure of a nation’s wealth. List is a limited protectionist who advocates for national policies suited to a nation based upon its history ...


Working Paper No. 18, Thomas Piketty On Capital And Inequality, Max Randall 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 18, Thomas Piketty On Capital And Inequality, Max Randall

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that, in his Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Thomas Piketty advances ideas concerning the origins and implication of economic inequality. Piketty commences his inquiry by considering and detailing wage differences amongst distinct classes of society. This mechanism for the distribution of income is compared across selected nations, and the differing tendencies over time are examined in detail. Distinct from working wages, Piketty considers income effects associated with capital ownership. Adding to this, Piketty shows that effects of inheritance need be considered as capital is passed to successive generations, thereby allowing the accruing of monetary gains ...


Working Paper No. 27, Processes In Capital Accumulation Leading Towards Inequality, Matthew Perez 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 27, Processes In Capital Accumulation Leading Towards Inequality, Matthew Perez

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry considers, compares, and contrasts two different theoretical explanations of processes leading towards capital accumulation and also inequality. First considered is Immanuel Wallerstein’s Historical Capitalism. In this book he advances and stresses that processes leading towards capital accumulation are inherently unequal, as these processes are based upon commodification, proletarization, and jurisdiction. The second part considers the views advanced by Thomas Picketty. In his Capital in the Twenty First Century, Picketty offers a fundamentally different understanding of what drives and leads towards capital accumulation and income inequality. In contrasts to Wallerstein, Picketty explains that the dynamic generating capital accumulation ...


Working Paper No. 12, Technological Convergence And Institutional Evolution In The Energy Sector, James Bennett 2019 Portland State University

Working Paper No. 12, Technological Convergence And Institutional Evolution In The Energy Sector, James Bennett

Working Papers in Economics

Over a span of more than a hundred years, fossil fuel production could be considered as a long-standing ceremonial technology in the Veblenian sense. However in recent times, due to rapid innovation through technological convergence, renewable energy is becoming just as cost effective and threatens to replace fossil fuels. Robert McCullough observes this change in renewable energy costs, in his report “The End of Big Iron”. Thorsten Veblen’s dichotomy between ceremonial and instrumental technologies, and his thoughts on institutional change can also aide in explaining this recent struggle between “ceremonial” fossil fuels and “instrumental” renewable energy technologies. Nathan Rosenberg ...


A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle 2019 Iowa State University

A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle

Economics Working Papers

When the running variable in a regression discontinuity (RD) design is measured with error, identification of the local average treatment effect of interest will typically fail. While the form of this measurement error varies across applications, in many cases the measurement error structure is heterogeneous across different groups of observations. We develop a novel measurement error correction procedure capable of addressing heterogeneous mismeasurement structures by leveraging auxiliary information. We also provide adjusted asymptotic variance and standard errors that take into consideration the variability introduced by the estimation of nuisance parameters, and honest confidence intervals that account for potential misspecification. Simulations ...


A Statistical Analysis Of Economic Perceptions In The 2015 United Kingdom General Election, Amarvir Singh-Bal Mr. 2019 Durham University

A Statistical Analysis Of Economic Perceptions In The 2015 United Kingdom General Election, Amarvir Singh-Bal Mr.

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper characterises the vote which took place in the United Kingdom's (U.K.) 2015 General Election as an ‘accountability instrument.’ In doing so, the research interrogates which sections of the electorate hold the incumbent government more accountable for economic outcomes between the 2010 and 2015 U.K. General Elections. The Rational Choice Theory and the Michigan Model are used in this study to present two interlinked, and yet distinct, hypotheses – that less politically informed and non-partisan voters are more likely to hold the government accountable for economic performances; compared to the politically informed and partisan voters within the ...


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