Quantum And Classical Transport Of 2d Electrons In The Presence Of Long And Short Range Disorder, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Quantum And Classical Transport Of 2d Electrons In The Presence Of Long And Short Range Disorder, Jesse Kanter

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This work focuses on the study of electron transport of 2-D electron gas systems in relation to both fundamental properties of the systems such as disorder and scattering mechanisms, as well as unique magnetoresistance (MR) effects. A large portion of the discussion is built around the use of an in plane magnetic field to vary the ratio between the Zeeman energy between electrons of different spins and the Landau level spacing, creating a tool to control the quantization of the density of states (DOS).

This tool is first used to isolate Quantum Positive Magnetoresistance (QPMR), which grants insight to the ...

Charge State Dynamics And Quantum Sensing With Defects In Diamond, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Charge State Dynamics And Quantum Sensing With Defects In Diamond, Jacob D. Henshaw

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In recent years, defect centers in wide band gap semiconductors such as diamond, have received significant attention. Defects offer great utility as single photon emitters, nanoscale sensors, and quantum memories and registers for quantum computation. Critical to the utility of these defects, is their charge state.

In this dissertation, experiments surrounding the charge state dynamics and the carrier dynamics are performed and analyzed. Extensive studies of the ionization and recombination processes of defects in diamond, specifically, the Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center, have been performed. Diffusion of ionized charge carriers has been imaged indirectly through the recapture of said carriers by ...

Topological Recursion And Random Finite Noncommutative Geometries, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Topological Recursion And Random Finite Noncommutative Geometries, Shahab Azarfar

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

In this thesis, we investigate a model for quantum gravity on finite noncommutative spaces using the topological recursion method originated from random matrix theory. More precisely, we consider a particular type of finite noncommutative geometries, in the sense of Connes, called spectral triples of type ${(1,0)} \,$, introduced by Barrett. A random spectral triple of type ${(1,0)}$ has a fixed fermion space, and the moduli space of its Dirac operator ${D=\{ H , \cdot \} \, ,}$ ${H \in {\mathcal{H}_N}}$, encoding all the possible geometries over the fermion space, is the space of Hermitian matrices ${\mathcal{H}_N}$. A distribution of ...

A Review Of Equation-Of-State Models For Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials, 2018 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

#### A Review Of Equation-Of-State Models For Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials, J. A. Gaffney, Duane D. Johnson, Andrey Smirnov, Et Al.

*Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts*

Material equation-of-state (EOS) models, generally providing the pressure and internal energy for a given density and temperature, are required to close the equations of hydrodynamics. As a result they are an essential piece of physics used to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Historically, EOS models based on different physical/chemical pictures of matter have been developed for ICF relevant materials such as the deuterium (D2) or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel, as well as candidate ablator materials such as polystyrene (CH), glow-discharge polymer (GDP), beryllium (Be), carbon (C), and boron carbide (B4C). The accuracy of these EOS models can directly affect ...

Topics In Pt-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics And Classical Systems, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

#### Topics In Pt-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics And Classical Systems, Nima Hassanpour

*Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Space-time reflection symmetry, or PT symmetry, first proposed in quantum mechanics by Bender and Boettcher in 1998 [2], has become an active research area in fundamental physics. This dissertation contains several research problems which are more or less related to this field of study. After an introduction on complementary topics for the main projects in Chap.1, we discuss about an idea which is originated from the remarkable paper by Chandrasekar et al in Chap.2. They showed that the (second-order constant-coefficient) classical equation of motion for a damped harmonic oscillator can be derived from a Hamiltonian having one degree ...

Scattering Of Few Photon Fields By Two Level Systems In A One Dimensional Geometry, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Scattering Of Few Photon Fields By Two Level Systems In A One Dimensional Geometry, William Konyk

*Theses and Dissertations*

Recent experimental progress has realized strong, efficient coupling of effective two level systems to waveguides. We study the scattering of multimode photons from such emitters coupled losslessly to the confined geometry of a one dimensional waveguide. We develop novel techniques for describing the scattered state of both single and multi-photon wavepackets and explore how such wavepackets interact with arrays of emitters coupled to a one dimensional waveguide. Finally, we apply these techniques and analyze the capability of two particular systems to act as a quantum conditional logic gate.

Effect Of Self-Bias On Cylindrical Capacitive Discharge For Processing Of Inner Walls Of Tubular Structures-Case Of Srf Cavities, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Effect Of Self-Bias On Cylindrical Capacitive Discharge For Processing Of Inner Walls Of Tubular Structures-Case Of Srf Cavities, J. Upadhyay, J. Peshl, S. Popović, A.-M. Valente-Feliciano, L. Vušković

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Cylindrical capacitive discharge is a convenient medium for generating reactive ions to process inner walls superconductive radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. These cavities, used in particle accelerators, presents a three-dimensional structure made of bulk Niobium, with axial cylindrical symmetry. Manufactured cavity walls are covered with Niobium oxides and scattered particulates, which must be removed for desired SRF performance. Cylindrical capacitive discharge in a mixture of Ar and Cl_{2} is a sole and natural non-wet acid choice to purify the inner surfaces of SRF cavities by reactive ion etching. Coaxial cylindrical discharge is generated between a powered inner electrode and the grounded ...

Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, 2018 Lewis and Clark College

#### Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, Mohamed M. Anber, Benjamin J. Kolligs

*Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications*

Computing the entanglement entropy in confining gauge theories is often accompanied by puzzles and ambiguities. In this work we show that compactifying the theory on a small circle S ^{1/L} evades these difficulties. In particular, we study Yang-Mills theory on R^{3}×S ^{1/L} with double-trace deformations or adjoint fermions and hold it at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. This theory is dual to a multi-component (electric-magnetic) Coulomb gas that can be mapped either to an XY-spin model with Z_{p} symmetry-preserving perturbations or dual Sine-Gordon model. The entanglement entropy of the dual SineGordon model exhibits an extremum ...

Nodal Variational Principle For Excited States, 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

#### Nodal Variational Principle For Excited States, Federico Zahariev, Mark S. Gordon, Mel Levy

*Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts*

It is proven that the exact excited-state wave function and energy may be obtained by minimizing the energy expectation value of trial wave functions that are constrained only to have the correct nodes of the state of interest. This excited-state nodal minimum principle has the advantage that it requires neither minimization with the constraint of wave-function orthogonality to all lower eigenstates nor the antisymmetry of the trial wave functions. It is also found that the minimization over the entire space can be partitioned into several interconnected minimizations within the individual nodal regions, and the exact excited-state energy may be obtained ...

Localization And Scrambling Of Quantum Information With Applications To Quantum Computation And Thermodynamics, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Localization And Scrambling Of Quantum Information With Applications To Quantum Computation And Thermodynamics, Adrian Kristian Chapman

*Physics & Astronomy ETDs*

As our demand for computational power grows, we encounter the question: "What are the physical limits to computation?" An answer is necessarily incomplete unless it can incorporate physics at the smallest scales, where we expect our near-term high-performance computing to occur. Microscopic physics -- namely, quantum mechanics -- behaves counterintuitively to our everyday experience, however. Quantum matter can occupy superpositions of states and build stronger correlations than are possible classically. This affects how quantum computers and quantum thermodynamic engines will behave.

Though these properties may seem to overwhelmingly defeat our attempts to build a quantum computer at-first-glance, what is remarkable is that ...

Weak Measurements For Quantum Characterization And Control, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Weak Measurements For Quantum Characterization And Control, Jonathan A. Gross

*Physics & Astronomy ETDs*

This dissertation concerns itself with the virtues and vices of weak measurements. Weak measurements are all around us, but this does not mean that one should manufacture weakness on all occasions. We critically evaluate two proposals that claim weak measurements provide a novel means of performing quantum state tomography, allegedly increasing tomographic efficacy and yielding foundational insights into the nature of quantum mechanics. We find weak measurements are not an essential ingredient for most of their advertised features. In contrast to this negative finding, we highlight an optimal tomographic scheme for which weak continuous measurements are the best known implementation ...

Strengthening Weak Measurements Of Qubit Out-Of-Time-Order Correlators, 2018 Chapman University

#### Strengthening Weak Measurements Of Qubit Out-Of-Time-Order Correlators, Justin Dressel, José Raúl González Alonso, Mordecai Waegell, Nicole Yunger Halpern

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

For systems of controllable qubits,we provide amethod for experimentally obtaining a useful class of multitime correlators using sequential generalized measurements of arbitrary strength. Specifically, if a correlator can be expressed as an average of nested (anti)commutators of operators that square to the identity, then that correlator can be determined exactly from the average of a measurement sequence. As a relevant example, we provide quantum circuits for measuring multiqubit out-of-time-order correlators using optimized control-Z or ZX-90 two-qubit gates common in superconducting transmon implementations.

Hadron Spectra, Decays And Scattering Properties Within Basis Light Front Quantization, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Hadron Spectra, Decays And Scattering Properties Within Basis Light Front Quantization, James P. Vary, Lekha Adhikari, Guangyao Chen, Shaoyang Jia, Meijian Li, Yang Li, Pieter Maris, Wenyang Qian, John R. Spence, Shuo Tang, Kirill Tuchin, Anji Yu, Xingbo Zhao

*Physics and Astronomy Publications*

We survey recent progress in calculating properties of the electron and hadrons within the basis light front quantization (BLFQ) approach. We include applications to electromagnetic and strong scattering processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We present an initial investigation into the glueball states by applying BLFQ with multigluon sectors, introducing future research possibilities on multi-quark and multi-gluon systems.

Broadband Measurement And Reduction Of Quantum Radiation Pressure Noise In The Audio Band, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Broadband Measurement And Reduction Of Quantum Radiation Pressure Noise In The Audio Band, Jonathan Daniel Cripe

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

One hundred years after Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in his general theory of relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) made the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Since the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger, LIGO has gone on to detect gravitational waves from multiple binary black hole mergers, and more recently from a binary neutron star merger in collaboration with telescopes around the world. The detection of gravitational waves has opened a new window to the universe and has launched the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

With the first ...

What Is A Photon? Foundations Of Quantum Field Theory, 2018 Utah State University

#### What Is A Photon? Foundations Of Quantum Field Theory, Charles G. Torre

*All Physics Faculty Publications*

This is a brief, informal, and relatively low-level course on the foundations of quantum field theory. The prerequisites are undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics and electromagnetism.

Many Body Effects And Icosahedral Order In Superlattice Self-Assembly, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Many Body Effects And Icosahedral Order In Superlattice Self-Assembly, Tommy Waltmann, Curt Waltmann, Nathan Horst, Alex Travesset

*Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts*

We elucidate how nanocrystals “bond” to form ordered structures. For that purpose we consider nanocrystal configurations consisting of regular polygons and polyhedra, which are the motifs that constitute single component and binary nanocrystal superlattices, and simulate them using united atom models. We compute the free energy and quantify many body effects, i.e., those that cannot be accounted for by pair potential (two-body) interactions, further showing that they arise from coalescing vortices of capping ligands. We find that such vortex textures exist for configurations with local coordination number ≤6. For higher coordination numbers, vortices are expelled and nanocrystals arrange in ...

Numerical And Analytical Bounds On Threshold Error Rates For Hypergraph-Product Codes, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

#### Numerical And Analytical Bounds On Threshold Error Rates For Hypergraph-Product Codes, Alexey Kovalev, Sanjay Prabhakar, Ilya Dumer, Leonid P. Pryadko

*Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy*

We study analytically and numerically decoding properties of finite-rate hypergraph-product quantum low density parity-check codes obtained from random (3,4)-regular Gallager codes, with a simple model of independent X and Z errors. Several nontrivial lower and upper bounds for the decodable region are constructed analytically by analyzing the properties of the homological difference, equal minus the logarithm of the maximum-likelihood decoding probability for a given syndrome. Numerical results include an upper bound for the decodable region from specific heat calculations in associated Ising models and a minimum-weight decoding threshold of approximately 7%.

Electron- And Positron-Impact Ionization Of Inert Gases, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Electron- And Positron-Impact Ionization Of Inert Gases, R. I. Campeanu, H. R. J. Walters, Colm T. Whelan

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Triple-differential cross sections (TDCS) are presented for the electron and positron impact ionization of inert gas atoms in a range of geometries where a number of significant few body effects compete to define the shape of the TDCS. Using both positrons and electrons as projectiles has opened up the possibility of performing complementary studies which could effectively isolate competing interactions which cannot be separately detected in an experiment with a single projectile. A comparison is presented between theory and the recent experiments of [Gavin, deLucio, and DuBois, Phys. Rev. A95, 062703 (2017)] for *e ^{±}* and contrasted with the results from ...

Quadrupolar Quantum Criticality On A Fractal, 2018 University of Kentucky

#### Quadrupolar Quantum Criticality On A Fractal, Jonathan D'Emidio, Simon Lovell, Ribhu K. Kaul

*Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications*

We study the ground state ordering of quadrupolar ordered *S* = 1 magnets as a function of spin dilution probability p on the triangular lattice. In sharp contrast to the ordering of *S* = 1/2 dipolar Néel magnets on percolating clusters, we find that the quadrupolar magnets are quantum disordered at the percolation threshold, *p* = *p*^{∗}. Further we find that long-range quadrupolar order is present for all *p* < *p*^{∗} and vanishes first exactly at *p*^{∗}. Strong evidence for scaling behavior close to *p*^{∗} points to an unusual quantum criticality without fine tuning that arises from an interplay of quantum fluctuations and ...

Full Dyon Excitation Spectrum In Extended Levin-Wen Models, 2018 University of Utah

#### Full Dyon Excitation Spectrum In Extended Levin-Wen Models, Yuting Hu, Nathan Geer, Yong-Shi Wu

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications*

In Levin-Wen (LW) models, a wide class of exactly solvable discrete models, for two-dimensional topological phases, it is relatively easy to describe only single-fluxon excitations, but not the charge and dyonic as well as many-fluxon excitations. To incorporate charged and dyonic excitations in (doubled) topological phases, an extension of the LW models is proposed in this paper. We first enlarge the Hilbert space with adding a tail on one of the edges of each trivalent vertex to describe the internal charge degrees of freedom at the vertex. Then, we study the full dyon spectrum of the extended LW models, including ...