Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

11,846 Full-Text Articles 19,299 Authors 1,085,069 Downloads 172 Institutions

All Articles in Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Faceted Search

11,846 full-text articles. Page 1 of 326.

Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin 2019 Iowa State University

Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The water vapor is a relevant greenhouse gas in the Earth's climate system, and satellite products become one of the most effective way to characterize and monitor the columnar water vapor (CWV) content at global scale. Recently, a new product (MCD19) was released as part of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 6 (C6). This operational product from Multi-Angle Implementation for Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm includes a high 1 km resolution CWV retrievals. This study presents the first global validation of MAIAC C6 CWV obtained from MODIS MCD19A2 product. This evaluation was performed using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations ...


Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D., 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D.,

Nihad E. Daidzic, Dr.-Ing., D.Sc., ATP, CFII, MEI

Both, a global isothermal temperature model and a nonlinear quadratic temperature model of the ISA was developed and presented here. Constrained optimization techniques in conjunction with the least-square-root approximations were used to design best-fit isothermal models for ISA pressure and density changes up to 47 geopotential km for NLPAM, and 86 orthometric km for ISOAM respectively. The mass of the dry atmosphere and the relevant fractional-mass scale heights have been computed utilizing the very accurate eight-point Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature for both ISOAM and NLPAM. Both, the ISOAM and the NLPAM represent viable alternatives to ISA in many practical applications and ...


Efficient General Computational Method For Estimation Of Standard Atmosphere Parameters, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D. 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Efficient General Computational Method For Estimation Of Standard Atmosphere Parameters, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D.

Nihad E. Daidzic, Dr.-Ing., D.Sc., ATP, CFII, MEI

Knowledge of standard air temperature, pressure, density, speed of sound, and viscosity as a function of altitude is essential information in aircraft design, performance testing, pressure altimeter calibration, and several other aeronautical engineering and aviation science applications. A new efficient computational method for rapid calculations of standard atmospheric parameters up to 86 orthometric km is presented. Additionally, mass and weight of each standard atmospheric layer were calculated using a numerical integration method. The sum of all fractional masses and weights represents the total mass and weight of Earth’s atmosphere. The results obtained here agree well with measurements and models ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias 2019 University of Maine

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin 2019 Iowa State University

Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin

Vitor Martins

The water vapor is a relevant greenhouse gas in the Earth's climate system, and satellite products become one of the most effective way to characterize and monitor the columnar water vapor (CWV) content at global scale. Recently, a new product (MCD19) was released as part of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 6 (C6). This operational product from Multi-Angle Implementation for Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm includes a high 1 km resolution CWV retrievals. This study presents the first global validation of MAIAC C6 CWV obtained from MODIS MCD19A2 product. This evaluation was performed using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations ...


Validation Of High‐Resolution Maiac Aerosol Product Over South America, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Lino A.S. de Carvalho, Claudio C.F. Barbosa, Evlyn M.L.M. Novo 2019 Iowa State University

Validation Of High‐Resolution Maiac Aerosol Product Over South America, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Lino A.S. De Carvalho, Claudio C.F. Barbosa, Evlyn M.L.M. Novo

Vitor Martins

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithm that combines time series approach and image processing to derive surface reflectance and atmosphere products, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV). The quality assessment of MAIAC AOD at 1 km resolution is still lacking across South America. In the present study, critical assessment of MAIAC AOD550 was performed using ground‐truth data from 19 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over South America. Additionally, we validated the MAIAC CWV retrievals using the same AERONET sites. In general, MAIAC AOD Terra/Aqua retrievals show high agreement with ground‐based measurements, with ...


Seasonal And Interannual Assessment Of Cloud Cover And Atmospheric Constituents Across The Amazon (2000–2015): Insights For Remote Sensing And Climate Analysis, Vitor S. Martins, Evlyn M.L.M. Novo, Alexei Lyapustin, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Saulo R. Freitas, Claudio C.F. Barbosa 2019 Iowa State University

Seasonal And Interannual Assessment Of Cloud Cover And Atmospheric Constituents Across The Amazon (2000–2015): Insights For Remote Sensing And Climate Analysis, Vitor S. Martins, Evlyn M.L.M. Novo, Alexei Lyapustin, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Saulo R. Freitas, Claudio C.F. Barbosa

Vitor Martins

The quantitative assessment of cloud cover and atmospheric constituents improves our ability to exploit the climate feedback into the Amazon basin. In the 21st century, three droughts have already occurred in the Amazonia (e.g. 2005, 2010, 2015), inducing regional changes in the seasonal patterns of atmospheric constituents. In addition to climate, the atmospheric dynamic and attenuation properties are long-term challenges for satellite-based remote sensing of this ecosystem: high cloudiness, abundant water vapor content and biomass burning season. Therefore, while climatology analysis supports the understanding of atmospheric variability and trends, it also offers valuable insights for remote sensing applications. In ...


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith 2019 Fordham University

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Wish You Were Here, Janie Stamm, Janie I. Stamm 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Wish You Were Here, Janie Stamm, Janie I. Stamm

Graduate School of Art Theses

The State of Florida is under threat from the effects of climate change. Rising sea levels are creeping up on to Florida’s coast, eroding the beaches and encroaching on heavily populated cities. Over my lifetime I will watch the water spill over the streets of my home town. I will watch the water flood the Everglades, pushing saltwater into freshwater habitats. I will watch the water begin to drown the state, taking Florida’s many little known histories along with it. This thesis serves as a document of Floridian life during the Anthropocene.

Within this thesis, I tell the ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang 2019 Auburn University

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu 2019 Iowa State University

A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Fine-resolution satellite observations show great potential for characterizing seasonal and annual dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains, from local to regional and global scales. However, most previous studies were conducted using coarse or moderate resolution data, which are inadequate for characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains. In this study, we produced an annual vegetation phenology dataset in urban ecosystems for the conterminous United States (US), using all available Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. First, we characterized the long-term mean seasonal pattern of phenology indicators of the start of season (SOS) and ...


Analysis Of Hurricane Track Forecast Accuracy During The 2018 Season, Jonathan Unger 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analysis Of Hurricane Track Forecast Accuracy During The 2018 Season, Jonathan Unger

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores

Publications and Research

Climate change is expected to impact the wine industry by shifting suitable growing regions away from established regions and increasing the demand for freshwater supplies to maintain vineyard health. This creates challenges for maintaining vineyards since the grapevines need to be appropriately stressed to produce quality grapes for quality wine. This requires precision management of freshwater application and canopy management to produce a grape that has the appropriate concentration of flavors and sugars. Vineyards in the U.S. are typically monitored by vineyard managers at the large scale, lacking the resolution needed to identify grapevine growth at the subfield level ...


Landuse And Soil Property Effects On Infiltration And Soil Aggregate Stability In The Lower Mississippi River Valley, Rebecca Lynn Anderson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Landuse And Soil Property Effects On Infiltration And Soil Aggregate Stability In The Lower Mississippi River Valley, Rebecca Lynn Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

Following European settlement of the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV), agricultural expansion and unsustainable, agriculturally related practices have caused groundwater depletion, soil erosion, and surface water contamination by eroded sediments and sediment-bound nutrients to become major environmental threats to the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of common landuses [i.e., native prairie, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grassland, and conventional-tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) agriculture] on surface water infiltration and aggregate-stability-related properties [i.e., water-stable macroaggregate (WSA) size distribution, total water-stable macroaggregate (TWSA) concentration, and mean weight diameter (MWD)]. The overall ...


Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges 2019 Utah State University

Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soluble phosphorus fertilizer is bound in the soil rapidly after application in soils high in calcium. A fertilizer additive known as AVAIL® (J.R. Simplot Company) is purported to keep applied phosphorus fertilizer more available to plants by binding to soil minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, thereby reducing phosphorus binding. This could prove useful due to the attraction of AVAIL® with cations such as Ca2+, but is fairly unstudied for dryland wheat production on alkaline, calcium-rich soils. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-rate fertilizer treatments with AVAIL® on dryland small grain ...


Antecedent North Pacific Jet Regimes Conducive To The Development Of Cool Season Continental U.S. Tornado Outbreaks, Jessica Blair 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Antecedent North Pacific Jet Regimes Conducive To The Development Of Cool Season Continental U.S. Tornado Outbreaks, Jessica Blair

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

The occurrence of tornado outbreaks are often associated with considerable societal and economic impacts. The U.S. averages nearly 1000 tornadoes per year that result in 1500 injuries and 80 fatalities, many of which are associated with outbreak days. Additionally, one outbreak alone can cause millions of dollars in property damage. The location of these outbreaks can vary temporally throughout the cool season (September–May) and can vary substantially in terms of their severity.

This study focuses on continental U.S. tornado outbreaks during the cool season and their relation to the state and evolution of the North Pacific jet ...


Induced Magnetic Dipole On Jupiter’S Moon Europa, Luke Francis, Michele Zanolin 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Induced Magnetic Dipole On Jupiter’S Moon Europa, Luke Francis, Michele Zanolin

Student Works

Physics can have some of the most unique and extraordinary applications of basic principles applied on a larger scale. This paper will explore the properties of induced magnetic dipoles and will examine this phenomenon directly from Jupiter's moon, Europa. These properties will be used to determine if there is liquid water beneath its icy surface and how this conclusion was verified. This will be accomplished using the concepts of magnetic dipoles and induced currents. Recent missions have also revealed estimates of the depth of Europa's subsurface ocean. There have been many measurements taken of Europa's magnetic field ...


Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques Combined With Weather And Climate Data To Create A Deeper Understanding The Wildfire Campfire In California, Lucas Farmer 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques Combined With Weather And Climate Data To Create A Deeper Understanding The Wildfire Campfire In California, Lucas Farmer

Student Symposium

Wildfires have devastated the West Coast time and time again. This project takes on multiple approaches to help understand different aspects of these fires, focusing on the wildfire Campfire. The Campfire started and ended in November of 2018 in Butte County California. The first portion of the project focuses on the weather and climate of this region in California. By understanding the weather and climate of a particular area and the time at which a wildfire starts you can start to identify optimal conditions where a fire could potentially breakout. Local weather data will be gathered to look at temperature ...


Using A Balloon-Launched Unmanned Glider To Validate Real-Time Wrf Modeling, Travis J. Schuyler, S. M. Iman Gohari, Gary Pundsack, Donald Berchoff, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Using A Balloon-Launched Unmanned Glider To Validate Real-Time Wrf Modeling, Travis J. Schuyler, S. M. Iman Gohari, Gary Pundsack, Donald Berchoff, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The use of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) for meteorological measurements has expanded significantly in recent years. SUAS are efficient platforms for collecting data with high resolution in both space and time, providing opportunities for enhanced atmospheric sampling. Furthermore, advances in mesoscale weather research and forecasting (WRF) modeling and graphical processing unit (GPU) computing have enabled high resolution weather modeling. In this manuscript, a balloon-launched unmanned glider, complete with a suite of sensors to measure atmospheric temperature, pressure, and relative humidity, is deployed for validation of real-time weather models. This work demonstrates the usefulness of sUAS for validating and improving ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress