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“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Despite the fact that companion animals enjoy the status of “members of the family” in contemporary society, there are numerous diseases affecting the longevity of these animals and their quality of life. Some of the most pervasive and damaging problems accrue to pedigreed animals whose genetic lines contain many major and severe diseases which are detrimental to both the quality and length of life. If one considers the most popular dog breeds in the United States, the top 10 include the Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, French Bulldog, Beagle, Poodle, Rottweiler, Yorkshire Terrier, and German Shorthaired Pointer. Some idea ...


The Value Of Pets To Public And Private Health And Well-Being, Leslie Irvine, Laurent Cilia 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Value Of Pets To Public And Private Health And Well-Being, Leslie Irvine, Laurent Cilia

Leslie Irvine, PhD

This analysis reviews empirical studies of the health benefits of pet ownership published between 1980 and 2016 and collected in the database of the Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative, or HABRI. The analysis began with 373 titles and eventually encompassed a dataset of 151 full-text documents. Along with analysis of substantive content, each study received a score for methodological rigor. The number of studies has steadily increased, particularly since 2000, and methodological rigor has improved. The literature encompasses four topics, including cardiovascular, general, and psychosocial health, and physical activity. Overall, the research finds that pets benefit human health, although the available ...


The Question Of Animal Selves: Implications For Sociological Knowledge And Practice, Leslie Irvine 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Question Of Animal Selves: Implications For Sociological Knowledge And Practice, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

The question of whether sociologists should investigate the subjective experience of non-human others arises regularly in discussions of research on animals. Recent criticism of this research agenda as speculative and therefore unproductive is examined and found wanting. Ample evidence indicates that animals have the capacity to see themselves as objects, which meets sociological criteria for selfhood. Resistance to this possibility highlights the discipline’s entrenched anthropocentrism rather than lack of evidence. Sociological study of the moral status of animals, based on the presence of the self, is warranted because our treatment of animals is connected with numerous “mainstream” sociological issues ...


Dog Population & Dog Sheltering Trends In The United States Of America, Andrew N. Rowan, Tamara Kartal 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Dog Population & Dog Sheltering Trends In The United States Of America, Andrew N. Rowan, Tamara Kartal

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Dog management in the United States has evolved considerably over the last 40 years. This review analyzes available data from the last 30 to 40 years to identify national and local trends. In 1973, The Humane Society of the US (The HSUS) estimated that about 13.5 million animals (64 dogs and cats per 1000 people) were euthanized in the US (about 20% of the pet population) and about 25% of the dog population was still roaming the streets. Intake and euthanasia numbers (national and state level) declined rapidly in the 1970s due to a number of factors, including the ...


Welfare Of Non-Traditional Pets, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser, H. J. Bacon 2019 University of British Columbia

Welfare Of Non-Traditional Pets, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser, H. J. Bacon

David Fraser, PhD

The keeping of non-traditional or ‘exotic’ pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives ...


Philosophical Background Of Attitudes Toward And Treatment Of Invertebrates, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 Psychology, University of Lethbridge

Philosophical Background Of Attitudes Toward And Treatment Of Invertebrates, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

People who interact with or make decisions about invertebrate animals have an attitude toward them, although they may not have consciously worked it out. Three philosophical approaches underlie this attitude. The fi rst is the contractarian, which basically contends that animals are only automata and that we humans need not concern ourselves with their welfare except for our own good, because cruelty and neglect demean us. A second approach is the utilitarian, which focuses on gains versus losses in interactions between animals, including humans. Given the sheer numbers of invertebrates—they constitute 99% of the animals on the planet—this ...


Noseband Use In Equestrian Sports ± An International Study, Orla Doherty, Vincent Casey, Paul McGreevy, Sean Arkins 2019 University of Limerick

Noseband Use In Equestrian Sports ± An International Study, Orla Doherty, Vincent Casey, Paul Mcgreevy, Sean Arkins

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Nosebands are used by riders to prevent the horse from opening its mouth, to increase control and, in some cases, to comply with the competition rules. While equestrian texts traditionally recommend that two adult human fingers should be able to fit under a fastened noseband, noseband tightness levels are not, in general, regulated in competition. Possible detrimental consequences for the horse, of excessively tight nosebands, include discomfort, pain or tissue damage. The current study investigated noseband usage in equestrian competition. Data regarding noseband type, position, width and tightness were collected from 750 horses in eventing (n = 354), dressage (n = 334 ...


Dominance And Leadership: Useful Concepts In Human-Horse Interactions?, Elke Hartmann, Janne W. Christensen, Paul McGreevy 2019 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Dominance And Leadership: Useful Concepts In Human-Horse Interactions?, Elke Hartmann, Janne W. Christensen, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Dominance hierarchies in horses primarily influence priority access to limited resources of any kind, resulting in predictable contest outcomes that potentially minimize aggressive encounters and associated risk of injury. Levels of aggression in group-kept horses under domestic conditions have been reported to be higher than in their feral counterparts but can often be attributed to suboptimal management. Horse owners often express concerns about the risk of injuries occurring in group-kept horses, but these concerns have not been substantiated by empirical investigations. What has not yet been sufficiently addressed are human safety aspects related to approaching and handling group-kept horses. Given ...


Effects Of Pre-Conditioning On Behavior And Physiology Of Horses During A Standardised Learning Task, Kate Fenner, Holly Webb, Melissa Starling, Rafael Freire, Petra Buckley, Paul D. McGreevy 2019 Charles Sturt University

Effects Of Pre-Conditioning On Behavior And Physiology Of Horses During A Standardised Learning Task, Kate Fenner, Holly Webb, Melissa Starling, Rafael Freire, Petra Buckley, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness) over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring ...


Sex Differences In The Herding Styles Of Working Sheepdogs And Their Handlers, Erin Kydd, Paul McGreevy 2019 Macquarie University

Sex Differences In The Herding Styles Of Working Sheepdogs And Their Handlers, Erin Kydd, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Working sheepdog trials test the attributes of dogs as well as the dogmanship and stockmanship skills of handlers. They generally include standard elements such as outrun, lift, fetch, drive, shed, pen and single to test all facets of the work that dogs perform on a farm. While both male and female handlers participate, these trials are traditionally dominated by male handlers. Both male and female dogs compete on equal terms within the same events. Drawing data from files (n = 60) downloaded from YouTube, the current study explores whether behaviours of dogs and their handlers during sheepdog trials differ between handler ...


Flogging Tired Horses: Who Wants Whipping And Who Would Walk Away If Whipping Horses Were Withheld?, Paul D. McGreevy, Mark D. Griffiths, Frank R. Ascione, Bethany Wilson 2019 University of Sydney

Flogging Tired Horses: Who Wants Whipping And Who Would Walk Away If Whipping Horses Were Withheld?, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Mark D. Griffiths, Frank R. Ascione, Bethany Wilson

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping ...


Longitudinal Trends In The Frequency Of Medium And Fast Race Winning Times In Australian Harness Racing: Relationships With Rules Moderating Whip Use, Bethany Wilson, Bidda Jones, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Longitudinal Trends In The Frequency Of Medium And Fast Race Winning Times In Australian Harness Racing: Relationships With Rules Moderating Whip Use, Bethany Wilson, Bidda Jones, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

The use of whips in racing is subject to current debate, not least because the prospect that fatigued horses cannot respond renders the practice futile and inhumane. The racing industries maintain whip use is a form of encouragement and that the rules of racing that govern whip use safeguard horse welfare. The current study examined longitudinal trends in the frequency of medium and fast race winning times in Australian harness racing between September 2007 and August 2016 to explore relationships with a series of changes that moderated whip use. The first change, introduced January 2010, moderated whip action so that ...


The Laterality Of The Gallop Gait In Thoroughbred Racehorses, Paulette Cully, Brian Nielsen, Bryony Lancaster, Jessica Martin, Paul McGreevy 2019 The University of Edinburgh

The Laterality Of The Gallop Gait In Thoroughbred Racehorses, Paulette Cully, Brian Nielsen, Bryony Lancaster, Jessica Martin, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Laterality can be observed as side biases in locomotory behaviour which, in the horse, manifest inter alia as forelimb preferences, most notably in the gallop. The current study investigated possible leading-leg preferences at the population and individual level in Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 2095) making halt-to-gallop transitions. Videos of flat races in the UK (n = 350) were studied to record, for each horse, the lead-leg preference of the initial stride into gallop from the starting stalls. Races from clockwise (C) and anti-clockwise (AC) tracks were chosen alternately at random to ensure equal representation. Course direction, horse age and sex, position relative ...


Expectations For Dog Ownership: Perceived Physical, Mental And Psychosocial Health Consequences Among Prospective Adopters, Lauren Powell, Debbie Chia, Paul McGreevy, Anthony L. Podberscek, Kate M. Edwards, Brendon Neilly, Adam J. Guastella, Vanessa Lee, Emmanuel Stamatakis 2019 University of Sydney

Expectations For Dog Ownership: Perceived Physical, Mental And Psychosocial Health Consequences Among Prospective Adopters, Lauren Powell, Debbie Chia, Paul Mcgreevy, Anthony L. Podberscek, Kate M. Edwards, Brendon Neilly, Adam J. Guastella, Vanessa Lee, Emmanuel Stamatakis

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Dog ownership is popular worldwide, with most human-dog dyads forming successful attachment bonds. However, millions of dogs are surrendered to animal shelters annually, possibly due to mismatches between owner expectations and the realities of dog ownership. The aim of the current study was to explore the benefits and challenges people expect from dog ownership and how these expectations vary with previous ownership history. An Australian-wide sample of 3465 prospective adopters completed a self-administered online questionnaire about the physical, mental and psychosocial health benefits and challenges they associated with dog ownership. Among the potential benefits, respondents expected increased walking (89%), happiness ...


Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Attitudes to animals are linked to beliefs about their ability to experience pain and suffering, their cognition, and their sentience. Education and awareness-raising play a pivotal role in increasing society’s consideration of non-human animal welfare. The current pilot study explores the attitudes towards animal welfare among a unique population of people who attended an animal welfare symposium at the University of Sydney. It involved administration of a validated questionnaire that assessed attitudes to animals; specifically exploring participants’ (n = 41) beliefs about the sentience of animals and their emotional empathy with animals. The resultant data revealed significant associations between participants ...


Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul McGreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand 2019 University of Sydney

Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul Mcgreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Currently, separate measures are used to estimate the impact of animal diseases on mortality and animal welfare. This article introduces a novel metric, the Welfare-Adjusted Life Year (WALY), to estimate disease impact by combining welfare compromise and premature death components. Adapting the Disability-Adjusted Life Year approach used in human health audits, we propose WALY as the sum of a) the years lived with impaired welfare due to a particular cause and b) the years of life lost due to the premature death from the same cause. The years lived with impaired welfare are the product of the average duration of ...


“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor 2019 University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio

“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: Obesity is rising in people with HIV (PLWH) and Hispanics. Both HIV and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Our goal is to understand perceptions of body image and lifestyle in Hispanics with HIV to adapt interventions appropriately.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 Hispanic PLWH and 6 providers. Purposive sampling selected patient participants across weights and genders. Interviews were coded and analyzed using grounded theory, comparing perspectives between patients with and without obesity, and patients and providers.

Results: Participants felt obesity and diabetes were “normal” in the community. Patients exhibited understanding of healthy diet ...


Injuries In Racing Greyhounds, Andrew Knight 2019 University of Winchester

Injuries In Racing Greyhounds, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

This 25 pp. report reviews welfare problems, and particularly, injuries sustained by racing greyhounds, with a focus on the British greyhound racing industry.


Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, Andrew Knight, Katherine D. Watson 2019 University of Winchester

Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, Andrew Knight, Katherine D. Watson

Andrew Knight, PhD

Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly ...


Cognitive Relatives Yet Moral Strangers?, Judith Benz-Scharzberg, Andrew Knight 2019 International Centre for Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities

Cognitive Relatives Yet Moral Strangers?, Judith Benz-Scharzberg, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

This article provides an empirically based, interdisciplinary approach to the following two questions: Do animals possess behavioral and cognitive characteristics such as culture, language, and a theory of mind? And if so, what are the implications, when long-standing criteria used to justify differences in moral consideration between humans and animals are no longer considered indisputable? One basic implication is that the psychological needs of captive animals should be adequately catered for. However, for species such as great apes and dolphins with whom we share major characteristics of personhood, welfare considerations alone may not suffice, and consideration of basic rights may ...


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