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A Community-Based Approach To Archaeological Site Preservation In A Changing Climate: A Proposed Risk Assessment Along The Lower Columbia, Phillip Daily, Virginia L. Butler 2019 Portland State University

A Community-Based Approach To Archaeological Site Preservation In A Changing Climate: A Proposed Risk Assessment Along The Lower Columbia, Phillip Daily, Virginia L. Butler

Virginia L. Butler

Global climate change is an increasing threat to cultural resources, especially in coastal areas. Archaeologists have responded with risk assessments that gauge these threats and create preservation priorities for land managers. However, most assessments do not include input from descendant communities, which limits their potential value and relevance to archaeologists and tribal partners. We are in the initial stages of developing a risk assessment model for the Lower Columbia that includes a process for collaborating with tribes. In addition to incorporating the existing archaeological and ethnohistorical data typically used in risk assessments, our project will also incorporate indigenous stakeholder priorities ...


Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, Megan Hicks 2019 City University of New York (CUNY)

Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, Megan Hicks

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the archaeofaunal remains from Skútustaðir, a middle to high-status farm in Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, to understand the experience of rural communities and their ecologies during Iceland’s transition from regulated colonial exchange to a capitalist economy during the 17th through 19th centuries. Archaeofaunal analysis is used to reconstruct changes in the ways that people herded, hunted, and fished, providing insights into how they managed their local environments for subsistence and novel contexts of exchange. In addition to archaeofaunal analysis, primary textual sources are explored to assess how the Skútustaðir household and its rural community mobilized ...


Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner 2019 Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History; University of Oklahoma

Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is prevalent in archaeological skeletal collections and is a rich source of oral microbiome and host-derived ancient biomolecules. Recently, it has been proposed that dental calculus may provide a more robust environment for DNA preservation than other skeletal remains, but this has not been systematically tested. In this study, shotgun-sequenced data from paired dental calculus and dentin samples from 48 globally distributed individuals are compared using a metagenomic approach. Overall, we find DNA from dental calculus is consistently more abundant and less contaminated than DNA from dentin. The majority of DNA in dental calculus is ...


Digitally-Mediated Practices Of Geospatial Archaeological Data: Transformation, Integration, & Interpretation, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Kristin Landau 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Digitally-Mediated Practices Of Geospatial Archaeological Data: Transformation, Integration, & Interpretation, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Kristin Landau

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Digitally-mediated practices of archaeological data require reflexive thinking about where archaeology stands as a discipline in regard to the ‘digital,’ and where we want to go. To move toward this goal, we advocate a historical approach that emphasizes contextual source-side criticism and data intimacy—scrutinizing maps and 3D data as we do artifacts by analyzing position, form, material and context of analog and digital sources. Applying this approach, we reflect on what we have learned from processes of digitally-mediated data. We ask: What can we learn as we convert analog data to digital data? And, how does digital data transformation ...


Impacts Of Resource Fluctuations And Recurrent Tsunamis On The Occupational History Of Čḯxwicən, A Salishan Village On The Southern Shore Of The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A, Ian Hutchinson, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Michael A. Etnier, Kristine M. Bovy 2019 Simon Fraser University

Impacts Of Resource Fluctuations And Recurrent Tsunamis On The Occupational History Of Čḯxwicən, A Salishan Village On The Southern Shore Of The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A, Ian Hutchinson, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Michael A. Etnier, Kristine M. Bovy

Sarah L. Sterling

A summed probability density function (spdf), generated from the catalog of 101 radiocarbon ages on wood and charcoal from the Čḯxwicən archaeological site (Washington State, USA), serves as a proxy for the site's occupational history over the last 2500 years. Significant differences between spdfs derived from a null model of population growth (a bootstrapped logistic equation) and the observed index suggest relatively less cultural activity at Čḯxwicən between about 1950–1750 cal BP, 1150–950 cal BP, and 650 to 550 cal BP; and increased activity between about 1350–1250 cal BP and 550–500 cal BP. Peaks in ...


Building A Landscape History And Occupational Chronology At Čḯxwicən, A Coastal Village On The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A., Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Dennis E. Lewarch 2019 Western Washington University

Building A Landscape History And Occupational Chronology At Čḯxwicən, A Coastal Village On The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A., Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Dennis E. Lewarch

Sarah L. Sterling

Geoarchaeological analysis at Čḯxwicən, an ancestral Klallam village near Port Angeles in northwestern Washington State, U.S.A., highlights the resilience of coastal foragers and their connection to place. Ancestral Klallam peoples occupied ever-changing beach and spit landforms growing within the shelter of Ediz Hook on the Strait of Juan de Fuca (SJDF) for 2700 years. Geoarchaeological methods were employed to define seven chronostratigraphic zones that chronologically structure the cultural deposits and allow them to be correlated to a sequence of beach development and to markers for tsunami that overtopped the site. Initial habitation prior to 1750 BP utilized a ...


Childhood Stress At Rinconada Alta (Ad 1470-1532): An Examination Of Linear Hypoplastic Enamel Defects On The Central Coast Of Peru, Jessica Lacerte 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Childhood Stress At Rinconada Alta (Ad 1470-1532): An Examination Of Linear Hypoplastic Enamel Defects On The Central Coast Of Peru, Jessica Lacerte

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This MA thesis investigates non-specific childhood stress at Rinconada Alta through the analysis of linear enamel hypoplastic defects (LEH). Dental casts were taken from a sample of teeth from predominantly Inca-period, Yschma remains (with some admixture of the Late Intermediate period burials). The sample consists of 10 adult females, 11 adult males, and 5 adolescents of indeterminate sex with fully occluded adult teeth (with the exception of the third molars). This thesis employs Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which increases the visibility of linear defects, to determine the frequency, age, and duration at which metabolic disruption affected enamel growth of the ...


The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber

Theses and Dissertations

This work examines the vulnerability and resilience of Mississippian people in the Central Mississippi Valley to the large-scale New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes of the late15th to early 16th century. This is done using the theory of eventful archaeology/anthropology to look at cultural materials both before and after an event (such as an earthquake and sand blows) to look for evidence of changes to the schema and resources on which a society relies. If changes are present, the event can be labeled as such, if there are no changes, it means that the society affected did not see the ...


Teaching With Technology: Digital Tools For Archaeological Education, Caroline Gardiner 2019 University of Massachusetts Boston

Teaching With Technology: Digital Tools For Archaeological Education, Caroline Gardiner

Journal of Archaeology and Education

Recent technological advances have greatly altered how scholars record, study, and educate the public about cultural resources. Data can now be instantly recorded, analyzed, and widely shared. Digital tools can help create multimedia, interactive products that have contributed greatly to education and outreach initiatives worldwide.

Both the National Park Service (NPS) and the National Council for Preservation Education (NCPE) are dedicated to studying, preserving, and educating the public about cultural resources. A recent internship project between these two institutions produced online lesson plans that educated students about cultural materials and the various methodologies scholars use to study them within archaeology ...


Osl And Ceramic Analysis At The Humphrey Site, Ryan Mathison 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Osl And Ceramic Analysis At The Humphrey Site, Ryan Mathison

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

The Sand Hills of Nebraska are a unique environment located in the west-central portion of Nebraska. This portion of North America has long supported human life. One group in particular that called the Sand Hills home are the Dismal River people. Dismal River is the name that archaeologists gave to a group of horticulturalists that lived in circular structures on the sand dunes, often near the rivers, in the Sand Hills. This group, while generally known through archaeology, also has a potential historic or ethnographic presence in the form of the Cuartalejo Apache visited by Ulibarri, and potentially mentioned by ...


Communities Of Consumption On The Southeastern Mesoamerican Border: Style, Feasting, And Identity Negotiation In Prehispanic Northeastern Honduras, Whitney Annette Goodwin 2019 Southern Methodist University

Communities Of Consumption On The Southeastern Mesoamerican Border: Style, Feasting, And Identity Negotiation In Prehispanic Northeastern Honduras, Whitney Annette Goodwin

Anthropology Theses and Dissertations

Prehispanic northeastern Honduran communities were situated at the border between southeastern Mesoamerica and lower Central America. Previous studies of pottery style suggest that local groups shifted their affiliation from north to south at the end of the Classic period (ca. AD 1000). This study examines the contexts in which pottery, as a medium for style, was used, and how the food people prepared, stored, or served in these vessels offers a perspective complementary to pottery style for understanding how identity was actively negotiated in this region. In this view, other parts of the foodways system – the foods chosen to be ...


The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt 2019 Penn State University

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Sources of drinking water on islands often present critical constraints to human habitation. On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), there is remarkably little surface fresh water due to the nature of the island’s volcanic geology. While several lakes exist in volcanic craters, most rainwater quickly passes into the subsurface and emerges at coastal springs. Nevertheless, the island sustained a relatively large human population for hundreds of years, one that built an impressive array of monumental platforms (ahu) and statues (moai). To understand how Rapanui acquired their scarce fresh water, we review ethnohistoric data from first European arrival (1722) through ...


The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Carl P. Lipo 2019 Binghamton University--SUNY

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Carl P. Lipo

Carl Lipo

Sources of drinking water on islands often present critical constraints to human habitation. On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), there is remarkably little surface fresh water due to the nature of the island’s volcanic geology. While several lakes exist in volcanic craters, most rainwater quickly passes into the subsurface and emerges at coastal springs. Nevertheless, the island sustained a relatively large human population for hundreds of years, one that built an impressive array of monumental platforms (ahu) and statues (moai). To understand how Rapanui acquired their scarce fresh water, we review ethnohistoric data from first European arrival (1722) through ...


The Collapse Of Empire At Gordion In The Transition From The Achaemenid To The Hellenistic World, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

The Collapse Of Empire At Gordion In The Transition From The Achaemenid To The Hellenistic World, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

Gordion, ancient capital of Phrygia, was a large and thriving city of secondary importance during the period of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (ca 550–333 BC). Recent work makes possible a reconsideration of the site: evaluating its architecture, finds and use of landscape within and after the socio-economic and administrative context of the Achaemenid imperial system enables the following new overview. During the Achaemenid period, Gordion’s populace participated in the broad cultural exchanges enabled by the imperial system and may have emphasised animal husbandry. When Alexander’s conquest led to the collapse of the Achaemenid administrative infrastructure, the impact ...


Late Classic Soil Conservation And Agricultural Production In The Three Rivers Region, Byron Smith, Stanton Morse 2019 Humboldt State University

Late Classic Soil Conservation And Agricultural Production In The Three Rivers Region, Byron Smith, Stanton Morse

Humboldt Journal of Social Relations

Agricultural production during the Classic Period (c.1,700 to 1050 BP) in the Central Maya Lowlands was comprised of a variety of techniques that were used to satisfy dietary needs and to stimulate its subsistence economy. The complexity of those methods was a consequence of a variable topography and previous forest management practices that likely resulted in wide-spread deforestation, and subsequently large-scale erosion which limited arable land. The Classic Maya solution to limitations in arable land, augmented by increased erosion seems to have come in the form of geotechnical constructions placed in a variety of positions along the contours ...


Mapping Maya Hinterlands: Lidar Derived Visualization To Identify Small Scale Features In Northwestern Belize, Jeremy McFarland, Marisol Cortes-Rincon Ph.D. 2019 Humboldt State University

Mapping Maya Hinterlands: Lidar Derived Visualization To Identify Small Scale Features In Northwestern Belize, Jeremy Mcfarland, Marisol Cortes-Rincon Ph.D.

Humboldt Journal of Social Relations

This paper will discuss the processes and methods of relief visualization of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM’s) and classification of secondary data to identify archaeological remains on the ancient Maya landscape in northwestern Belize. The basis of the research explores various Geographic Information System (GIS) and cartographic techniques to visualize topographical relief. Graphic terrain maps assist archaeologists with predictive settlement patterns. The Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT 1.3) aids to visualize raster DEM datasets in the predictive identification and interpretation of small-scale archaeological features. This dataset and methodology can be utilized to answer questions of population estimates, mobility costs ...


Sexual Dimorphism In Homo Erectus Inferred From 1.5 Ma Footprints Near Ileret, Kenya, Brian Villmoare, Kevin G. Hatala, William Jungers 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Sexual Dimorphism In Homo Erectus Inferred From 1.5 Ma Footprints Near Ileret, Kenya, Brian Villmoare, Kevin G. Hatala, William Jungers

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Sexual dimorphism can be one of the most important indicators of social behavior in fossil species, but the effects of time averaging, geographic variation, and differential preservation can complicate attempts to determine this measure from preserved skeletal anatomy. Here we present an alternative, using footprints from near Ileret, Kenya, to assess the sexual dimorphism of presumptive African Homo erectus at 1.5 Ma. Footprint sites have several unique advantages not typically available to fossils: a single surface can sample a population over a very brief time (in this case likely not more than a single day), and the data are ...


Service Learning In Archaeology And Its Impact On Perceptions Of Cultural Heritage And Historic Preservation, Kyle P. Freund, Laura K. Clark, Kevin Gidusko 2019 Indian River State College

Service Learning In Archaeology And Its Impact On Perceptions Of Cultural Heritage And Historic Preservation, Kyle P. Freund, Laura K. Clark, Kevin Gidusko

Journal of Archaeology and Education

This paper focuses on a for-credit cemetery recording class taught at Indian River State College (IRSC) and on the impact of the project on student perceptions of cultural heritage and historic preservation. One of the goals in creating this service learning course was to promote student awareness of the destructive risks that many historic cemeteries face and to impart the importance of stewardship over the archaeological record. To assess the effectiveness of the course in meeting this goal, a series of five interviews with students enrolled in the class were conducted to get participants to discuss their motivations and perceptions ...


The Coastal Route: The Role Of The Pacific Northwest Coastline In Facilitating Human Travel Into The Americas, Andrew Nye, Carolyn Dillian 2019 Coastal Carolina University

The Coastal Route: The Role Of The Pacific Northwest Coastline In Facilitating Human Travel Into The Americas, Andrew Nye, Carolyn Dillian

Honors Theses

How Homo sapiens first entered North America has historically been attributed to a crossing of Beringia and a subsequent movement south through an ice-free corridor in Canada. Biological and physical research of the history of the area suggests an ice free corridor could not have existed in the same time frame as the first human settlements. These biological constraints would not have been present along the North West coast of the continent. New archaeological discoveries show early human settlement along the North West coast. Used together, this new evidence supports a coastal human migration instead of an inland route into ...


The Applications Of Gis On Lithic Raw Material Source Analysis, Sydney James, Carolyn Dillian 2019 Coastal Carolina University

The Applications Of Gis On Lithic Raw Material Source Analysis, Sydney James, Carolyn Dillian

Honors Theses

Raw material sourcing has long been used to identify patterns of trade and exchange in archaeological research. More recently, geographic information systems (GIS) have provided other ways for archaeologists to identify these patterns through data visualization and various spatial statistical analyses. While these methods are frequently used individually, the combined use of these methods has potential to more closely examine the relationships between raw material sources and archaeological sites; this should be considered a necessary measure for methods of spatial analysis. This research applies existing raw material source data to quantitative GIS analysis as a way to demonstrate this claim.


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