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Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Commons

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Inference Of Language Functional Network In Healthy, Cancerous And Bilingual Brains By Fmri And Network Modeling, Qiongge Li 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Inference Of Language Functional Network In Healthy, Cancerous And Bilingual Brains By Fmri And Network Modeling, Qiongge Li

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We study the underlying mechanism by which language processing occurs in the human brain using inference methods on functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The data analyzed stems from several cohorts of subjects; a monolingual group, a bilingual group, a healthy control group and one diseased case. We applied a complex statistical inference pipeline to determine the network structure of brain components involved with language. This healthy network reveals a fully connected triangular relationship between the pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA), the Broca's Area (BA), and the ventral Pre-Motor Area (PreMA) in the left hemisphere. This "triangle'' shows consistently in all ...


Development Of A 1-Dimensional Data Assimilation To Determine Temperature And Relative Humidity Combining Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements And A Reanalysis Model, Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of A 1-Dimensional Data Assimilation To Determine Temperature And Relative Humidity Combining Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements And A Reanalysis Model, Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. It is highly variable and its variations strongly depend on changes in temperature. Atmospheric water vapor can be expressed as relative humidity (RH), the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature. Liquid water can exist as super-cooled water for temperatures between 0C to -38C. Thus, RH can be measured either relative to water (RHw) or to ice (RHi). RHi measurements are important in the upper tropospheric ...


Application Of The Optimal Estimation Method (Oem) To Retrieve Relative Humidity From Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements., Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2019 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

Application Of The Optimal Estimation Method (Oem) To Retrieve Relative Humidity From Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements., Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Accurate measurements of relative humidity (RH) vertical profiles in the atmosphere is important for understanding the earth's weather and the climate system. RH represent the current state of the water vapor in the atmosphere with respect to the ambient air related to saturation. Even minor changes of the RH in the lower atmosphere has a large impact of the global circulation and cloud formation. Due to its high variability RH measurements in the lower atmosphere is significantly challenging. Raman lidar is one of the potential tools that can provide vertical profiles of RH. Typically, temperature and water vapor mixing ...


Emergent Critical Properties In Liquid-Gas Transition And Single Dislocations In Solid He4, Max Yarmolinsky 2019 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Emergent Critical Properties In Liquid-Gas Transition And Single Dislocations In Solid He4, Max Yarmolinsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My research focuses on the analytical and numerical study of seemingly completely different systems - the classical critical point of the liquid-gas transition and a quantum topological defect (dislocation) in solid Helium-4. The unifying theme, though, is Emergence - the appearance of unexpected qualities at large distance and time scales in these systems. Our results resolve the long standing controversy about the nature of the liquid-gas criticality by showing with high confidence that it is the same as that of Ising ferromagnet. In solid 4He, a quantum superclimbing dislocation, which is expected to be violating space-time symmetry according to the elementary ...


Universality Class Of Explosive Percolation In Barabási-Albert Networks, Habib E. Islam, M. K. Hassan 2019 Old Dominion University

Universality Class Of Explosive Percolation In Barabási-Albert Networks, Habib E. Islam, M. K. Hassan

Physics Faculty Publications

In this work, we study explosive percolation (EP) in Barabási-Albert (BA) network, in which nodes are born with degree k = m, for both product rule (PR) and sum rule (SR) of the Achlioptas process. For m = 1 we find that the critical point tc = 1 which is the maximum possible value of the relative link density t; Hence we cannot have access to the other phase like percolation in one dimension. However, for m > 1 we find that tc decreases with increasing m and the critical exponents ν, α, β and γ for m > 1 are found to ...


Hydrodynamics Of Smectic Liquid Crystal Films, Eric Minor 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Hydrodynamics Of Smectic Liquid Crystal Films, Eric Minor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Smectic A and C liquid crystals are capable of forming incredibly thin films, discretized by the number of molecular layers. This property makes liquid crystal films ideal for studying 2D hydrodynamics, a field of great interest both due to its fundamental importance to physics and because of its applications to biological systems. The phospholipid bilayer which makes up cell membranes is itself an ideal 2D fluid as it consists of only two layers of phospholipids, however cell membranes are incredibly small and difficult to work worth. Liquid crystal films can be several millimeters across and stable for long periods of ...


Photo-Tunable Compression And Realization Of Colloidal Spin Ice In Skyrmion Arrays In Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals, Yuhan Wang 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Photo-Tunable Compression And Realization Of Colloidal Spin Ice In Skyrmion Arrays In Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals, Yuhan Wang

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Topological solitons are field configurations that are important to theorists in particle physics and cosmology, but recently have been studied in condensed matter systems with reconfigurable fields, like chiral magnets and liquid crystals. In these communities, there is a strong interest in studying and understanding the dynamic behavior of these solitons, many examples of which I will present in this thesis. This includes exploring the dynamic motion and patterning behavior of large number-densities of two-dimensional topological structures called skyrmions with external stimulation by light. With these techniques we can realize for the first time a colloidal spin ice system in ...


The Solvation Energy Of Ions In A Stockmayer Fluid, Cameron John Shock 2019 Michigan Technological University

The Solvation Energy Of Ions In A Stockmayer Fluid, Cameron John Shock

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The solvation of ions in polar solvents has been a long studied system since the early twentieth century. A common technique to calculate the energy associated with ion solvation is the Born Solvation energy equation. This equation assumes an ion is placed in an incompressible, homogeneous dielectric, which is not necessarily representative of a real system. In this work the Stockmayer Fluid Model is used in a molecular dynamics simulation through the software LAMMPS to check the quantitative correctness of the Born equation. It is also shown how solvation energies of ions placed in polymerized and non-polymerized solvents differ. It ...


Practical Chaos: Using Dynamical Systems To Encrypt Audio And Visual Data, Julia Ruiter 2019 Scripps College

Practical Chaos: Using Dynamical Systems To Encrypt Audio And Visual Data, Julia Ruiter

Scripps Senior Theses

Although dynamical systems have a multitude of classical uses in physics and applied mathematics, new research in theoretical computer science shows that dynamical systems can also be used as a highly secure method of encrypting data. Properties of Lorenz and similar systems of equations yield chaotic outputs that are good at masking the underlying data both physically and mathematically. This paper aims to show how Lorenz systems may be used to encrypt text and image data, as well as provide a framework for how physical mechanisms may be built using these properties to transmit encrypted wave signals.


Matlab Programs, 2018 Selected Works

Matlab Programs

David D Nolte

Assorted Matlab skeleton programs for Homework assignments from Introduction to Modern Dynamics


Application Of Graphical Models In Protein-Protein Interactions And Dynamics, Amir Vajdi Hoojghan 2018 University of Massachusetts Boston

Application Of Graphical Models In Protein-Protein Interactions And Dynamics, Amir Vajdi Hoojghan

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Every organism contains a few hundred to thousands of proteins. A protein is made of a sequence of molecular building blocks named amino acids. Amino acids will be referred to as residues. Every protein performs one or more functions in the cell. In order for a protein to do its job, it requires to bind properly to other partner proteins. Many genetic diseases such as cancer are caused by mutations (changes) of specific residues which cause disturbances in the functions of those proteins.

The problem of prediction of protein binding site is a crucial topic in computational biology. A protein ...


Fatigue Performance And Shear Demand Distributions Of Clustered Shear Connectors In Composite Bridge Girders, Brian David Hillhouse 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fatigue Performance And Shear Demand Distributions Of Clustered Shear Connectors In Composite Bridge Girders, Brian David Hillhouse

Theses and Dissertations

The current American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Bridge Specifications assumes uniform shear flow demands at the steel-concrete interface of composite bridge girders. As stud pitch increases to beyond 24 in or as studs become clustered to account for pre-cast concrete decks, this assumed shear demand distribution may be unrepresentative. Understanding shear transfer and resulting demands on headed studs in composite beams are important for ensuring adequate composite design. This study investigates stud demands in composite bridge girders using large-scale fatigue testing and direct pressure measurements for stud force calculations. In this study, two large-scale composite beam ...


Magnetoelectric Memory Cells With Domain-Wall-Mediated Switching, Kirill Belashchenko, Oleg Tchernyshyov, Alexey Kovalev, Dmitri Nikonov 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Magnetoelectric Memory Cells With Domain-Wall-Mediated Switching, Kirill Belashchenko, Oleg Tchernyshyov, Alexey Kovalev, Dmitri Nikonov

Kirill Belashchenko Publications

A magnetoelectric memory cell with domain - wall - mediated switching is implemented using a split gate architecture . The split gate architecture allows a domain wall to be trapped within a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic ( MEAF ) active layer . An extension of this architecture applies to multiple gate linear arrays that can offer advantages in memory density , programmability , and logic functionality . Applying a small anisotropic in - plane shear strain to the MEAF can block domain wall precession to improve reliability and speed of switching


Reversible Motion In A Contact Line, Audrey Profeta, Esmeralda Orozco, Juan A. Ortiz Salazar, Dani Medina, Nathan C. Keim 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Reversible Motion In A Contact Line, Audrey Profeta, Esmeralda Orozco, Juan A. Ortiz Salazar, Dani Medina, Nathan C. Keim

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

When a body of liquid sits on a surface, an irregular border between the wet and dry regions of the surface exists, called the contact line. Driving this contact line back and forth repeatedly can change its shape.We use a syringe pump to cyclically infuse and withdraw a predetermined volume of water, and take photos of the contact line after each cycle. Comparing these images to each other determines if the contact line is returning to the same shape. We find that below a critical value of infused volume, after many cycles the contact line reaches a steady state ...


A Network Theoretical Approach To Real-World Problems: Application Of The K-Core Algorithm To Various Systems, Kate Burleson-Lesser 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Network Theoretical Approach To Real-World Problems: Application Of The K-Core Algorithm To Various Systems, Kate Burleson-Lesser

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study of complex networks is, at its core, an exploration of the mechanisms that control the world in which we live at every scale, from particles no bigger than a grain of sand and amino acids that comprise proteins, to social networks, ecosystems, and even countries. Indeed, we find that, regardless of the physical size of the network's components, we may apply principles of complex network theory, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics to not only better understand these specific networks, but to formulate theories which may be applied to problems on a more general level. This thesis explores several ...


Vibrating-Wire Rheometry, Cameron C. Hopkins 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Vibrating-Wire Rheometry, Cameron C. Hopkins

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis consists of two projects on the behaviour of a novel vibrating-wire rheometer and a third project studying the gelation dynamics of aqueous solutions of Pluronic F127. In the first study, we use COMSOL to perform two-dimensional simulations of the oscillations of a wire in Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids. Our results show that the resonant behaviour of the wire agrees well with the theory of a wire vibrating in Newtonian fluids. In shear-thinning fluids, we find resonant behaviour similar to that in Newtonian fluids. In addition, we find that the shear-rate and viscosity in the fluid vary significantly in ...


Non-Hermitian Matter-Wave Mixing In Bose-Einstein Condensates: Dissipation-Induced Amplification, S. Wuster, Ramy El-Ganainy 2018 Bilkent University

Non-Hermitian Matter-Wave Mixing In Bose-Einstein Condensates: Dissipation-Induced Amplification, S. Wuster, Ramy El-Ganainy

Ramy El-Ganainy

We investigate the nonlinear scattering dynamics in interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensates under non-Hermitian dissipative conditions. We show that, by carefully engineering a momentum-dependent atomic loss profile, one can achieve matter-wave amplification through four-wave mixing in a quasi-one-dimensional nearly-free-space setup—a process that is forbidden in the counterpart Hermitian systems due to energy mismatch. Additionally, we show that similar effects lead to rich nonlinear dynamics in higher dimensions. Finally, we propose a physical realization for selectively tailoring the momentum-dependent atomic dissipation. Our strategy is based on a two-step process: (i) exciting atoms to narrow Rydberg or metastable excited states, and (ii ...


Pore Diameter Dependence Of Catalytic Activity: P-Nitrobenzaldehyde Conversion To An Aldol Product In Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica, Andres Garcia, Igor I. Slowing, James W. Evans 2018 Ames Laboratory

Pore Diameter Dependence Of Catalytic Activity: P-Nitrobenzaldehyde Conversion To An Aldol Product In Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica, Andres Garcia, Igor I. Slowing, James W. Evans

Chemistry Publications

The reaction yield for conversion of p-nitrobenzaldehyde (PNB) to an aldol product in amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) exhibits a 20-fold enhancement for a modest increase in pore diameter, d. This enhanced catalytic activity is shown to reflect a strong increase in the “passing propensity,” 𝒫, of reactant and product species inside the pores. We find that 𝒫 ≈ 0, corresponding to single-file diffusion, applies for the smallest d which still significantly exceeds the linear dimensions of PNB and the aldol product. However, in this regime of narrow pores, these elongated species must align with each other and with the pore ...


Dynamics Of A Vertically Vibrated Doubly Tethered Granular Chain, Lorenzo P. Joquiño 2018 Philippine Science High School Main Campus

Dynamics Of A Vertically Vibrated Doubly Tethered Granular Chain, Lorenzo P. Joquiño

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Polymer physics studies the structure and dynamics of polymers and polymeric systems. Results from polymer physics have been used in various fields such as biology, polymer processing, and electronics. Mechanical analogs like granular chain have been utilized in studying polymer dynamics as they are able to demonstrate coarsed-grained behavior of polymer motion while still being accurate about a polymer's properties at a larger length scale. In this study, vibrated granular chain of beads was used as an analog system to represent the polymer motion in a solution. The granular chain was confined to a circular container. Its both ends ...


Physical Lens On The Cell: Advanced Diffusion And The Fokker-Planck Picture, Daniel M. Zuckerman 2018 Oregon Health & Science University

Physical Lens On The Cell: Advanced Diffusion And The Fokker-Planck Picture, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

On the one hand, the basics of diffusion seem easy to understand: random motion, a Gaussian distribution of steps, and linear (in time) mean-squared distance behavior. On the other hand, the diffusion equation is a partial differential equation ... and it only describes simple diffusion, whereas observed diffusion in cells is rarely simple and requires still more complicated math. Here you can deepen your understanding of the math and physics underlying diffusive behavior.


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