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Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biowaste generated in the process of Oxytree cultivation and logging represents a potential source of energy. Torrefaction (a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis) is one of the methods proposed for the valorization of woody biomass. Still, energy is required for the torrefaction process during which the raw biomass becomes torrefied biomass with fuel properties similar to those of lignite coal. In this work, models describing the influence of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the resulting fuel properties (mass and energy yields, energy densification ratio, organic matter and ash content, combustible parts, lower and higher heating values, CHONS content, H:C ...


Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman 2019 Iowa State University

Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

Diet influences health and poor diets drive up healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole. Multiple governmental programs in the US have aimed to educate citizens about diet choices, resulting in documented successes, as well as, unintended consequences such as increased food waste. Here we examine some of the relationships between healthy diets, food prices, and wealth by drawing parallels between the diffusion of technological innovation and healthy food diets. We introduce a simple modeling framework to estimate the adoption rates of healthy diets based on income and food prices, and describe the implications of the modeling results ...


Breakdown Mechanisms In Iron Caves. An Example From Brazil, Marcelo R. Barbosa, Allan D.F. da Silva, Rafael G. De Paula, Georgete M. Dutra, Airton Barata, Iuri V. Brandi, Chrystophe R.P. da Silva, Robert A. Osborne 2019 Vale S.A.

Breakdown Mechanisms In Iron Caves. An Example From Brazil, Marcelo R. Barbosa, Allan D.F. Da Silva, Rafael G. De Paula, Georgete M. Dutra, Airton Barata, Iuri V. Brandi, Chrystophe R.P. Da Silva, Robert A. Osborne

International Journal of Speleology

An iron cave in the vicinity of a mine in Carajás, Brazil, was selected to be mined within an assisted elimination project, planned to control all mine advancement operations towards the cave along with a strict speleological physical monitoring. It allowed, in a pioneering way, the recording of events in the cave from the first signs of damage until to the total collapse of the cave. The project lasted four years and it was possible to identify and describe four breakdown mechanisms in iron caves: Fragment downfall, Block downfall, Controlling structure reactivation, and Open discontinuity movement. The mechanisms occurred independently ...


Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder 2019 Yale University

Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

This senior essay under the Environmental Studies major at Yale University explores the environmental and social benefits of applying innovative technology to the energy sector. Three types of energy networks are analyzed, focusing on the use of distributed energy and peer to peer energy trading on a blockchain platform. The benefits of distributed renewable energy networks can most strongly be applied to locations in need of more reliable, resilient, and cost-effective electricity. Puerto Rico is a case study. Methods include analysis of U.S. Energy Information Administration and Census Bureau data as well as personal interviews with Puerto Rican energy ...


The Urban Infrastructure For Sustainability: Learning From Kigali, Marwan Ghandour 2019 Iowa State University

The Urban Infrastructure For Sustainability: Learning From Kigali, Marwan Ghandour

Marwan Ghandour

Until 2013, when a new master plan for the city was approved, Kigali had very few urban regulations in place. Incremental constructions, usually associated with informal urbanization, were the norm rather than the exception. Most of the city fabric grew organically creating a unique configuration of urban adjacencies, which would be improbable for planners and designers to imagine. This configuration is particular to the geographic, economic and social conditions of the city as incremental urbanization slowly adjusted to the living conditions, through the actions of thousands of city residents over a long period of time. These actions were formed in ...


Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Biowaste generated in the process of Oxytree cultivation and logging represents a potential source of energy. Torrefaction (a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis) is one of the methods proposed for the valorization of woody biomass. Still, energy is required for the torrefaction process during which the raw biomass becomes torrefied biomass with fuel properties similar to those of lignite coal. In this work, models describing the influence of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the resulting fuel properties (mass and energy yields, energy densification ratio, organic matter and ash content, combustible parts, lower and higher heating values, CHONS content, H:C ...


The State Of Canada’S Birds 2019, North American Bird Conservation Initiative Canada 2019 North American Bird Conservation Initiative Canada

The State Of Canada’S Birds 2019, North American Bird Conservation Initiative Canada

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

BIRDS TELL US ABOUT THE HEALTH OF OUR WATER, AIR, AND LAND WE NEED TO LISTEN AND ACT

THE STATE OF CANADA’S BIRDS: Shorebirds, grassland birds, and aerial insectivores are in steep decline.

WATERFOWL AND WETLAND BIRDS CONSERVATION PARTNERSHIPS WORK

GRASSLAND BIRDS ARE RUNNING OUT OF TIME

SHOREBIRDS ARE LOSING GROUND

SEABIRDS A GLOBAL CONSERVATION CRISIS

FOREST BIRDS CONSERVATION WITHOUT BORDERS

BIRDS OF PREY AND AERIAL INSECTIVORES LEARNING FROM THE PAST

WHAT’S GOOD FOR BIRDS IS GOOD FOR US

CANADIANS ARE MONITORING THE STATE OF CANADA’S BIRDS


Leadership’S Influence On Environmental Sustainability, Stallar Lufrano-Jardine 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Leadership’S Influence On Environmental Sustainability, Stallar Lufrano-Jardine

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

A phenomenological study within the gaming industry is currently being conducted to determine influential indicators within business operations. Based on interviews of executive leadership at global companies, participants disclosed the environmental developments at their organization based on industry norms and the ability to develop/execute environmental initiatives. Four themes emerged: the leader’s ideology and the political climate; the company’s founding principles; support from the industry and/or within the company; and the ability to change industry dynamics. Each leader touched on these four points. Regardless of department type, level of leadership, and the desire to be globally conscious ...


An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith

Master of Science in Energy Systems Management

An Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) is a tool used by load serving entities (LSEs) to plan how they will meet forecasted energy demand and system reliability requirements through a combination of supply-side and demand-side resources. The goal of an IRP is to identify the lowest cost option to meet future load while also adhering to policy requirements. For Public Service Company of Colorado’s (PSCo) IRP process, a suite of generating resources, storage capacity, and demand-side management programs are all considered when developing a plan that meets state and utility regulatory requirements and environmental targets.

In 2016, PSCo’s system ...


The Long-Run Effects Of Tropical Cyclones On Infant Mortality, Isabel Miranda 2019 The University of San Francisco

The Long-Run Effects Of Tropical Cyclones On Infant Mortality, Isabel Miranda

Master's Theses

In the United States alone, each tropical cyclone causes an average of $14.6 billion worth of damages. In addition to the destruction of physical infrastructure, natural disasters also negatively impact human capital formation. These losses are often more difficult to observe, and therefore, are over looked when quantifying the true costs of natural disasters. One particular effect is an increase in infant mortality rates, an important indicator of a country’s general socioeconomic level. This paper utilizes a model created by Anttila-Hughes and Hsiang, that takes advantage of annual variation in tropical cyclones using annual spatial average maximum wind ...


An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith

Master's Projects and Capstones

An Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) is a tool used by load serving entities (LSEs) to plan how they will meet forecasted energy demand and system reliability requirements through a combination of supply-side and demand-side resources. The goal of an IRP is to identify the lowest cost option to meet future load while also adhering to policy requirements. For Public Service Company of Colorado’s (PSCo) IRP process, a suite of generating resources, storage capacity, and demand-side management programs are all considered when developing a plan that meets state and utility regulatory requirements and environmental targets.

In 2016, PSCo’s system ...


Diallo Noumoussara Capstone Paper Final Version.Docx, Noumoussara Diallo 2019 SIT Graduate Institute

Diallo Noumoussara Capstone Paper Final Version.Docx, Noumoussara Diallo

Noumoussara Diallo

Abstract
The Sudano‐Sahelian region of West Africa is one of the poorest regions in the world. It is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. Despite centuries of experience adapting to severe natural conditions, the vulnerability of the Sahel and its population to increased climate variability and change is of great concern.
Our research focuses on understanding farmers’ perceptions of climate change and the types of adjustments they have made in their farming practices in Senegal. It is based on a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews to understand how environmental variations punctuate the daily lives of local ...


Plant Ethics Or An Environment For The Birth Of A New Human? An Exploration In Radical Ethics For Sustainable Architecture., Andrea S. Wheeler 2019 Iowa State University

Plant Ethics Or An Environment For The Birth Of A New Human? An Exploration In Radical Ethics For Sustainable Architecture., Andrea S. Wheeler

Andrea S. Wheeler

This paper critically examines literature concerned with an ethics in the multiplicity of different approaches to the design of sustainable architecture. Sustainable design theorists commonly argue for the need to perceive the world differently, to find new ways to live, to create new values to replace old: questions of ethics are implicit in such explorations.


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith 2019 Fordham University

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Optimizing Legume-Based Nitrogen Fertility For Organic Small Grain Systems, Margaret A. Pickoff 2019 University of Maine

Optimizing Legume-Based Nitrogen Fertility For Organic Small Grain Systems, Margaret A. Pickoff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the past decade, Maine has witnessed a steady rise in consumer demand for organic small grain products, accompanied by the swift creation of new businesses that cater to this demand, including bakeries, flour mills, malt houses, and distilleries. Maine’s farmers have been slower to respond; only a small percentage of the 40,000+ acres of oats and barley being grown in the state, for example, is certified organic (National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2012). Given this combination of land resources, infrastructure, and consumer demand, Maine has the potential to become a regional leader in organic small grain production. According ...


Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt 2019 Duquesne University

Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Groundwater containing high concentrations of fluoride is the most common source of drinking water in rural areas in parts of east Africa, India, and China. The elevated levels of fluoride cause skeletal and dental fluorosis, which is the weakening and decay of bone structures due to the leeching of calcium from the body as calcium and fluoride bond by the process of adsorption. Over 150 million people are suffering from some form of fluorosis due to the consumption of groundwater. Calcium carbonate has been demonstrated to influence fluoride removal in several forms. To make fluoride removal a cost-effective and user-friendly ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu 2019 Iowa State University

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang 2019 Auburn University

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao 2019 Northern Arizona University

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


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