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Climate Warming Trends In The U.S. Midwest Using Four Thermal Models, Lori J. Abendroth, Fernando E. Miguez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield 2019 Iowa State University

Climate Warming Trends In The U.S. Midwest Using Four Thermal Models, Lori J. Abendroth, Fernando E. Miguez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield

Michael Castellano

Thermal time (TT) is an agro-climate index widely established and used in predicting plant development based on temperature. This index is a powerful tool for measuring multi-faceted changes in temperature occurring from climate change. In the present study, TT was calculated for the entire frost-free period and individual spring, summer, and fall seasons using growing degree day (GDD), general thermal index (GTI), crop heat unit (CHU), and heat stress degree day (HSDD) models for 1054 counties across 12 Midwest states on a daily basis from 1950 to 2017. The temporal trend for each county was fit with a linear regression ...


Physics Professor Receives $250k From Nsf To Help Advance Climate Science, 2019 Selected Works

Physics Professor Receives $250k From Nsf To Help Advance Climate Science

Frank Robinson

Sacred Heart University has received $252,060 from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to help advance climate science. This grant will help fund an undergraduate physics research program introducing juniors and seniors to cutting-edge scientific research, intended to bridge major gaps in climate modeling.


Latent Storm Factors And Their Indicators, Joy D'Andrea 2019 Illinois State University

Latent Storm Factors And Their Indicators, Joy D'Andrea

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Blue Economy And Climate Change: Bangladesh Perspective, Subrata Sarker, Firdaus Ara Hussain, Mohammad Assaduzzaman, Pierre Failler 2019 Shahjalal University

Blue Economy And Climate Change: Bangladesh Perspective, Subrata Sarker, Firdaus Ara Hussain, Mohammad Assaduzzaman, Pierre Failler

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Blue Economy is related to economic growth through the sustainable utilization of ocean resources with technological inputs to improve livelihoods. Economically important coastal and marine resources are the main components of the Blue Economy for Bangladesh. These resources are categorized into living, non-living, renewable resources and trade and commerce. As Bangladesh is vulnerable to climate change, related extreme events are making the coastal and marine resources vulnerable which may hamper the smooth Blue Economy development in Bangladesh. Climate change extreme events include warming trend, cyclone, sea level rise, droughts, erosion, tidal surge, saline water intrusion, flood, change in precipitation trend ...


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, KA Goldsmith, S Lau, et al, EH Shadwick, et al 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


North American Extreme Precipitation Events And Related Large-Scale Meteorological Patterns: A Review Of Statistical Methods, Dynamics, Modeling, And Trends, Mathew Barlow, William J. Gutowski Jr., John R. Gyakum, Richard W. Katz, Young‑Kwon Lim, Russ S. Schumacher, Michael F. Wehner, Laurie Agel, Michael Bosilovich, Allison Collow, Alexander Gershunov, Richard Grotjahn, Ruby Leung, Shawn Milrad, Seung‑Ki Min 2019 University of Massachusetts at Lowell

North American Extreme Precipitation Events And Related Large-Scale Meteorological Patterns: A Review Of Statistical Methods, Dynamics, Modeling, And Trends, Mathew Barlow, William J. Gutowski Jr., John R. Gyakum, Richard W. Katz, Young‑Kwon Lim, Russ S. Schumacher, Michael F. Wehner, Laurie Agel, Michael Bosilovich, Allison Collow, Alexander Gershunov, Richard Grotjahn, Ruby Leung, Shawn Milrad, Seung‑Ki Min

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

This paper surveys the current state of knowledge regarding large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with short-duration (less than 1 week) extreme precipitation events over North America. In contrast to teleconnections, which are typically defined based on the characteristic spatial variations of a meteorological field or on the remote circulation response to a known forcing, LSMPs are defined relative to the occurrence of a specific phenomenon—here, extreme precipitation—and with an emphasis on the synoptic scales that have a primary influence in individual events, have medium-range weather predictability, and are well-resolved in both weather and climate models. For the LSMP ...


Tidal Variation In Cohesive Sediment Distribution And Sensitivity To Flocculation And Bed Consolidation In An Idealized, Partially Mixed Estuary, Danielle R.N. Tarpley, Courtney K. Harris, Carl Friedrichs, Christopher T. Sherwood 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Tidal Variation In Cohesive Sediment Distribution And Sensitivity To Flocculation And Bed Consolidation In An Idealized, Partially Mixed Estuary, Danielle R.N. Tarpley, Courtney K. Harris, Carl Friedrichs, Christopher T. Sherwood

VIMS Articles

Particle settling velocity and erodibility are key factors that govern the transport of sediment through coastal environments including estuaries. These are difficult to parameterize in models that represent mud, whose properties can change in response to many factors, including tidally varying suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and shear stress. Using the COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) model framework, we implemented bed consolidation, sediment-induced stratification, and flocculation formulations within an idealized two-dimensional domain that represented the longitudinal dimension of a micro-tidal, muddy, partially mixed estuary. Within the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum (ETM), SSC and median floc diameter varied by a factor of four over ...


Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto 2019 University of California - San Diego

Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly Mcmahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto

Tyler Cyronak

Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe. In light of these results, we consider the suitability of using these two metrics developed from total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC ...


Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. DiTullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle 2019 College of Charleston

Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle

Tyler Cyronak

Annual Emiliania huxleyi blooms (along with other coccolithophorid species) play important roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles. E. huxleyi blooms are routinely terminated by large, host-specific dsDNA viruses, (Emiliania huxleyi Viruses; EhVs), making these host-virus interactions a driving force behind their potential impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Given projected increases in sea surface temperature due to climate change, it is imperative to understand the effects of temperature on E. huxleyi’s susceptibility to viral infection and its production of climatically active dimethylated sulfur species (DSS). Here we demonstrate that a 3°C increase in temperature induces EhV-resistant phenotypes ...


Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly McMahon, Damien T. Maher 2019 Southern Cross University - Coffs Harbour, Australia

Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly Mcmahon, Damien T. Maher

Tyler Cyronak

Automated cavity ring down spectroscopy was used to make continuous measurements of dissolved methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide in a coral reef lagoon for 2 weeks (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef). Radon (222Rn) was used to trace the influence of tidally driven pore water exchange on greenhouse gas dynamics. Clear tidal variation was observed for CH4, which correlated to 222Rn in lagoon waters. N2O correlated to 222Rn during the day only, which appears to be a response to coupled nitrification‐denitrification in oxic sediments, fueled by nitrate derived from bird guano. The lagoon was a ...


Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to drive the transition of coral reef ecosystems from net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitating to net dissolving within the next century. Although permeable sediments represent the largest reservoir of CaCO3 in coral reefs, the dissolution of shallow CaCO3 sands under future pCO2 levels has not been measured under natural conditions. In situ, advective chamber incubations under elevated pCO2 (~800 µatm) shifted the sediments from net precipitating to net dissolving. Pore water advection more than doubled dissolution rates (1.10 g CaCO3 m−2 d−1) when compared to diffusive ...


Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly McMahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly Mcmahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Some predictions of how ocean acidification (OA) will affect coral reefs assume a linear functional relationship between the ambient seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa) and net ecosystem calcification (NEC). We quantified NEC in a healthy coral reef lagoon in the Great Barrier Reef during different times of the day. Our observations revealed a diel hysteresis pattern in the NEC versus Ωa relationship, with peak NEC rates occurring before the Ωa peak and relatively steady nighttime NEC in spite of variable Ωa. Net ecosystem production had stronger correlations with NEC than light, temperature, nutrients, pH, and Ω ...


Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging ...


Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'Olmo, Lee de Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos 2019 Plymouth Marine Laboratory - United Kingdom

Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'olmo, Lee De Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos

Tyler Cyronak

Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities ...


Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

The impact of groundwater on pCO2 variability was assessed in two coral reef lagoons with distinct drivers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, 222Rn‐derived SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the water column was influenced by the high pCO2 (5501 µatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through the ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson 2019 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson

Tyler Cyronak

There is a growing recognition for the need to understand how seawater carbonate chemistry over coral reef environments will change in a high-CO2 world to better assess the impacts of ocean acidification on these valuable ecosystems. Coral reefs modify overlying water column chemistry through biogeochemical processes such as net community organic carbon production (NCP) and calcification (NCC). However, the relative importance and influence of these processes on seawater carbonate chemistry vary across multiple functional scales (defined here as space, time, and benthic community composition), and have not been fully constrained. Here, we use Bermuda as a case study to ...


Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. de Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet 2019 University of California - San Diego

Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. De Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet

Tyler Cyronak

Coral reef net ecosystem calcification (NEC) has decreased for many Caribbean reefs over recent decades primarily due to changes in benthic community composition. Chemistry-based approaches to calculate NEC utilize the drawdown of seawater total alkalinity (TA) combined with residence time to calculate an instantaneous measurement of NEC. Census-based approaches combine annual growth rates with benthic cover and reef structural complexity to estimate NEC occurring over annual timescales. Here, NEC was calculated for Hog Reef in Bermuda using both chemistry and census-based NEC techniques to compare the mass-balance generated by the two methods and identify the dominant biocalcifiers at Hog Reef ...


Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Increasing atmospheric CO2 is raising sea surface temperature (SST) and increasing seawater CO2 concentrations, resulting in a lower oceanic pH (ocean acidification; OA), which is expected to reduce the accretion of coral reef ecosystems. Although sediments comprise most of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) within coral reefs, no in situ studies have looked at the combined effects of increased SST and OA on the dissolution of coral reef CaCO3 sediments. In situ benthic chamber incubations were used to measure dissolution rates in permeable CaCO3 sands under future OA and SST scenarios in a coral reef lagoon ...


Responsibility To Protect, Libya To Japan, Linda A. Malone 2019 William & Mary Law School

Responsibility To Protect, Libya To Japan, Linda A. Malone

Linda A. Malone

No abstract provided.


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