Analysis Of Feast Spectral Approximations Using The Dpg Discretization, 2019 Portland State University

#### Analysis Of Feast Spectral Approximations Using The Dpg Discretization, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Luka Grubišić, Jeffrey S. Ovall, Benjamin Q. Parker

*Jay Gopalakrishnan*

A filtered subspace iteration for computing a cluster of eigenvalues and its accompanying eigenspace, known as “FEAST”, has gained considerable attention in recent years. This work studies issues that arise when FEAST is applied to compute part of the spectrum of an unbounded partial differential operator. Specifically, when the resolvent of the partial differential operator is approximated by the discontinuous Petrov Galerkin (DPG) method, it is shown that there is no spectral pollution. The theory also provides bounds on the discretization errors in the spectral approximations. Numerical experiments for simple operators illustrate the theory and also indicate the value of ...

Classification Of Minimal Separating Sets In Low Genus Surfaces, 2019 Portland State University

#### Classification Of Minimal Separating Sets In Low Genus Surfaces, J. J. P. Veerman, William Maxwell, Victor Rielly, Austin K. Williams

*J. J. P. Veerman*

Consider a surface *S* and let *M* ⊂ *S*. If *S* \ *M* is not connected, then we say *M* separates *S*, and we refer to *M* as a separating set of *S*. If *M* separates *S*, and no proper subset of *M* separates *S*, then we say *M* is a minimal separating set of *S*. In this paper we use computational methods of combinatorial topology to classify the minimal separating sets of the orientable surfaces of genus *g* = 2 and *g* = 3. The classification for genus 0 and 1 was done in earlier work, using methods of algebraic topology.

Of Matroid Polytopes, Chow Rings And Character Polynomials, 2019 The University of Western Ontario

#### Of Matroid Polytopes, Chow Rings And Character Polynomials, Ahmed Ashraf

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Matroids are combinatorial structures that capture various notions of independence. Recently there has been great interest in studying various matroid invariants. In this thesis, we study two such invariants: Volume of matroid base polytopes and the Tutte polynomial. We gave an approach to computing volume of matroid base polytopes using cyclic flats and apply it to the case of sparse paving matroids. For the Tutte polynomial, we recover (some of) its coefficients as degrees of certain forms in the Chow ring of underlying matroid. Lastly, we study the stability of characters of the symmetric group via character polynomials. We show ...

Choose Your Own Adventure: An Analysis Of Interactive Gamebooks Using Graph Theory, 2019 Southwestern University

#### Choose Your Own Adventure: An Analysis Of Interactive Gamebooks Using Graph Theory, D'Andre Adams, Daniela Beckelhymer, Alison Marr

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

"BEWARE and WARNING! This book is different from other books. You and YOU ALONE are in charge of what happens in this story." This is the captivating introduction to every book in the interactive novel series, *Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA)*. Our project uses the mathematical field of graph theory to analyze forty books from the *CYOA *book series for ages 9-12. We first began by drawing the digraphs of each book. Then we analyzed these digraphs by collecting structural data such as longest path length (i.e. longest story length) and number of vertices with outdegree zero (i.e ...

Coloring Count Cones Of Planar Graphs, 2019 Charles University, Prague

#### Coloring Count Cones Of Planar Graphs, Zdenek Dvorak, Bernard Lidicky

*Bernard Lidický*

For a plane near-triangulation G with the outer face bounded by a cycle C, let n⋆G denote the function that to each 4-coloring ψ of C assigns the number of ways ψ extends to a 4-coloring of G. The block-count reducibility argument (which has been developed in connection with attempted proofs of the Four Color Theorem) is equivalent to the statement that the function n⋆G belongs to a certain cone in the space of all functions from 4-colorings of C to real numbers. We investigate the properties of this cone for |C|=5, formulate a conjecture strengthening the ...

Coloring Count Cones Of Planar Graphs, 2019 Charles University, Prague

#### Coloring Count Cones Of Planar Graphs, Zdenek Dvorak, Bernard Lidicky

*Mathematics Publications*

For a plane near-triangulation G with the outer face bounded by a cycle C, let n⋆G denote the function that to each 4-coloring ψ of C assigns the number of ways ψ extends to a 4-coloring of G. The block-count reducibility argument (which has been developed in connection with attempted proofs of the Four Color Theorem) is equivalent to the statement that the function n⋆G belongs to a certain cone in the space of all functions from 4-colorings of C to real numbers. We investigate the properties of this cone for |C|=5, formulate a conjecture strengthening the ...

Non-Sparse Companion Matrices, 2019 Redeemer University College

#### Non-Sparse Companion Matrices, Louis Deaett, Jonathan Fischer, Colin Garnett, Kevin N. Vander Meulen

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Given a polynomial $p(z)$, a companion matrix can be thought of as a simple template for placing the coefficients of $p(z)$ in a matrix such that the characteristic polynomial is $p(z)$. The Frobenius companion and the more recently-discovered Fiedler companion matrices are examples. Both the Frobenius and Fiedler companion matrices have the maximum possible number of zero entries, and in that sense are sparse. In this paper, companion matrices are explored that are not sparse. Some constructions of non-sparse companion matrices are provided, and properties that all companion matrices must exhibit are given. For example, it is ...

Properties Of Functionally Alexandroff Topologies And Their Lattice, 2019 Western Kentucky University

#### Properties Of Functionally Alexandroff Topologies And Their Lattice, Jacob Scott Menix

*Masters Theses & Specialist Projects*

This thesis explores functionally Alexandroff topologies and the order theory asso- ciated when considering the collection of such topologies on some set X. We present several theorems about the properties of these topologies as well as their partially ordered set.

The first chapter introduces functionally Alexandroff topologies and motivates why this work is of interest to topologists. This chapter explains the historical context of this relatively new type of topology and how this work relates to previous work in topology. Chapter 2 presents several theorems describing properties of functionally Alexandroff topologies ad presents a characterization for the functionally Alexandroff topologies ...

List-Distinguishing Cartesian Products Of Cliques, 2019 University of Colorado, Denver

#### List-Distinguishing Cartesian Products Of Cliques, Michael Ferrara, Zoltan Füredi, Sogol Jahanbekam, Paul Wenger

*Sogol Jahanbekam*

The Mystery Of Frobenius Symmetry, 2019 DePaul University

#### The Mystery Of Frobenius Symmetry, Maciej Piwowarczyk

*DePaul Discoveries*

In this project we studied the mathematical concept of the Frobenius number and some curious patterns that come with it. One common example of the Frobenius number is the Coin Problem: If handed two denominations of coins, say 4¢ and 5¢, and asked to create all possible values, we will eventually find ourselves in a position where we can make any value. With 4¢ and 5¢ coins, we can create any value above 11¢, but not 11¢ itself. So, that makes 11 the Frobenius number of 4 and 5. What we explore in this paper is a pattern we call ...

Analogues Between Leibniz's Harmonic Triangle And Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle, 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

#### Analogues Between Leibniz's Harmonic Triangle And Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle, Lacey Taylor James

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This paper will discuss the analogues between Leibniz's Harmonic Triangle and Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle by utilizing mathematical proving techniques like partial sums, committees, telescoping, mathematical induction and applying George Polya's perspective. The topics presented in this paper will show that Pascal's triangle and Leibniz's triangle both have hockey stick type patterns, patterns of sums within shapes, and have the natural numbers, triangular numbers, tetrahedral numbers, and pentatope numbers hidden within. In addition, this paper will show how Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle can be used to construct Leibniz's Harmonic Triangle and show how both triangles ...

Pascal's Triangle, Pascal's Pyramid, And The Trinomial Triangle, 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Pascal's Triangle, Pascal's Pyramid, And The Trinomial Triangle, Antonio Saucedo Jr.

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

Many properties have been found hidden in Pascal's triangle. In this paper, we will present several known properties in Pascal's triangle as well as the properties that lift to different extensions of the triangle, namely Pascal's pyramid and the trinomial triangle. We will tailor our interest towards Fermat numbers and the hockey stick property. We will also show the importance of the hockey stick properties by using them to prove a property in the trinomial triangle.

Nonstandard Dice That Both Count For Card Craps, 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

#### Nonstandard Dice That Both Count For Card Craps, Mark Bollman

*International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking*

The Pala Casino in California deals Card Craps using a red die numbered {2; 2; 2; 5; 5; 5} and a blue die numbered {3; 3; 3; 4; 4; 4}. Two cards from a special 36-card deck, which contains one card bearing each of the 36 ways in which two dice can land when rolled, are dealt: one each face down to a red space and a blue space. When the dice are rolled, the higher number determines which of the cards is flipped over.

A moment's reflection reveals that Pala's blue die is unnecessary. The card selection ...

The Determinant Of A Complex Matrix And Gershgorin Circles, 2019 Hamburg University of Technology

#### The Determinant Of A Complex Matrix And Gershgorin Circles, Florian Bünger, Siegfried M. Rump

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Each connected component of the Gershgorin circles of a matrix contains exactly as many eigenvalues as circles are involved. Thus, the Minkowski (set) product of all circles contains the determinant if all circles are disjoint. In [S.M. Rump. Bounds for the determinant by Gershgorin circles. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 563:215--219, 2019.], it was proved that statement to be true for real matrices whose circles need not to be disjoint. Moreover, it was asked whether the statement remains true for complex matrices. This note answers that in the affirmative. As a by-product, a parameterization of the outer loop ...

On The Intersection Number Of Finite Groups, 2019 University of Texas at Tyler

#### On The Intersection Number Of Finite Groups, Humberto Bautista Serrano

*Math Theses*

Let G be a finite, nontrivial group. In a paper in 1994, Cohn defined the covering number of a finite group as the minimum number of nontrivial proper subgroups whose union is equal to the whole group. This concept has received considerable attention lately, mainly due to the importance of recent discoveries. In this thesis we study a dual concept to the covering number. We define the intersection number of a finite group as the minimum number of maximal subgroups whose intersection is equal to the Frattini subgroup. Similarly we define the inconjugate intersection number of a finite group as ...

Behind The Tiles: Mathematics Of Carcassonne, 2019 Merrimack College

#### Behind The Tiles: Mathematics Of Carcassonne, Emilia Dewyngaert

*Across the Bridge: The Merrimack Undergraduate Research Journal*

Carcassonne is a tile-placing game where players take turns choosing a tile from a stack and attempting to create a city, road or a meadow. In addition to this, there is a river expansion pack that has river tiles to be placed. This paper focuses on how many different layouts or configurations of the river expansion pack can be created. It also discusses the Matlab code adapted to create a simulation of possible configurations of the river expansion pack.

Maximum Oriented Forcing Number For Complete Graphs, 2019 University of Haifa-Oranim

#### Maximum Oriented Forcing Number For Complete Graphs, Yair Caro, Ryan Pepper

*Theory and Applications of Graphs*

The \emph{maximum oriented $k$-forcing number} of a simple graph $G$, written $\MOF_k(G)$, is the maximum \emph{directed $k$-forcing number} among all orientations of $G$. This invariant was recently introduced by Caro, Davila and Pepper in~\cite{CaroDavilaPepper}, and in the current paper we study the special case where $G$ is the complete graph with order $n$, denoted $K_n$. While $\MOF_k(G)$ is an invariant for the underlying simple graph $G$, $\MOF_k(K_n)$ can also be interpreted as an interesting property for tournaments. Our main results further focus on the case when $k=1$. These include a ...

Matching Preclusion Of The Generalized Petersen Graph, 2019 Novi High School

#### Matching Preclusion Of The Generalized Petersen Graph, Ajay Arora, Eddie Cheng, Christopher Melekian

*Theory and Applications of Graphs*

The matching preclusion number of a graph with an even number of vertices is the minimum number of edges whose deletion results in a graph with no perfect matchings. In this paper we determine the matching preclusion number for the generalized Petersen graph $P(n,k)$ and classify the optimal sets.

Taking Notes: Generating Twelve-Tone Music With Mathematics, 2019 East Tennessee State University

#### Taking Notes: Generating Twelve-Tone Music With Mathematics, Nathan Molder

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

There has often been a connection between music and mathematics. The world of musical composition is full of combinations of orderings of diﬀerent musical notes, each of which has diﬀerent sound quality, length, and em phasis. One of the more intricate composition styles is twelve-tone music, where twelve unique notes (up to octave isomorphism) must be used before they can be repeated. In this thesis, we aim to show multiple ways in which mathematics can be used directly to compose twelve-tone musical scores.

Periodicity And Invertibility Of Lattice Gas Cellular Automata, 2019 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Periodicity And Invertibility Of Lattice Gas Cellular Automata, Jiawen Wang

*Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)*

A cellular automaton is a type of mathematical system that models the behavior of a set of cells with discrete values in progressing time steps. The often complicated behaviors of cellular automata are studied in computer science, mathematics, biology, and other science related fields. Lattice gas cellular automata are used to simulate the movements of particles. This thesis aims to discuss the properties of lattice gas models, including periodicity and invertibility, and to examine their accuracy in reflecting the physics of particles in real life. Analysis of elementary cellular automata is presented to introduce the concept of cellular automata and ...