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Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The problem of discriminating between non-orthogonal states is one that has generated a lot of interest. This basic formalism is useful in many areas of quantum information. It serves as a fundamental basis for many quantum key distribution schemes, it functions as an integral part of other quantum algorithms, and it is useful in experimental settings where orthogonal states are not always possible to generate. Additionally, the discrimination problem reveals important fundamental properties, and is intrinsically related to entanglement. In this thesis, the focus is on exploring the problem of sequentially discriminating between non-orthogonal states. In the simplest version these ...


Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Small field dosimetry presents complications and uncertainties that could be circumvented by using detectors which are smaller than the radiation field. This study evaluates the reproducibility and accuracy of TLD micro-cubes for use in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remote auditing quality assurance (QA) for treatment centers participating in clinical trials. This study tested the hypothesis that TLD micro-cubes could be commissioned to evaluate small field dosimetry, and provide reproducibility within 3%, as well as assure agreement between measured dose and calculated doses to within 5%.

The aims of this thesis were to characterize and commission TLD micro-cubes as well as to ...


Quantifying Uncertainty In A Measurement-Based Assessment Of Relative Biological Effectiveness In Carbon Ion Radiotherapy, Shannon Hartzell 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Quantifying Uncertainty In A Measurement-Based Assessment Of Relative Biological Effectiveness In Carbon Ion Radiotherapy, Shannon Hartzell

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

One of the largest inconsistencies in dose delivered during carbon ion therapy is due to uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a value that is calculated via one of several clinically implemented algorithms. This study investigates the uncertainty in measured microdosimetric parameters for RBE calculation by the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model (MKM), Repair Misrepair Fixation model (RMF), and Local Effect Model I (LEM) using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC).

Microdosimetric spectra, kinetic energy spectra, and dose fragment contributions were calculated using Monte Carlo (GEANT IV) for monoenergetic and SOBP carbon beams of clinical energy. From microdosimetric spectra, lineal energy values ...


Benchmarks Of Nonclassicality For Qubit Arrays, Mordecai Waegell, Justin Dressel 2019 Chapman University

Benchmarks Of Nonclassicality For Qubit Arrays, Mordecai Waegell, Justin Dressel

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We present a set of practical benchmarks for N-qubit arrays that economically test the fidelity of achieving multi-qubit nonclassicality. The benchmarks are measurable correlators similar to two-qubit Bell correlators, and are derived from a particular set of geometric structures from the N-qubit Pauli group. These structures prove the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem, while the derived correlators witness genuine N-partite entanglement and establish a tight lower bound on the fidelity of particular stabilizer state preparations. The correlators need only MN + 1 distinct measurement settings, as opposed to the 22N − 1 settings that would normally be required ...


Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis

LSU Master's Theses

Radioactive isotopes of iodine are produced by nuclear power plants as a byproduct of nuclear fission reactions. If these isotopes are released into the environment, such as during a breach of containment, they constitute a health risk to exposed individuals. To mitigate the risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine, “iodide prophylaxis,” also known as “thyroid blockade,” can be used, usually by administration of potassium iodide (KI). In some areas of the world, KI has been provided to the general public by their governments as a precautionary measure against potential nuclear power plant incidents. However, in the ...


An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons

Physics

The Electromagnetic Drive (EMDrive) is a propellant-less engine concept hypothesized by aero- space engineer Roger Shawyer. Shawyer’s proposed thruster technology is grounded on the theory of electromagnetic resonant behavior exhibited by a radiofrequency cavity, though the source of any generated thrust is undetermined by current physical laws. NASA Eagleworks Laboratories at John- son Space Center conducted a vacuum test campaign to investigate previously reported anomalous thrust capabilities of such a closed radiofrequency cavity, using a low-thrust torsion pendulum. The team published positive, although small-scaled thrust results in 2017. Following NASA Eagleworks breakthrough result and operating under the assumption that ...


Rare Event Sampling In Applied Stochastic Dynamical Systems, YiMing Yu 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Rare Event Sampling In Applied Stochastic Dynamical Systems, Yiming Yu

Dissertations

Predicting rare events is a challenging problem in many complex systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. Simulating rare events is often prohibitive in such systems due to their high dimensionality and the numerical cost of their simulation, yet analytical expressions for rare event probabilities are usually not available. This dissertation tackles the problem of approximation of the probability of rare catastrophic events in optical communication systems and spin-torque magnetic nanodevices. With the application of the geometric minimum action method, the probability of pulse position shifts or other parameter changes in a model of an actively mode-locked laser ...


Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven

LSU Master's Theses

Synchrotron facilities require substantial amounts of shielding to protect facility staff and researchers. To meet mandatory exposure limits, the traditional combination of time, distance, and shielding of the radiation source are utilized. Because of continuous 24-7 operation of most synchrotrons, time is the least useful tool. The experimental stations for synchrotron x-ray beamlines, called hutches, enforce a minimum distance from the source, but shielding provided by hutch walls is still the principal tool for a synchrotron facility. Currently there is no single resource for synchrotron beamline hutch shielding design in the literature; most hutch shielding is designed through either over-simplified ...


Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino 2019 Lynchburg College

Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

Automation of various modes of transportation is thought to make travel more safe and efficient. Over the past several decades advances to semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles have led to advanced autopilot systems on planes and boats and an increasing popularity of self-driving cars. We simulated the motion of an autonomous vehicle using computational models. The simulation models the motion of a small-scale watercraft, which can then be built and programmed using an Arduino Microcontroller. We examined different control methods for a simulated rescue craft to reach a target. We also examined the effects of different factors, such as various biases ...


Analyzing The Mindsets And Behaviors Of Introductory Physics Students Through The Lens Of Intellectual Humility, Meagan Sundstrom 2019 University of Connecticut

Analyzing The Mindsets And Behaviors Of Introductory Physics Students Through The Lens Of Intellectual Humility, Meagan Sundstrom

University Scholar Projects

Students often enter the physics classroom with intuitive conceptions drawn from real life experiences or former coursework, and may be hesitant or reluctant to re-evaluate these mindsets in favor of formally instructed knowledge. The goal of introductory physics courses is not only to teach and expose students to new content, but also to cultivate students’ ability to reason through and derive content knowledge through personal inquiry. This scientific process necessitates one’s abilities to be open-minded in terms of hearing evidence that contradicts his or her personal opinion, to be willing to discard any original misconceptions in the face of ...


Analyzing The Mindsets And Behaviors Of Introductory Physics Students Through The Lens Of Intellectual Humility, Meagan Sundstrom 2019 University of Connecticut

Analyzing The Mindsets And Behaviors Of Introductory Physics Students Through The Lens Of Intellectual Humility, Meagan Sundstrom

Honors Scholar Theses

Students often enter the physics classroom with intuitive conceptions drawn from real life experiences or former coursework, and may be hesitant or reluctant to re-evaluate these mindsets in favor of formally instructed knowledge. The goal of introductory physics courses is not only to teach and expose students to new content, but also to cultivate students’ ability to reason through and derive content knowledge through personal inquiry. This scientific process necessitates one’s abilities to be open-minded in terms of hearing evidence that contradicts his or her personal opinion, to be willing to discard any original misconceptions in the face of ...


Exploring Stochastic Quantum Mechanics And Emergent Gravity, John Mitchell 2019 William & Mary

Exploring Stochastic Quantum Mechanics And Emergent Gravity, John Mitchell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

It has been proposed that gravity is not a fundamental force, but rather a force that emerges at long distances as a result of quantum phenomena. Recent work has attempted to combine the ideas of stochastic quantization and the quantum field theories in which gravity emerges at these distances. In this project, we extend previous work done on this subject and describe a model for stochastic quantization compatible with general relativity. Numerical simulations of these relativistic stochastic systems were created to test for certain quantum mechanical properties expected to arise from this description, and it was shown that classical equations ...


Topological Insulating States In Photonics And Acoustics, Xiang Ni 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Topological Insulating States In Photonics And Acoustics, Xiang Ni

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent surge of interest in topological insulators, insulating in their interior but conducting at the surfaces or interfaces of different domains, has led to the discovery of a variety of new topological states, and their topological invariants are characterized by numerous approaches in the category of topological band theory. The common features shared by topological insulators include, the topological phase transition occurs if the bulk bandgap is formed due to the symmetries reduction, the topological invariants exist characterizing the global properties of the material and inherently robust to disorder and continuous perturbations irrespective of the local details. Most importantly, these ...


Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls

LSU Master's Theses

Background: Respiratory motion affects all tumor sites in the thorax and abdomen. Variations of the respiratory pattern cause variations of the tumor motion which can result in differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Previous breathing guidance techniques have been investigated to improve respiratory reproducibility; however, ventilation assistance has not been investigated. We evaluated using bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) ventilation assistance for improving respiratory reproducibility in patients with tumor sites impacted by respiratory motion.

Methods: Written informed consent was obtained for 10 patients currently undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Patients participated in sessions over their course of treatment, which ...


Semiclassically Modeling Hydrogen At Rydberg States Immersed In Electromagnetic Fields, Jaron Williams 2019 Louisiana Tech University

Semiclassically Modeling Hydrogen At Rydberg States Immersed In Electromagnetic Fields, Jaron Williams

Mathematics Senior Capstone Papers

Originally, closed-orbit theory was developed in order to analyze oscillations in the near ionization threshold (Rydberg) densities of states for atoms in strong external electric and magnetic fields. Oscillations in the density of states were ascribed to classical orbits that began and ended near the atom. In essence, observed outgoing waves following the classical path return and interfere with original outgoing waves, giving rise to oscillations. Elastic scattering from one closed orbit to another gives additional oscillations in the cross-section. This study examines how quantum theory can be properly used in combination with classical orbit theory in order to study ...


Sympathetic Physics: The Keely Motor And The Laws Of Thermodynamics In Nineteenth-Century Culture, Robert MacDougall 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Sympathetic Physics: The Keely Motor And The Laws Of Thermodynamics In Nineteenth-Century Culture, Robert Macdougall

History Publications

In Philadelphia in the 1870s, John Worrell Keely announced the invention of a fantastic new motor that could, he promised, drive locomotives, power factories, and even defy gravity without fuel or heat. The Keely Motor became the most notorious perpetual motion scheme of the nineteenth century, attracting believers and investors for nearly thirty years. This article explores the “work” the motor performed for Keely, his supporters, and his critics—not physical work, but financial, cultural, and psychological. To investors, the Keely Motor represented a dream of riches without effort. To Keely’s critics, the motor offered an opportunity to defend ...


An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran 2019 Technological University Dublin

An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran

Articles

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether clinically used ultrasonic contrast agents improved the accuracy of spectral Doppler ultrasound in the detection of low grade (< 50%) renal artery stenosis. Low grade stenoses in the renal artery are notoriously difficult to reliably detect using Doppler ultrasound due to difficulties such as overlying fat and bowel gas.

Methods: A range of anatomically-realistic renal artery phantoms with varying low degrees of stenosis (0, 30 and 50%) were constructed and peak velocity data was measured from within the pre-stenotic and mid-stenotic regions in each phantom, for both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced spectral Doppler data acquisitions. The effect of a 20mm overlying fat layer on the ultrasound beam distortion and phase aberration, and hence on the measured peak velocity data, was also investigated ...


Determination Of Conversion Factors For Various Calibration Geometries Using Barium-133 In A Silver Zeolite Cartridge, Amin Hamideh 2019 Louisiana State University

Determination Of Conversion Factors For Various Calibration Geometries Using Barium-133 In A Silver Zeolite Cartridge, Amin Hamideh

LSU Master's Theses

Iodine-131 (I-131) is a major fission product among other radionuclides released during a nuclear incident. This radioiodine has a half-life of 8.02 days and the primary organ of uptake through ingestion or inhalation is the thyroid gland. For these reasons, nuclear power plants must routinely monitor I-131 through air sampling. Currently, there are two adsorbing media to collect I-131: activated charcoal and silver zeolite cartridges. Silver zeolite cartridges are generally used during a post nuclear incident due to its affinity for iodine while not adsorbing noble gases such as krypton-85 and xenon-135. After an air sample is taken from ...


Analytical Wave Solutions Of The Space Time Fractional Modified Regularized Long Wave Equation Involving The Conformable Fractional Derivative, M. Hafiz Uddin, Md. Ashrafuzzaman Khan, M. Ali Akbar, Md. Abdul Haque 2019 Jessore University of Science and Technology

Analytical Wave Solutions Of The Space Time Fractional Modified Regularized Long Wave Equation Involving The Conformable Fractional Derivative, M. Hafiz Uddin, Md. Ashrafuzzaman Khan, M. Ali Akbar, Md. Abdul Haque

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The space time fractional modified regularized long wave equation is a model equation to the gravitational water waves in the long-wave occupancy, shallow waters waves in coastal seas, the hydro-magnetic waves in cold plasma, the phonetic waves in dissident quartz and phonetic gravitational waves in contractible liquids. In nonlinear science and engineering, the mentioned equation is applied to analyze the one way tract of long waves in seas and harbors. In this study, the closed form traveling wave solutions to the above equation are evaluated due to conformable fractional derivatives through double (G'⁄G,1⁄G)-expansion method and the ...


University Physics I: Classical Mechanics, Julio Gea-Banacloche 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

University Physics I: Classical Mechanics, Julio Gea-Banacloche

Open Educational Resources

This is a “minimalist” textbook for a first semester of university, calculus-based physics, covering classical mechanics (including one chapter on mechanical waves, but excluding fluids), plus a brief introduction to thermodynamics. The presentation owes much to Mazur’s The Principles and Practice of Physics: conservation laws, momentum and energy, are introduced before forces, and one-dimensional setups are thoroughly explored before two-dimensional systems are considered. It contains both problems and worked-out examples.


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