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Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill McCluskey, Jean Kinsey 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill Mccluskey, Jean Kinsey

Economics Publications

Agricultural economists first carried out demand studies in order to understand determinants of farm prices and incomes. The shift to a focus on consumer welfare began with studies of the role of food and food assistance in standards of living. Now the profession is more concerned with how information and quality attributes influence consumer behavior. Agricultural economists’ empirical work in this field has informed the development of household production theory, hedonic price theory, definitions of poverty thresholds, complete demand systems, and survey and experimental techniques to elicit preferences.


Consumer Demand For Cholesterol-Lowering Enhanced Margarine Products, Sonya K. Huffman, Helen H. Jensen, Abebayehu Tegene 2010 Iowa State University

Consumer Demand For Cholesterol-Lowering Enhanced Margarine Products, Sonya K. Huffman, Helen H. Jensen, Abebayehu Tegene

Economics Publications

The development and introduction of nutritionally enhanced margarines in the mid-1990s offered the opportunity to improve public health through the use of a cholesterol-lowering food product. Product approval in the USA followed that in Europe. The public approval and market acceptance of the nutritionally enhanced product illustrate the challenges faced by offering improved health attributes through food product innovation. Although the product Benecol received public endorsement and was relatively quickly accepted by Finnish consumers, public acceptance has been slower in the USA. Our study traces consumer response to the introduction of nutritionally enhanced margarine products in the US market. Household ...


More Than Just Food: The Diverse Effects Of Food Assistance Programs, Helen H. Jensen, Parke E. Wilde 2010 Iowa State University

More Than Just Food: The Diverse Effects Of Food Assistance Programs, Helen H. Jensen, Parke E. Wilde

Economics Publications

For decades, from the 1940s to the 1970s, the goal of U.S. food and nutrition assistance programs seemed clear: to make sure low-income Americans could afford enough food. By pursuing this goal, the programs would protect program participants from hunger and also support demand for farm products. Today, about one in five Americans receives benefits from at least one of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) food programs. The major programs include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), school meals programs—lunch and breakfast, and the Child ...


Measuring Economic Impacts Of Drought: A Review And Discussion, Ya Ding, Michael J. Hayes, Melissa Widhalm 2010 University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Measuring Economic Impacts Of Drought: A Review And Discussion, Ya Ding, Michael J. Hayes, Melissa Widhalm

Papers in Natural Resources

A comprehensive assessment of drought economic impacts provides critical information to rational decisions supporting drought mitigation policies and programs. The objective of this paper is to increase the understanding of the full scope of drought economic impacts and the associated quantitative assessment methodologies. To accomplish this, the paper reviews the literature of drought economic impact studies in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, summarizes the methods and data employed, compares the various results, and investigates the problems and limitations of previous studies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and directions of future improvement on drought economic impact assessment.


Microstructure And Property Evaluation Of Lifepo4 Thin Films For Application In Microbatteries, Jose Marcos Mares 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Microstructure And Property Evaluation Of Lifepo4 Thin Films For Application In Microbatteries, Jose Marcos Mares

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The shortage of fossil fuels and the requirements to produce clean, environmental friendly, efficient, and economical energy are the principal problems in the context of energy technology for current and future generations. Therefore, advanced energy storage and conversion capabilities with higher capacity and efficiency are desired. Currently, there is an enormous interest in the development of high energy density rechargeable batteries for use in domestic applications, automotive industries and portable electronic applications. The present research focuses on the development of LiFePO4 thin films for solid-state thin-film microbatteries. The present effort was performed with a specific purpose of understanding the effect ...


International Trade In Genetically Modified Products, E. Kwan Choi 2010 Iowa State University

International Trade In Genetically Modified Products, E. Kwan Choi

Economics Publications

This paper investigates competition between two markets that sell close substitutes: a traditional product and a genetically modified (GM) product. Tightening an import quota on the GM product raises the prices of both goods and hurts consumers. Two scenarios are considered under free trade: Cournot–Nash equilibrium and Stackelberg equilibrium. A Stackelberg type monopolist produces more, and the competitive traditional firms produce less, than in Cournot–Nash equilibrium. In the long run, an import ban on the GM product does not help competitive producers of the genetically modified organism (GMO)-free products but benefits only the landowners in Europe.


Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem 2010 University of Missouri

Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem

Economics Publications

The shift of the U.S. meat packing industry from urban to rural areas has generated controversy regarding potential social and economic costs of meat packing plants on their host communities. This study uses media comments to identify the most prominent controversies regarding meat packing, its largely immigrant workforce, and rural communities. We find that the industry has impacted the demographic composition of rural communities and their schools, but find no evidence that the industry increases per capita government expenditures. Our results suggest rural communities trade off the economic benefits of hosting these large employers against the costs of accommodating ...


Economies Of Scope For Microfinance: Differences Across Output Measures, Valentina Hartarska, christopher parmeter, Denis Nadolynak, Beibei Zhu 2009 Auburn University Main Campus

Economies Of Scope For Microfinance: Differences Across Output Measures, Valentina Hartarska, Christopher Parmeter, Denis Nadolynak, Beibei Zhu

Christopher F. Parmeter

In banking, scope economies of mobilizing deposits and lending are often estimated, while consideration of the same measures for microfinance institutions (MFI) is still in its infancy. An open issue remains regarding what characterizes an output of an MFI. Moreover, depending on the output used, do estimated scope economies differ? We use a novel data set for over 800 MFI across more than 70 countries to estimate economies of scope. Our findings suggest that statistical differences arise between estimates of scope economies. However, our qualitative findings indicate that both of these measures provide similar overviews of the landscape of scope ...


Market Power, Eu Integration And Privatization: The Case Of Romania, Gabriel Asaftei, christopher parmeter 2009 University of Miami

Market Power, Eu Integration And Privatization: The Case Of Romania, Gabriel Asaftei, Christopher Parmeter

Christopher F. Parmeter

This paper investigates the effects on pricing behavior of firms in a transition economy resulting from integration into the European Union’s Common Market and changes in ownership. We use a semiparametric model with a rich panel of manufacturing firms in Romania from 1995 to 2003 to estimate firm-level markups. We find that markups are higher in more concentrated industries and less exposed to foreign competition. Trade integration appears to generally increase competitive pressure on markups. Industries exposed to more international competition experience a larger change in markups following integration into the European Union’s Common Market. However, as the ...


A Distributional Analysis Of Public Private Wage Differential In India, Mehtabul Azam, Nishith Prakash 2009 World Bank

A Distributional Analysis Of Public Private Wage Differential In India, Mehtabul Azam, Nishith Prakash

Nishith Prakash

We investigate the public-private wage differential in India using nationally representative micro data. While the existing literature focuses on average wage differential, we study the differences in the wage distributions. The raw wage differential between public and private sector is positive across the entire distribution for both genders irrespective of area of residence. A quantile regression based decomposition analysis reveals that the differences in observed characteristics (covariate effect) account for only a small part of the wage differential at lower quantiles, but a larger part at higher quantiles. At the very top of the distribution, covariate effects account for a ...


Which Hedonic Models Can We Trust To Recover The Marginal Willingness To Pay For Environmental Amenities?, Nicolai Kuminoff, christopher parmeter, Jaren Pope 2009 Arizona State University

Which Hedonic Models Can We Trust To Recover The Marginal Willingness To Pay For Environmental Amenities?, Nicolai Kuminoff, Christopher Parmeter, Jaren Pope

Christopher F. Parmeter

The hedonic property value model is among our foremost tools for evaluating the economic consequences of policies that target the supply of local public goods, environmental services, and urban amenities. We design a theoretically consistent and empirically realistic Monte Carlo study of whether omitted variables seriously undermine the method’s ability to accurately identify economic values. Our results suggest that large gains in accuracy can be realized by moving from the standard linear specifications for the price function to a more flexible framework that uses a combination of spatial fixed effects, quasi-experimental identification, and temporal controls for housing market adjustment


The Returns To English-Language Skills In India, Mehtabul Azam, Aimee Chin, Nishith Prakash 2009 World Bank

The Returns To English-Language Skills In India, Mehtabul Azam, Aimee Chin, Nishith Prakash

Nishith Prakash

No abstract provided.


The Benefit Transfer Challenges, Kevin Boyle, Nicolai Kuminoff, christopher parmeter, Jaren Pope 2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

The Benefit Transfer Challenges, Kevin Boyle, Nicolai Kuminoff, Christopher Parmeter, Jaren Pope

Christopher F. Parmeter

Presidential Executive Order 12,866 requires federal agencies to design “cost-effective” regulations and to assess “costs and benefits” of these regulations on the basis of “the best reasonably obtainable scientific, technical, economic, and other information.” Benefit transfers are one economic approach used to estimate these benefits and costs, and the use of existing economic information to predict the effects of new policies is well established. However, advancing the practice of benefit transfers is crucial if economists are to play a role in developing federal policies. We review contributions to the benefit-transfer literature and present a unified conceptual framework to guide ...


Estimation Of Hedonic Price Functions With Incomplete Information, Subal Kumbhakar, christopher parmeter 2009 University of Miami

Estimation Of Hedonic Price Functions With Incomplete Information, Subal Kumbhakar, Christopher Parmeter

Christopher F. Parmeter

Existence of persistent price dispersion suggests that some buyers find lower prices through search and information acquisition, while some sellers charge higher prices by gathering information on potential buyers. If buyers are not fully informed of the lowest price available in the market they end up paying a price higher than if they had full information. Similarly, if sellers are not fully informed about the highest price they could charge, they too suffer by receiving a price lower than had they had full information. This paper develops a hedonic price model that incorporates the effects of incomplete information on both ...


Quantifying The Economic Effects Of Hypoxia On A Fishery For Brown Shrimp Farfantepenaeus Aztecus, Ling Huang, Martin Smith 2009 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Quantifying The Economic Effects Of Hypoxia On A Fishery For Brown Shrimp Farfantepenaeus Aztecus, Ling Huang, Martin Smith

Ling Huang

No abstract provided.


Trade Bans, Imperfect Competition, And Welfare: Bse And The U.S. Beef Industry, Dimitrios Pangiotou, Azzeddine Azzam 2009 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Trade Bans, Imperfect Competition, And Welfare: Bse And The U.S. Beef Industry, Dimitrios Pangiotou, Azzeddine Azzam

Azzeddine Azzam

Between May 2003 and July 2005, the U.S. beef industry faced a total ban on Canadian cattle imports following the discovery of BSE in Canada in May 2003 and restrictions on U.S. beef exports following the discovery of BSE in the United States in December 2003. When the United States reopened its border to Canadian cattle in July 2005, shipments were restricted to cattle less than 30 months of age. The total ban on Canadian cattle imports and restrictions on U.S. beef exports overlapped between January 2004 and July 2005. The restrictions on Canadian cattle imports and ...


Has The World Trade Organization Promoted Successful Regional Trade Agreements?, Jason Grant, christopher parmeter 2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Has The World Trade Organization Promoted Successful Regional Trade Agreements?, Jason Grant, Christopher Parmeter

Christopher F. Parmeter

The WTO’s Committee on Regional Trade Agreements (CRTA) is charged with monitoring, examining, and ensuring the compliance of RTAs. In this paper we ask whether oversight and examination has fostered successful RTAs using bilateral trade flows as our metric. We develop a comprehensive dataset covering 290 regional economic integration agreements that have entered into force since 1960. Remarkably, the data reveal that almost half (43%) of all agreements in existence (up to 2005) are neither notified nor accounted for in the RTA database published by the WTO. We then exploit variation in the notification status of an RTA to ...


Pricing Residential Water To Account For Scarcity In Cyprus, Theodoros Zachariadis 2009 Cyprus University of Technology

Pricing Residential Water To Account For Scarcity In Cyprus, Theodoros Zachariadis

Theodoros Zachariadis

No abstract provided.


The General Equilibrium Incidence Of Environmental Mandates, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel 2009 University of Texas at Austin

The General Equilibrium Incidence Of Environmental Mandates, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel

Don Fullerton

Pollution regulations affect factor demands, relative returns, production, and output prices. In our model, one sector includes pollution as an input that can be a complement or substitute for labor or capital. For each type of mandate, we find conditions where more burden is on labor or on capital. Stricter regulation does not always place less burden on the better substitute for pollution. Also, restrictions on pollution per unit output create an “output-subsidy effect” on factor prices that can reverse the usual output and substitution effects. We find analogous effects for a restriction on pollution per unit capital.


Wind Energy Deployment: Global Lessons For West Michigan, Erik Edward Nordman 2009 Grand Valley State University

Wind Energy Deployment: Global Lessons For West Michigan, Erik Edward Nordman

Erik Edward Nordman

West Michigan Wind Assessment Issue Brief #1 This first of series of issue briefs summarizes the factors that have influenced wind energy deployment across the country and around the world. It also brings the lessons home to West Michigan's coastal zone.


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